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He was succeeded by Mr. Philip Tay: nation, from the earliest ages to the lor, grandson to Dr. Taylor, who had present period, have, I believe, unibeen his assistant the last two years. formly attributed these books to the In an extract of a letter from the pen of Moses ; and this testimony is latter, now before me, he says, “ Mr. indirectly confirmed by Christ and his Brekell’s congregation never distinctly apostles: nor does Mr. B. presume understood what his real sentiments to invalidate the historical testimony to were on doctrinal points, but I judged their authenticity. He rather grounds from his private conversation that he his conclusions on internal evidence was an Arian. My friend, Dr. Enfield, alone; but, surely, the internal eviwho, some years after his death, had dence is decidedly against him. For the access to his papers, however, told me same characteristic
qualities, the same that from them he could ascertain him unvarnished simplicity, the same easy to have been, in fact, a Socinian. He and natural flow of sentiments and passed with his people as an orthodox language, varying only with the nature man; and from an idea, then very of the subject, the same freedom from prevalent among free-thinking minis- that fiction and wildness which preters, he conceived it his duty not to vailed in the fabulous ages, the same endanger his usefulness annong them unity of design and tendency of each by shocking their prejudices." succeeding incident to establish that
Mr. Brekell, in conjunction with design, namely, the evidence and goDr. Enfield, compiled, in 1764, "A vernment of one God ;-all these uneCollection of Psalms, proper for quivocally mark the Mosaic records, Christian Worship, in Three Parts," and lead us to consider them as the which, with subsequent additions, was productions of one and the same auused in both congregations till a very thor. The style and manner of Herecent period, and was well known rodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and under the name of the Liverpool Col- Aristotle, are sufficiently peculiar ; yet lection. It contained a few anonymous these immortal writers by no means original compositions by him, but of supply a surer criterion of authenticity no remarkable merit.
than can be discovered in the books of H. TAYLOR. Moses. Where, then, is this internal
evidence to be discovered ? In his acSIR,
count of the creation this divine author I
TAKE the liberty of sending for first calls God Elohim ; in a second
the Repository a few remarks on stage he styles him Jehovah Elohim ; a late Sermon of Mr. Belsham’s. If in a third, Jehovah; in a fourth, Elothe principles of that author were not him again. From these variations Mr. well known, I should suspect that the B. infers, that these several stages or discourse alluded to was the compo- portions must have been the writings sition of some enemy of revelation in of different authors. But surely no disguise. But this cannot be thought inference was ever so hasty and unof Mr. Belsham, whose talents have founded. If these several designations ever been pre-eminently employed in present any difficulty, this is cutting promoting the knowledge and sup- the knot instead of untying it; a soluporting the divine authority of the tion unworthy of an enlightened critic. Scriptures, and whose character is But they do not; and it remains to an ornament to his profession. His shew that Moses had an important end positions are, that the Pentateuch is to answer by these different appellanot the composition of Moses, but a tions. I do not here pretend to be compilation from more ancient docu- altogether original, but I am not above ments ; that the Jewish lawgiver, in receiving information when I can get his account of the creation, while un- it. Essenus, a treatise on the first exceptionable as a theologian, so far three chapters of Genesis, ascribed to from being divinely inspired, is only a Mr. Jones, speaks to this effect :retailer of vulgar errors. The Jewish "In all languages many words exist
which convey, under a plurality of in Renshaw Street, in October, 1811, form, a singular signification. Elohim since which time the former chapel bas is one of that number, and for this been occupied by a society of Welsh Me- peculiarity a satisfactory reason can thodists.
be assigned. Power, however abso
lute, is never enjoyed by one man sition to some conclusions like these, without the participation of a few Moses introduced the term Jehovah, who carry on his administration and and intimates, by the use of it, that form his court. It is in reference to though the heavens and the carth bethis circumstance, that in most tongues, gan to exist, their great Author was a king, though numerically one, is then what he had been from all eterdescribed as if he were many; and in nity. our own country, the use of the pro In the third chapter, Moses takes nouns re and our, in the sense of self, up the history of Cain and his descenis an exclusive prerogative of royalty. dants, and it is observable, that he Analogy is sufficiently clear to warrant dropped altogether the title of Elohim, its application to the Alınighty, in the designating God luy that of Jehovah. relation of a Sorereign. Jehovah The omission must have been the effect himself, indeed, is absolutely one, un- of design, because it is uniform from compounded in nature, indivisible into beginning to end, and the meaning of parts or persons ; but he is neverthe- Elohim as Sovereign or Governor, unless considered as surrounded with folds the intention of the historian. those spiritual beings called angels, Cain, by his wicked conduct, became who constitute his celestial court, and an alien from God, and Moses, by execute his will through boundless suppressing the term Elohim, tispace. The term Elohim, therefore, mates that God was no longer related is not improperly used to mean God; to Cain as Lawgiver and King. When but we should remember, that Moses again he resumes the narrative of uses it not to express his essence Adam, he resumes also the title of as an infinite being, but his sove. Elohim, shewing by this means that reignty, as the creator and governor of God and Adam sustained towards each the universe ; the term, therefore, other the relation of a monarch and which comes nearest to the original is his subject. Almighty.”
These observations will throw some The term Elohim only is used in light upon various parts of the Jewish the first chapter, and if the above Scriptures, and among the number statement be just, the propriety of it upon the following: “And God spake consists in holding forth the Almighty, unto Moses, and said unto him, I am not only as the Creator, but as Sove- Jehovah, and I revealed myself unto reign of the world, presiding over it Abraham and unto Isaac and unto by his providence, and giving effect to Jacol, as an Almighty Sovereign; but its stated laws by his power and au- my name, Jehovah, I did not inake thority. When, in the next chapter, known to them.” Exod. iv. 3. The the heavens and the earth are said to patriarchs inight well know Jehovali be finished, the historian calls God to be a title of God, and, indeed, must Jehovah Elohim. Now, Jehovah have known it, because they knew means a being that is self-existent, him to be an eternal, unchangeable eternal and immutable; a being that Being, and because he was so desigwill be to-morrow what he is to-day, nated in regard to Cain. The meaning and what he was yesterday. A reader of this passage then must be, that God of the Mosaic history, arguing from did not reveal, did not designate, himeffects to their causes, might suppose self as their God under that denomithat the Creator then only began to nation. To them he revealed himself exist when he began to create, or, at as a sovereign, whose laws they obeyed, least, that some change took place in whose protection they enjoyed, and to his being and character, corresponding whose promise they looked forward to the change produced in the new with hope and joy. If we generalize order of things. When the world was the words, they imply, that the Aldestroyed by the deluge, the early mighty holds the relation of a moral Pagan philosophers seemed to have Governor only towards those who keep thought that the God who presided his commandments, while to the sinover it was himself involved in the ners who brcak his laws he is but universal ruin; and this is the origin Jehovah : in other words, that he is of the fable, that Saturn was sup- related to such men merely as the planted by his son Jupiter in the go. Author of their being, the canse of Fernment of the universe. In oppo- their existence; the very relation, and
that only which he bears to inert mat- the above remarks as a manifest reter; that as such he will suffer them, ductio-ad-absurdum of the Protestant as he did Cain and his posterity, to principle, with which, in its bearing end in destruction and mingle for ever upon the Unitarian, his.. evangelieu with the mass of inanimate nature. opponents will readily acquiesce, yet,
BEN DAVID. upon the whole, the picture is not (To be continued.)
drawn with an unfriendly hand, nor
much caricatured : and it is a curious Manchester, circumstance, with which many of Sir, December 31, 182). your readers may be unacquainted,
CONTROVERSY is now carA field om the town between the
that not only in the Church of EnCatholics and orthodox Protestants, Roman Church, there are many diswhich was begun by the Catholic guised Unitarians. From a French Priest of one of our Catholic chapels, geographical work of merit, 1 extract in (as appears to me) a weak and the following passage: impolitic attack upon the Bible So “The principal Christian sects are: ciety. My view in this communica- The Unitarians, Socinians, or Antition is not to give an account of the trinitarians, whose opinions are procombat or the combatants, but to di- tected in Transylvania and in Russian rect the notice of your readers to the Poland : a very great number of Cafollowing passage, extracted from the tholics, of Lutherans and Calvinists, priest's second piece in the contro- are secretly attached to this system.” versy, concerning Unitarianism. Malte-Brun, Geography, 1. 579.
“For my own part, I have ever The number of adherents affords no considered Unitarians, if not the best, presumption in favour of a system. at least the most consistent Protes- Motives of interest will always sway tants; and my reason for considering a fearful proportion of mankind. The them so, iz, because they adhere more great mass of the unlettered and ignoclosely than those of any other deno- rant are deluded by the arts of zealots mination to the principle of private and enthusiasts—inany of them, no judgment. Rejecting the authority of doubt, hypocrites. And, perhaps, a catechisms and creeds, the Unitarian still greater proportion of men are takes the sacred volume into his hands, indifferent to all systems, and readily and, before he opens it, thus argues embrace, as far as they can be said to with himself: This book is given to embrace, that which is nearest at hand. me by the Almighty; from it, by the Numbers, therefore, are no criterion means of my own judgment and nn- of truth. Yet, if there be an instance derstanding, I am to gather the truths in which a sect has risen and spread of salvation. Now I know and feel, on all sides, without much activity in that, unlike the animals of the brute its partisans, without much party creation, I possess within myself a ra- spirit, with scarcely any union and tional soul, which is the very principle co-operation among its adherents, the of judgment and understanding, and, meinbers of which cannot possibly be consequently, I must practise nothing, actuated by interested motives, and I must believe nothing, that is not its chief promoters have been men completely conformable to the reason generally of a studious, retired and which my Creator has given me. He unobstrusive character, there exists, ! then opens the sacred pages, and, read- imagine, a strong presumption in its ing them with the full persuasion that favour. Unitarianism has the advanthey contain nothing above the stand- tage of such a powerful presumption. ard of his reason, if he meet with any
CRITO. thing that wears the appearance of a mystery, he very justly reduces it to
Clapton, that standard, by adapting it to a sense
January 1, 1822. standing and his judgment. suche is I REQUEST your acceptance of the the mode of reasoning which the Uni- to me on reading the last portion of tarian adopts ; and such ought to be Mr. Fox's MSS. that of every consistent Protestant."
Vol. XVI. p. 697, col. 2. Mr. Though the Catholic Priest intends Chandler “just on the brink of ma
trimony." Neither of his biographers, the Old Jewry, he appears to have whom I formerly mentioned, has re- resigned his trade; for, the “ Vindicaorded the family name of Chandler's tion of Daniel,” published with his wife. 'Three daughters by this mar. name, in 1728, is " printed for John riage survived their father. One be- Gray, at the Cross Keys in the Poulcape the wife of Dr. Harwood, and try," probably his immediate succes, another died a few years since, having, sor. with equal justice and gratitude, been P. 697, col. 2. “Dear King George supported in old age and under strait-that good and great man. He looked circumstances by an annuity specially well and smiled upon his people ;” on voted, on the recommendation of the whom he could scarcely have been so venerable Dr. Rees, at the Annual ungrateful as to have frowned. On Meetings of the Society for the relief the same day, July 7, this “good and of Dissenting Ministers' Widows, great man," just before he ** smiled which had owed its origin, in 1748, upon his people," had “ signed the almost entirely to Dr. Chandler, whose dead warrant against twenty-five of danghter thus happily proved how the Preston prisoners in Newgate.”
Yet sedition was not then so severely “ The father's virtues shall befriend punished as we have seen, more rehis child.”
cently, in the annals of “the illustriDr. Towers relates (B. Brit. III. ous House;" for a person “ convicted 430) that Dr. Chandler “ by the fatal of drinking the Pretender's health, and South-Sea scheme, in 1720, lost the calling King George a Turnip-houghwhole fortune which he had received er," was only “sentenced to pay a fine with his wife. His income as a mi- of forty marks, to be imprisoned for nister being inadequate to his ex a year, and find sureties for his behapenses, he engaged in the trade of a viour for three years.” (Salmon's boukseller, still continuing to discharge Chron. Hist. II. 66.) the duties of the pastoral office.” I It is said, I think, by Young, thathave now before me “ The True he “knew a man who lived upon a Grounds and Reasons of the Christian smile, and well it fed him." This Religion in opposition to the False “ dear King George” appears to have Ones set forth in a late Book, entitled now left his people to exist on the The Grounds and Reasons, &c. Lon- grateful recollection of a royal sınile, don, printed for S. Chandler, at the without the personal presence of a Cross Keys in the Poultry, 1725.” King, during the next six months, The publication was anonymous, but while he was astonishing his Germans probably acknowledged by Chandler with the splendours of a British mowhen he presented a copy to Arch- narch, in all the gloss of novelty ; for bishop Wake. That Prelate, in a let- as we read (ibid. 69), it was not till ter from “ Lambeth House, Feb. 14, January 18” following, that “ King 1725,” says, “ I cannot but own my- George arrived at Margate from Holself to be surprised, to see so much land," the Parliament having been, good learning and just reasoning in a in the mean time, prorogued five times, person of your profession; and do seemingly to accommodate the royal think it a pity you should not rather pleasure. spend your time in writing books than P. 698. You have said all which in selling them.” (Ibid. 431.) The an editor could say to counteract an Archbishop was probably further sur- unavoidable impression to the prejuprised to find, at the end of the pam- dice of the letter-writer. The letter, phlet, among “ books printed for, and indeed, singly considered, by no means sold by S. Chandler-Cassiodorii Se- involves his integrity, for it ought to natoris Complexiones-Editio altera. be conceded that a truly ingenuous Opera et cura Samuelis Chandleri.” It inquirer after truth might find himself, was, however, while a bookseller, that during his progress, in the painful Chandler preached those Lectures, situation which Chandler has describfirst in concert with Lardner, and ed. Nor can it be fairly disputed, that afterwards alone, the substance of between September 13, the date of which formed the principal parts of his this letter, and December 19, the day pieces against the Deistical Writers. of his ordination according to Secker, About 1726, on becoming minister at (XVI. 572,) Chandler's religious in
quiries might have issued in reasona- which, he was understood to have ble satisfaction. But how one who, effected the Union. Mr. Addington, as it appears, (XVI. 570 compared since too well-known as Lord Sida with 572,) had for some time accepted mouth, now feebly occupied the vathe office of a Christian minister, could cant seat of the premier, and could continue the regular exercise of that scarcely have entertained a hope of office while, respecting both the Jewish succeeding, where his more able patron and Christian Revelations, and even had utterly failed. Nor, indeed, in what is called Natural Religion, he the political history of 1801, does had becoine a sceptic, on the utmost there appear to be the least hint of verge towards unbelief, or, as he ex- any movement towards Catholic Emanpresses himself, “in a perfect wan- cipation. dering and maze," scarcely knowing
J. T. RUTT. “ what to believe or disbelieve,” is, contess, to me, inexplicable. I wish any of your correspondents could do
Mountfield-House, more than I am able to effect, towards
Dear Sir, March 12, 1801. rescuing the memory of such a inan Your letter is so condescending, as Chandler, from the imputation kind and friendly, that I cannot refrain which this letter, connected with from expressing
you my sincere Secker's letters to Mr Fox, to which thanks. If I lived in Dorchester I I have referred, and Chandler's re- should request the favour of you to corded occupations at Peckham, ap- permit me to visit you at least two or pears to fix on him. I am, indeed, ready three times a week, and this I should to wonder that his friend and corres esteem a greater honour, though withpondent, on a final arrangement of in the walls of a prison, than an invithese papers, had not committed this tation to court. I congratulate you letter to the protection of that purify- on the near approach of your release ing element which Sir Henry Wotton from confinement: I wish it could not unaptly entitles optimus secreta. with propriety be said, restoration to riorum.
perfect liberty. But if the same sysI hasten to a more agreeable sub- tem be pursued, on which our rulers ject, by sending you a letter, which I have acted for some years past, English know you will readily preserve.
I liberty, prosperity and happiness are found it only a few days since, on exa tox et præterea nihil. In the present mining some papers connected with melancholy state of the nation, howthe publication of Mr. Wakefield's ever, and under the apprehension of Memoirs, in 1804, or it would have greater calamities than we have yet been offered to the last volume, to experienced, it is consoling to look follow your notices of the excellent with the eye of Christian faith, to writer. The “two Sermons” which that gracious Providence, which is conaccompanied the Letter, Mr. Howe tinually bringing light out of darkness, entitled * The Millenium." (See order out of apparent confusion, and XV. 722.) My friend, whom he de- good out of evil. Inspired prophecy scribes as “of Billericay," and with teaches us to hope for a better state whose arduous trial of Christian con- of things for mankind even in this sistency, in that situation, I became, world, and though it be the lot of the from local circumstances, intimately present generation to share in the acquainted, will, I trust, excuse me evils which are introductory to it, bethat I have gratified myself by not nevolence rejoices in the prospect of withholding his name.
the happiness which awaits future geTo the information contained in a nerations. I sometimes direct the “Letter from London,” and which views of my people to the age of Dr. Toulmin communicated, no doubt truth, peace, liberty and righteousmost correctly, to Mr. Howe, it is not ness, as a motive for animation to very easy to give credence.
January duty, and support under any afflictive 11, 1801, Mr. Pitt resigned his ap- scenes to which Christian integrity pointments, chicfly because the inve- may expose 11s. This I did on the 5th terate prejudices of the crown inter- of November and the beginning of fered with his project of Catholic this year. The candour of my kind Emancipation, by ine assurance of and affectionate friends dictated the