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work for those who, unable to accept any formal creed, still long for definite perception of something above and beyond finite things. Mr. Kuhns conceives that there is essential unity of the transcendental element lying at the heart of art, literature, and religion, and that this unity may be perceived at times by any humble seeker for enlightenment, also he opposes that theory which finds a pathological basis for many of the finer traits of human nature and reduces their manifestations to symptoms of disease. The work is a history of the transcendental as it has made itself felt in the popular consciousness, and although it will hardly be as successful as small sentimental volumes of vagueness and quotations, it is sure to find a weicome. Henry Holt & Co.

Miss Caroline Mays Brevard owes it to her readers greatly to enlarge her tiny manual, "Literature of the South," for although it is not so small as to conceal her knowledge of the subject, or the sense of proportion enabling her justly to parcel out her few pages, it is too small to contain the information implied by the title. Devoting three chapters to the revolutionary and prerevolutionary periods, she follows them with others on Audubon, Poe, Legarfi, Simms, the war poetry and subsequent literature, Timrod, Hayne and Lanier. Of the seven authors named, she gives good but brief critical biographies with chronologies, and, at intervals she gives brief literary chronologies and all with easy mastery. One regrets that her printer has misspelled Poe's middle name, and that the author does not think that Mrs. William Somerville who inspired Pinkney's "A Health," deserves special mention quite as much as Florida White, for whom Wilde wrote: "My life is like the summer rose." Above all, the book needs an index; without it much good work is

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"The garden city" is already something more than a dream, and now appears a formidable rival, the farm village of which Mr. Ramsey Benson writes in "A Lord of Lands," a happily suggestive title. This story of city families removed to virgin soil, each provided with a house and a holding ample to maintain it, sufficient to enrich it if wisely managed, is put into the mouth of a former workman, originally shrewd beyond the average, but so educated by the necessities of agricultural life, that he stands on the same level as the managers of great manufacturing enterprises or schemes of transportation. He minutely describes the progress of the little colony, giving all necessary figures, and by delicate touches and light lines his character and those of his neighbors are sharply defined; and one does not miss the illustrations with which such books ordinarily abound. The story has something to say not only to men and boys, but to women and girls, and should be in the school libraries and on the tables of the boys' reading rooms. Matthew Fitzgerald is an excellent specimen of the rarest type of Irishman, the type endowed with humor and imagination instead of the more showy and common gifts of wit and fancy; the type which leads because it understands itself, and being lord of itself is fitted to become "A Lord of Lands." A book giving such a character to the world would have no small value, even were it otherwise trivial. Henry Holt & Co.

The worst trait of the lrish ward boss, his readiness to use ward, city, State, or the entire country to serve his personal desires, and dislikes, has been slighted if not entirely overlooked by most writers of the American political novel, and it is not fully evident that Miss Maude Radford Warren clearly perceives how vicious, dangerous, and mischievous a creature is Callahan, the Chicago boss, whom she introduces in "The Land of the Living"; but her description of his behavior is strictly true to nature. Having informally adopted and educated an orphan boy, and finding him honest to the core, he abstains from using his services in his own work, and allows a "reforming" Irish politician to train him in public affairs. Secretly, Callahan's heart is set upon his ward's marriage with an impoverished Irish gentlewoman whose estate he has bought, and when he finds the reformer in his way, he deliberately leads him into dishonesty, political and personal, and after he is corrupted beyond redemption, amiably presents him to the United States of America as a Senator. Not one of the personages in the tale seems to perceive that Callahan's behavior is in any point unbecoming an American citizen and to the irish gentlewoman he "stands for loyalty and enduring love," not for treason to his adopted country. Miss Warren's merit is her perfect apprehension of an uneducated Irishman's ideal of friendship, a very noble and beautiful ideal. Had she noted that the man holding it must be wonderfully clear-sighted and strong-willed to distinguish and observe the dividing line between his personal privilege of selfsacrifice, and his political duty to preserve public interests inviolate her novel would have been illuminating to all readers; as it stands, it will gratify those who enjoy a true picture, even if the artist do not fully recognize its meaning. Harper & Brothers.

"To the memory of those gallant Americans, the officers of native troops, who fell during the Pulajan campaign in the Island of Samar, 1904-1905, and

of that brave and well-beloved Englishman, Amyas Portal Hyatt, who died towards the close of that campaign in Manila Hospital." Thus does Mr. Stanley Portal Hyatt dedicate his "The Little Brown Brother," a book written in defence of the white man's right to protect himself against violence while carrying civilization to the tropics, and in opposition to the theory that white, brown and black men are precisely similar, and therefore have the same desires, necessities, and capabilities. Opinion in regard to the value of such a book depends upon political belief, and some will find the story lamentably unkind to innocent brown folk, and others will see in it a just defence of the white man's character and conduct. All will agree that the picture of the fearless English girl and her father alone with the halfbreeds and savages of a Philippine island, looking for defence to the American officers near them, is as interesting as any of those to be found in English fiction with the scene changed to India and all the white characters English. The hero is a good lover and a good fighter, and the plot abounds in intrigue and is well arranged. Naturally, the combatants on one side being savages and fanatics, there are many scenes of horror, but none going beyond the point of the despatches received by respectable papers, and the pictures of the peace-at-any-price civilian agree with those which he himself has outlined in his letters and books. The American soldier is praised in the most glowing terms, both in the preface and in the story, and the governor-general of 1904-1905 and the editor of the American newspaper are commended as highly as the soldiers. But as was said at first, the reader's opinion is settled by his preference for his own race or another. Henry Holt & Co.

Ttm.hxli"""', No. 3355~October 24, 1908. T^ccl?tm°

CONTENTS

I. The Problem of Aerial Navigation. By Professor Simon Newcomb,
Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America

Nineteenth Century And After 195 II. The King and the Constitution. By a Loyal Subject

Contemporary Review 205

III. Sally: A Study. Chapters III and IV. By Hugh Clifford, C. M. G.

(To be continued.) .... Blackwood's Magazine 215

IV. Modernism in Islam. By H. N. Brails/ord Fortnightly Review 220 V. The Application of Scientific Methods to Housekeeping. By

Mabel Atkinson Albany Review 227

VI. The House In Islington. By W. E. Cule Chamners's Jounnal 234

VII. "A Commentary." By Lady Robert Cecil Cornhill Magazine 240

VIII. Milton and the Brute Creation. By Oeorge G. Loane Spectator 244

IX. Crystal dazing Outlook 248

X. Irony. Nation 250

A PAOE OF VERSE

XI. The Dreamers Know. By Wilfrid Richmond . Nation 194

XII. The Rose. By Althea Gyles .... Saturday Review 194

XIII. Night on the Sea Westminster Gazette 194

BOOKS AND AUTHORS 253

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Six Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, The Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a yen, free of postage, to any part of the United States. To Canada the postage is 50 cents per annum.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or' by post-office or express money order H possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, express and money orders should be made payable to the order of The Living Age Co. Single Copies of The Living Age. 15 cents.

THE DRKAMERS KNOW.

I.
When we built the hopes of youth,
Those high embattled hopes,
When we heard the wonder-call
Ring through the echoing world.
When the solemn vision grew,
Splendor and hope and joy,
Like the mounting hues of dawn
Across the heaven of God,
What was the light that shone?
What was the song we heard?
Whence was the daring plan?
What memory divine
Of the glory whence we came
Was the dream of our desire?
None but the dreamers know,
Only the dreamers know.

H.
When the years are closing in,
When the skies of life are gray.
And the hopes are unfulfilled,
And the wonder-call is dumb,
And still the heart is glad,
Proud for the hope that was,
For the echo in the soul,
For the memory of dawn,
What are the tones that live?
Whence the abiding joy
Of the dream that never dies?
Who but the dreamers know?
Only the dreamers know.

IIL
When the light of life is low,
And our lovers stand around
And watch the flickering gleam,
When the soul is far withdrawn
From the communings of earth,
No more to be recalled
From the brink of that beyond,
What vision holds it there,
To what far world withdrawn.
In what far dream absorbed?
None but the dreamers know,
Only the dreamers know.

Wilfrid Richmond.

The Nation.

THE ROSE.

And cold winds toss bare branches to the sky.

Yet through the tears of mournful Autumn hours, Through barren Winter, and compassionate Spring, Under fast-fading, bare, or quickening bowers Our hearts still dream the Rose's blossoming!

The burning hands of lovers do but close On some bright scattered petals of the whole. Love—not the lover—holds the perfect Rose In the immortal Summer of the Soul!

Althm Gyles. The Saturday Review.

For one short season of the year the
Rose
Blossoms in radiant majesty set high!
Then the brief glory of the Summer
goes,

NIGHT ON THE SEA. Mary, Mary of the Ships,

As gladness once was thine, Look down, look down from Heaven's height, And guard this ship of mine.

Mary, Mary of the Ships,

All day the wind and sea Girt up the vessel's heart with pride,

She had no thought of thee;
For all the wonder of the world

Was hers to live and be.
She leapt against the leaping wave,

She clove the surges white,
Rejoicing as a tempered sword

New-christened in the fight.

Mary, Mary of the Ships,

Now, in the darkened air, The sails are like to whispering souls,

The masts reach up in prayer, The waters shine with all the eyes

Of those who perished there. The mast-head's light 's against the stars,

But far beneath, apart;
And in the sheets a sobbing wind Sighs like a breaking heart.

Mary, Mary of the Ships,
As sorrow once was thine,

Look down upon the sea to-night
And guard this ship o' mine.

Westminster Oaiette.

THE PROBLEM OF AERlAL NAVIGATION.

The recent construction of machines on which, for the first time in history, men have flown through the air, coupled with the prospective growth of the dirigible balloon into an airship, has led to a widespread impression that aerial flight is soon to play an important part as an agency in commerce. Such a feeling is quite natural under the circumstances. ln forecasting the possible results of invention we begin by reasoning from analogy, and the progress of invention in the direction of aerial navigation, with its alternations of success and failure, is at first sight very like what we have seen in the beginning of every new system of developing the powers of nature. Possibilities of great results have first been shown; then, step by step, difficulties have been overcome, until possibilities have grown into realities. The possibility of aerial flight has been shown both in theory and practice, and the difficulties now encountered in perfecting it seem quite like those met with in perfecting the steam engine, the telegraph, and the telephone. The present movement has an advantage over the preceding ones in that its ultimate outcome is more clearly in sight. We find it easier to imagine ourselves flying through the air in balloons or upon aeroplanes than it was a century ago to conceive of the world's commerce being carried on by the power of steam. We can best judge the possibility that this prospect will be realized by first considering what it has in common with the past, and then inquiring whether we have any grounds more secure than analogy on which to base a forecast.

lt might seem that there can be no better ground for now limiting what may be hopefully expected from the "conquest of the air" than there was a

century ago for limiting what could be expected from the development of steam navigation. At each early stage, from the time when steam was applied to the propulsion of boats on the Seine and the Hudson, to the date when the first steamship crossed the Atlantic, it was easy, by taking what was known as the measure of the future, to show that no great result could be expected from the new system. With the earlier engines no ship could cross the ocean. But improvement in engines was brought about both by invention and by the development and application of physical principles. The theory of the steam engine, and indeed of heat engines in general, had been set forth by Carnot, but the ideal steam engine to which this theory led was so far outside the practical reach of the time that the earlier inventors and engineers paid little attention to it. Only the germ of the theory of energy had been found by Rumford, and it was not until it had been farther developed that it could be fully utilized in guiding invention. Thus it came about that, instead of the ocean steamship being rapidly developed, a century elapsed before it had assumed its present proportions. is it not reasonable to expect that the airship, whether balloon or flyer, will have a similar history? This question cannot be answered by pointing out present imperfections. We all know that as a means of transportation it is, up to the present time, so expensive and so doubtful that it is only from future improvements that any important result can be expected. We must inquire whether there is any well-defined limit to future improvement, and, if there is, learn where we shall stand when, if ever, that limit is approached. One word as to the trend of our in

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