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A simicolon, requires double the pause of a comma. A colon, requires that the reader should stop while he could pronounce three syllables.

A period, finishes a sentence, and requires a fall of voice, and a pause equal to the time of pronouncing four syllables.

?

An interrogation point, is placed after a question; as
Who is that?

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Explanation of the pauses and other marks.

A comma, requires that the reader stop, while he could pronounce one syllable.

!

An exclamation point, is placed after a word or sentence expressing wonder, surprise, joy, or any sudden and violent emotion of the mind.

These two points, require a pause equal to that of the period, but no fall of the voice.

(A parenthesis, includes an occasional remark, which serves to illustrate the author's meaning, but is not necessary for the grammatical construction of the sentence :-It should be read quicker and with a lower tone of voice.

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An apostrophe, marks the possessive case, as,John's book: or, it denotes a contraction, as, us'd for used; I'll for I will.

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A quotation includes a passage taken from some other author in his own words.

A hyphen, shows that the syllables separated by it, belong together; it is used mostly when words are divided at the end of a line.

A The caret, is used only in writing; it shows the place where a letter, word, or sentence, omitted by mistake, should be inserted.

" The accent, shows that the greatest stress of voice should be on the syllable over which it is placed. A dash, placed before a quotation, shows that only a part of a sentence is quoted; between letters, it shows that a part of the word is omitted, as, K-g for king at the end of a sentence, it denotes an abrupt pause.

An index, points to a remarkable passage.

A paragraph, begins a new subject.

*

An asterisk, and other references, point to a note in the margin, at the foot of a page.

[] Crotchets, include a word or sentence inserted for

explanation.

@hain

spear leak

sail

sheaf

leaf

wife

thief

beau ty

fly

cry

duty

ju ry

brush

grace

price

fish

ax is

ba sis

cri sis

calx

da tum

louse

mouse

man

foot

goose

OX

tooth
el lip sis

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sheaves

leaves

wives

thieves

beau ties

flies

cries

du ties

ju ries

brush es

gra ces

pri ces
fish es

ax es

ba ses

cri ses

cal ses

da ta

Irregular Plurals.

lice

mice

grave
street

plank

snare

men

feet

life

knife

half

calf

lives

knives

halves

calves

pen al ty pen al ties
family families
sen try
deputy deputies
per ju ry per ju ries

sen tries

horse

hor ses

noise

noi ses church es

church

box

box es

graves streets

planks

snares

lan tith e sis an tithe ses

"

ar ca numar ca na

cri te ri on cri te ri a

child

em pha sis
ef flu vi um

jer ra tum

geese

oxen

Istra tum

teeth
el lip ses vor tex

child ren

em pha ses ef flu vi a

er ra ta

ge nus

gen e ra

hypothesis hypotheses

ra di-us

ra di i

phenomenonphenomena

stra ta
vor ti ces

Pos. bold

Comparison of Adjectives by er, and est.

Com.

Sup. bold est bright est

cold est

clean est

bra vest

wis est

bright cold

clean

brave

wise

warm

verb. love

be tray cre ate

de ceive

con tra dict

in ter cede

bring bind

be gin build

drive

show

shine

make

smite

sink

warm est

Formation of Participles from regular verbs,

pr. par.
lov ing
be tray ing
cre a ting

de ceiv ing

teach

speak write

think

spend

'bold er

weave

slay

bright er

cold er

clean er

bra ver

wis er

warm er

bring ing bind ing

per. par. lov ed

con tra dict ing con tra dict ed in ter ce ding in ter ce ded

Participles from irregular verbs.

brought
bound

be tray ed
cre a ted

de ceiv ed

smi ting

sink ing teach ing speak ing wri ting

be gin ningbe gun
build ing

dri ving
show ing

shin ing

mak ing

think ing

spend ing
weaving

slay ing

11

built

driv en

shown

shone

made

smit ten

sunk

taught

spo ken

writ ten

thought

spent

wo ven

slain

Adjectives derived from nouns formed by adding y.

[

chill y chalk y

grass

frost

snow

storm

health

flax lead

grass y

frost y

By adding en denoting the matter of which any thing is made, earth

earth en

oak

oak en

great week

snow y

storm y
health y

man brave

pa rent per son na tion

flax en
lead en

glad glad some loath loath some

toil

toil some

chill

chalk

ice

worth

wealth

de ceit deceit ful disgrace disgrace ful de light de light ful dis trust dis trust ful

|

fruit fruit ful
mer cy merci ful
re spect re spect ful
re venge re venge ful

wood
wool

By adding ful denoting abundance.

great ly
weekly
man ly
brave ly

By adding some denoting fulness.

By adding al pa ren tal per son al nation al

i cy wor thy wealth y

wood en

wool len

|

de light de light some frol ick

frol ick some troub le some

By adding ly denoting likeness,

troub le

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denoting quality.

|

By adding less denoting want. art less care less need need less grace grace less

art care

frac tion fraction al

doc trine doc trin al crime

crim in al

worth worth less measure measure less num ber number less mo tion mo tion less

Ish added to adjectives, denotes a slight quality: added to nouns, it denotes similarity.

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good great

self ish

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grace

space

vice

price

child

thief

fool

clown

good ly
great ly
selfish ly

fa vour a ble fa vour a bly fa vour a ble ness

coarse

coarse ly

coarse ness

move

sport feast

plaint

child ish

thiev ish

fool ish

clown ish

good ness

great ness
selfish ness

gra cious
spa cious

vi cious
pre cious

mo tive

spor tive

fes tive
plaint ive

pa rent pa rent age
per son per son age

re mit re mit tance perform performance pat ron pat ron agere pent re pentance

a base

a gree
com mit

a bridge
ac quire
dis par age
dis cour age

em bar rass

em bel lish

glo ry glo ri ous beauty beau te ous va ry va fi ous boun ty boun te ous

27.

a buse a bu sive de cide de ci sive in trude in tru sive in vade in va sive

a base ment

a gree ment
com mit ment
a bridg ment
ac quire ment
dis par age ment
dís cour age ment
em bar rass ment
em bel lish ment

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