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the members at did and commandments, in a middle or higher tone; and the latter, after a gradual fall of voice upon the preceding words, sinks into a lower tone upon the word man.

The two circumflexes, No VI. and No VII. fall and raise, and raise and fall the voice upon the same syllable, in which operation the vowel seems to be considerably extended : for which reason, in the rising circumflex, No VI. I have extended the vowel o by doubling it, and giving the first part of the vowel to the falling, and the last to the rising inflexion. In the other example, No VII. you, being a diphthong, admits of a double sound, exactly equivalent to the letter u, which, being analysed, is no more than ye oo, pronounced as closely together as possible (See Critical Pronouncing Dictionary in the Principles, No 39, 171, and No 8. in the notes); and therefore, if we might be permitted to violate spelling for the sake of conveying the sound, the first part of the word might be pronounced ye, with the rising inflexion, and the last part like oo, with the falling.

In this exhibition of the several inflexions of the voice to the eye, we have an opportunity of observing the true nature of accent. The accented syllable, it may be observed, is always louder than any other either before or after it; and when we pronounce the word with the falling inflexion, the accented syllable is higher as well as louder than either the preceding or succeeding syllables; as in the word satisfactory, No III. But when we pronounce this word with the rising inflexion, as in No II, though it is louder and higher than the two first syllables, it is certainly lower than the three last. Did he answer satisfactorily? Those who wish to see a more minute investigation of the nature of accent, may consult Elements of Elocution, Part II. page 183.

The different States of the Voice. AFTER the foregoing analysis of the voice into its several modifications or inflexions, we may take occasion to give a sketch of those states or varieties of which it is susceptible in other respects. Besides the inflexions which have been just enumerated, the only varieties of which the voice is capable, independent of passion, are, high, low; loud, soft; and these, as they succeed each other in a more or less rapid pronunciation, inay be either quick or slow. The terms forcible and feeble, which are certainly not without ideas to which they are appropriated, seem to be severally a composind of two of these simple states; that is force, seems to be loudness and quickness, either in a high or a low tone; and feebleness seems to be softness and slowness, either in a high or a low tone. This, however, I wish to submit to the consideration of the philosophical musician. As to the tones of the passions, which are so many and various, these, in the opinion of one of the best judges in the kingdom, are qualities of sound, occasioned by certain vibrations of the organs of speech, independent on high, low, loud, soft, quick, or slow, which last may not improperly be called different quantities of sound.

It may, perhaps, not be unworthy of observation to consider the almost unbounded variety which these principles produce by a different

new variesite to it. or soft, quid either in

a high her loupit. Thng with

combination with each other. The different quantities of sound, as these states of the voice may be called, may be combined so as to form new varieties by uniting with any other that is not opposite to it. Thus high may be combined with either loud or soft, quick or slow; that is, a high note may be sounded either in a loud or a soft tone; and a low note may be sounded either in a loud or a soft tone also; and each of these combinations may succeed each other more swiftly or slowly. While forcible seems to imply a degree of loudness and swiftness, and feeble a degree of softness and slowness, either in a high or a low tone. This combination may, perhaps, be more easily conceived by classing these different quantities in contrast with each other. High, loud, quick, 3

i S Forcible may be high, loud, and quick,

or low, loud, and quick. Low, soft, slow,

. Š Feeble may be high, soft, and slow, or

į low, soft, and slow. The different combinations of these states may

be thus represented :
High, loud, quick Low, loud, quick
High, loud, slow

Low, loud, slow
High, soft, quick

Low, soft, quick High, soft, slow. Low, soft, slow. When these states of the voice are combined with the five modifications of voice above-mentioned, the varieties become exceedingly numerous, but far from incalculable. Perhaps they may arise (for I leave it to arithmeticians to reckon the exact number) to that number into which the ancients distinguished the notes of music ; which, if I remember right, were about two hundred.

in the precepts and doctrines of philosophy, by reason of the great character both of your instructor and the city; one of which can furnish you with knowledge, and the other with examples: yet, as I always to my advantage joined the Latin tongue with the Greek, and I have done it not only in oratory, but likewise in philosophy; I think you ought to do the same, that you may be equally conversant in both languages.

Cicero's Offices, book i. chap. 1. These sentences begin with the concessive conjunction although, and have their correspondent conjunction yet; and these conjunctions form the two principal constructive members, The words him, and examples, therefore, at the end of the first members, must have the rising inflexion, and here must be the long pause,

This rule ought to be particularly attended to in reading verse. Many of Milton's similes, > commencing with the conjunction as, have the

first member so enormously long, that the reader is often tempted to drop his voice before he comes to the member beginning with the conjunction so, though nothing can be more certain than that such a fall of the voice is diametrically opposite to the sense.

Thus, in that beautiful description of the af. fected indignation of Satan, at the command of God to abstain from eating of the tree of life:

She scarce had said, though brief, when now more bold
The tempter (but with show of zeal and love
To man, and indignation at his wrong)
New part puts on, and as to passion mov'd
Fluctuates disturb’d, yet comely, and in act
Rais'd as of some great matter to begin.
As when of old some orator renown'd
In Athens or free Rome, where eloquence
Flourish’d, since mute, to some great cause addressid,
Stood in himself collected, while each part,
Motion, each act won audience, ere the tongue

Sometimes in height began, as no delay
Of preface brooking through his zeal of right:
So standing, moving, or to height up grown,
The tempter all impassion’d thus began.

Par. Lost, b. ix. v. 664. In this passage, if we do not make a long pause with the rising inflexion on the word right, we utterly destroy the sense.

In the same manner we may observe some of Homer's similes to extend to such a length before the application of them to the object illustrated, that the printer, and perhaps Mr. Pope himself, has sometimes concluded the first part with a full stop.

Direct Period, with only one Conjunction. Rule II. Every direct period, consisting of two principal constructive parts, and having only the first part commence with a conjunction, requires the rising inflexion and long pause at the end of this part.


As in my speculations I have endeavoured to extinguish passion and préjudice, I am still desirous of doing some good in this particular.

Spectator. Here the sentence divides itself into two correspondent parts at prejudice ; and as the word so is understood before the words I am, they must be preceded by the long pause and rising inflexion,

If impudence prevailed as much in the Forum and courts of justice, as insolence does in the country and places of less resort; Aulus Cæcina would submit as much to the impudence of Sextus Æbutius in this cause, as he did before to his insolence when assaulted by him.

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