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But one of the most animated figures of this kind we find in his oration for Milo:
Were the situation of things to be expressed in painting in. stead of words, you might then distinguish the traitor from the ụndesigning person : as the one was sitting in his chariot, wrapped up in his cloak, and his wife by his side; it is hard to say if the cloak, the chariot, or the companion, was the greatest impediment to such an intention. For what can carry less the appearance of a design to fight, than a man entangled with a cloak, shut up in a chariot, and almost fettered by a wife? Now, my lords, survey Clodius first leaving his seat in a hurry. For what reason? In the evening, Upon what emergency? Late. To what purpose, especially at this sea, son? He strikes off to Pompey's country-house. Why? That he might visit Pompey: He knew he was at his seat by Albium. Was it to view his house? He had been in it a thousand times. Then what could be his motive for all this sauntering and shifting? Why, to loiter; to gain time, that he might be sure to be on the spot when Milo came up.
The three first questions in this example have no answers, but are still to be pronounced in a higher tone of voice than the affirmative propositions, In the evening, Late, He strikes off to Poms pey's country-house. But the succeeding ques, tions have all answers, which must, after a considerable pause, adopt a lower tone of yoịce than the questions that precede them,
I HAVE adopted this name for want of a better, to express that repetition of a word or thought which immediately arises from a word or thought that preceded it. Thus Mr. Phillips in Chandler's Parliamentary Debates;
Sir, I should be much surprised to hear the motion made by the honourable gentleman who spoke last but one, opposed by any member in this house. A motion founded in justice, supported by precedent, and warranted by necessity,
Here the word motion may be called the echoing word, which ought always to be pronounced as if marked with a note of admiration; that is, with the rising inflexion in a high tone of voice, and a long pause after it, when it implies any degree of passion, as in this example ; but when it is merely narrative or didactic, as in the following passage:
Tully was the first who observed, that friendship improves happiness and abates misery, by the doubling of our joy and dividing of our grief: a thought in which he hath been followed by all the essayers upon friendship that have written since his time.
Spectator, No 68. Here the word thought ought to have the rising inflexion, and a pause after it, but must not be in the high tone which the word motion in the former example required, as it is plain sedate reasoning, and totally devoid of passion, But in a speech of Mr. Pitt, before he was Lord Chatham, we find the echoing word require the same inflexion and pause as in the last example, but accompanied with the high impassioned tone heard in the first:
I cannot say, Sir, which of, these motives influence the advocates of the bill before us; a bill in which such cruelties are proposed as are yet unknown amongst the most savage nations; such as slavery has not yet borne or tyranny invented; such as cannot be heard without resentment, nor thought without horror.
Chandler's Debutes, 1740.
But the most beautiful example of this figure, in our, or perhaps in any other language, is that we meet with in Hannah More's Strictures on Female Education. Speaking on dissipation and the modern habits of life, and particularly on the spirit of gaming, she
all the neg
With “ mysterious reverence” I forbear to descant on those serious and interesting rites, for the more august and solemn celebration of which Fashion nightly convenes these splendid myriads to her inore sumptuous temples. Rites! which, when engaged in with due devotion, absorb the whole soul, and call every passion into exercise, except those indeed of love and peace, and kindness and gentleness. Inspiring rites ! which stimulate fear, rouse hope, kindle zeal, quicken dulness, sharpen discernment, exercise memory, inflame curiosity! Rites! in short, in the due performance of which, all the energies and attentions, all the powers and abilities, all the abstraction and exertion, all the diligence and devotedness, all the sacrifice of time, all the contempt of ease, lect of sleep, all the oblivion of care, all the risks of fortune fhalf of which, if directed to their true objects, would change the very face of the world), all these are concentrated to one point: a point! in which the wise and the weak, the learned and the ignorant, the fair and the frightful, the sprightly and the dull, the rich and the poor, the patrician and plebeian meet in one common uniform cquality: an equality! as religiously respected in these solemnities, in which all distinctions are levelled at a blow, and of which the very spirit is therefore democratical, as it is combated in all other instances.
This passage is at once a brilliant example of the echo and the series; and one hardly knows which to admire most, the beautiful structure of the sentences, the varied and animated imagery of the thought, or the philosophical justness of the moral sentiment.
In pronouncing this beautiful passage, the word Rites must become more emphatical with the rising inflexion every time it is repeated, and the
pauses after it longer. The words point and equality ought to have the same pause and inHexion, and the several serieses to be pronounced according to the rules under that head, page 113.
Cicero pleading before Cæsar for king Dejotarus, says, –
What shall I say of his courage, what of his magnanimity, his gravity, his firmness? Qualities which all the wise and
learned allow to be the greatest, and some the only blessings of life, and which enable virtue not only to enjoy comfort buț happiness.
Again, pleading for the same client, he says,
The man then who was not only pardoned but distinguished by you with the highest honours, is charged with an intention to kill you in his own house. An intention, of which, unless you imagine that he is utterly deprived of reason, you çannot suspect him.
Here the words qualities and intention require the rising inflexion, with a long pause after them, accompanied with a considerable degree of admiration and surprise.
The same pause, inflexion of voice, surprise, and admiration, must accompany the word laws, in the following passage in his first oration against Anthony
By the dead are the banished recalled. By the dead are the privileges of Rome bestowed, not on private persons only, but upon whole nations and provinces. By the dead members of corporations have their tribute remitted. We therefore confirm whatever, upon a single but unquestionable evidence, has been produced from this house; and shall we think of ratifying the acts of Cæsar, yet abolish his laws? Those laws which he himself, in our sight, repeated, pronounced, enacted ? Laws which he valued himself upon passing ? Laws in which he thought the system of our government was comprehended ? Laws which concern our provinces and our trials? Are we, I say, to repeat such laws, yet ratify his acts? Yet may we at least complain of those which are only proposed; as to those which we pass we are deprived even of the liberty. to complain.
In pronouncing this passage, it ought to be observed, that the echoing word laws ought to be pronounced with increasing force upon every repetition, which will give it a climax of importance, and greatly add to the variety of it.
This mode of pronunciation will be more peculiarly proper upon the same word in another passage in his oration against Piso.
During all this time, who ever heard you, I will not say act or remonstrate, but so much as speak or complain? Can you imagine yourself to have been a consul, when, under your government, the man who had saved his country, who had saved the majesty of the senate, - when the man who had led in triumph into Italy, at three several times, the inhabitants of every quarter of the world, declared that he could not safely appear in public? Were you consuls at the time, when, as soon as you began to open your mouths upon any affair, or to make
any motion in the senate, the whole assembly cried out, and gave you to understand, that you were not to proceed to business before you had put the question for my return; when, though fettered by the convention you had made, you yet told them, that you wished, with all your heart, that you were not bound up by law ? A law, which did not appear to be binding upon private subjects; a law, branded upon this constitution by the hands of slaves, engraved by violence, imposed by ruffians; while the senate was abolished, all our patriots driven out of the Forum; the republic in captivity; a law, contradictory to all other laws, and passed without any of the usual forms.' The consuls who could pretend they were afraid of such a law as this, were ignorant of the laws, the institutions and the rights, of that very state in which they pretended to a share of the government,
PRONOUNS that are antecedents to some relative are often pronounced without accent, and by that means render the sense of the sens tence feeble and indistinct. The antecedent and the relative are correspondent words which ought to be distinctly, though not emphatically, marked, in order to show the precise meaning of a sentence. When pronouns are not antecedent to a relative, they are often pronounced without accent; and, as the words they refer to are sufi.