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like ourselves, always had a species of physiognomy, by which they might be distinguished. Indeed, these two nations are the only ones in Europe, which properly deserve the appellation. If we had our Charlemagne, they had their Alfred. Their archers shared the renown of the Gallic infantry; their Black Prince rivalled our Duguesclin, and their Marlborough our Turenne. Their revolutions and ours keep pace with each other. We can boast of the same glory; but we must deplore the same crimes and the same misfortunes,

Since England is become a maritime power, she has displayed her peculiar genius in this new career. Her navy is distinguished from all others in the world by a discipline the most singular. The English sailor is an absolute slave, who is sent on board a vessel by force, and obliged to serve in spite of himself. The man, who was so independent while a labourer, appears to lose all the rights of freedom from the moment that he becomes a mariner. His superiors oppress him by a yoke the most galling and humiliating.* Whence arises it that men of so lofty a disposition should submit to such tyrannical ill-usage? It is one of the miracles of a free government. In England the name of the law is almighty. When the law has spoken, resistance is at an end.

I do not believe that we should be able, or indeed that we ought to introduce the English system into our navy. The French Seaman, who is frank, generous, and spirited, wishes to approach his commander, whom he regards still more as his comrade than his captain. Moreover, a state of such absolute servitude, as that of the English sailor, can only emanate from civil authority; hence it is to be feared that it would be despised by the French; for unfortunately the latter rather obeys the man than the law, and his wishes are“more private than public ones.

* The reader will bear in mind, while contemplating this overcharged picture of our gallant navy, that the artist, by whom it is painted, is naturalized in France, though not born there.--EDITOR. .

Our naval officers have hitherto been better instructed than those of England. The latter merely knew their manæuvres, while ours were mathematicians, and men of science in every respect. Our true character has, in general, been displayed in our navy, where we have appeared as warriors, and as men improved by study. As soon as we have vessels, we shall regain our birthright on the ocean, as well as upon land. We shall also be able to make further astronomical observations, and voyages round the world; but as to our becoming a complete commercial 'nation, I believe we may renounce the idea at once. We do every thing by genius and inspiration; but we seldom follow up our projects. A great financier, or a great man as to commercial enterprize may appear among us; but will his son pursue the same career? Will he not think of enjoying the fortune bequeathed by his father, instead of augmenting it? With such a disposition, no nation can become a mercantile one. Com. merce has always had among us an indescribable something of the poetic and fabulous in it, similar to the rest of our manners. Our manufactures have been created by enchantment; they acquired a great degree of celebrity, but they are now at an end. While Rome was prudent, she contented herself with the Muses and Jupiter, leaving Neptune to Carthage. This God had, after all, only the second empire, and Jupiter hurled his thunders on the ocean as well as elsewhere.

The English clergy are learned, hospitable, and generous. They love their country, and exert their powerful services in support of the laws. In spite of religi. ous differences, they received the French emigrant clergy

with truly christian charity. The university of Oxford printed, at its expense, and distributed gratis to our poor priests, a new Latin Testament, according to the Roman version, with these words: “ For the use of the Catholic clergy exiled on account of their religion.” Nothing could be more delicate or affecting. It was doubtless a beautiful spectacle for philosophy to witness, at the close of the eighteenth century, the hospitality of the English clergy towards the Catholic priests; nay, further, to see them allow the public exercise of this religion, and even establish some communities. Strange vicissitude of human opinions and affairs ! The cry of The Pope, the Pope !” caused the revolution during the reign of Charles the First; and James the Second lost his crown for protecting the Catholic religion.

They, who take fright at the very name of this faith, know but very little of the human mind. They consider it such as it was in the days of fanaticism and barbarity; without reflecting that, like every other institution, it assumes the character of the ages, through which it passes.

The English clergy are, however, not without faults. They are too negligent with regard to their duties, and too fond of pleasure; they give too many balls, and mix too much in the gaieties of life. Nothing is more revolting to a stranger than to see a young minister of religion awkwardly leading a pretty woman down an English country-dance. A priest should be entirely a divine; and virtue should reign around him. He should retire into the mysterious recesses of the temple, appearing but seldom among mankind, and then only for the purpose of relieving the unhappy. It is by such conduct that the French clergy obtain our respect and confidence ; where as they would soon lose both the one and the other, if we saw them seated at our sides on festive occasions and familiarizing themselves with us; if they had all the vices of the times, and were for a moment suspected of being fee. ble fragile mortals like ourselves.

The English display great pomp in their religious festivals. They are even beginning to introduce paintings into their churches; having at length discovered that religion without worship is only the dream of a cold enthusi. ast, and that the imagination of man is á faculty which must be nourished as well as his reason.

The emigration of the French clergy has in a great de. gree tended to propagate these ideas; and it may be remarked that by a natural return towards the institutions of their forefathers, the English have, for some time, laid the scene of their dramas and other literary works in the ages, during which the catholic religion prevailed among them. Of late, this faith has been carried to London by the exiled priests of France; and appears to the English, precisely as in their romances, through the medium of noble ruins and powerful recollections. All the world crowded with anxiety to hear the funeral oration over a French lady, delivered by an emigrant bishop at London in a stable.

The English church has reserved for the dead the principal part of those honours, which the Roman religion awards to them. In all the great towns there are persons, called undertakers, who manage the funerals. Sometimes you read on the signs over their shops, “ Cof- : fin maker to the King,or Funerals performed here,as if it was a theatrical representation. It is indeed true that representations of grief have long constituted all the marks of it, which are to be found among mankind, and when nobody is disposed to weep over the remains of the ceceased, tears are bought for the occasion. The last duties paid to the departed would, however, be of a sad complexion indeed, if stripped of the marks of religion ;

for religion has taken root at the tomb, and the tomb cannot evade her. It is right that the voice of hope should speak from the coffin ; it is right that the priest of the living God should escort the ashes of the dead to their last asylum. It may be said, on such an occasion, that Immortality is marching at the head of death.

The political bent of the English is well known in France, but most people are ignorant as to the parties, into which the parliament is divided. Besides that of the minister, and the one in opposition to it, there is a third, which may be called The Anglicans, at the head of which is Mr. Wilberforce. It consists of about a hundred members, who rigidly adhere to ancient manners, particu. larly in what respects religion. Their wives are clothed like quakers ; they themselves affect great simplicity, and give a large part of their revenue to the poor. Mr. Pitt was of this sect, and it was through their influence that he was elevated to, as well as maintained in the office of Prime Minister; for by supporting one side or the other, they are almost sure to constitute a majority and decide the question discussed. When the affairs of Ireland were debated, they took alarm at the promises which Mr. Pitt made to the Catholics, and threatened to pass over to the opposition, upon which the minister made an able retreat from office, in order to preserve the friends, with whom he agreed on most essential points, and escape from the difficulties, into which circumstances had drawn him. Having acted thus, he was sure not to offend the Anglicans, even if the bill passed; and if, on the contrary, it was rejected, the catholics of Ireland could not accuse him of breaking his engagement.----It has been asked in France whether Mr. Pitt lost his credit with his place, but a single fact will be the best answer to this question. He still sits in the House of Commons. When he shall be trans


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