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charged the atmosphere-as a single the various selections of proper mucidrop which God created could never lage, and all the astonishing chemical have been annibilated except by his transmutations that compose vegeown power. The great utility of this table substances in their indescribable economy of nature is as obvious as variety. its existence is apparent. Without The narrative given of the fourth such a vast solution of water combined day relates to the celestial ordinances, with the air, there could not be those and the institution of the periodical reflections and refractions of the solar seasons; and this, in general estimarays which are of the utmost impor- tion, is attended with as great, if not tance to vision. And if the atmos- greater, difficulty than any other part phere were to be divested of its humi- of this sacred history. As the statedity, or of a large proportion of what ment is cominonly received, it appears it now contains, it would not only be to represent all the celestial luminaries defective for the sight of objects at as having been created in one day, any distance not exposed to the direct while as many as five days were embeams of the sun, but it would be un- ployed in creating the earth and adsuitable on account of its aridity for justing its appendages. This being so the functions of animal life as at pre- highly improbable, has caused the sent constituted. Thus, then, on the whole narration to be discredited as a second day were instituted, by Infinite fiction of human device, and repugnant Wisdom, some at least of the curious to enlightened reason. But if the idea and wonderful principles on which the before expressed be just, concerning science of optics depends, and the the first verse, that God created the pneumatic laws enacted that are ne- heavens and the earth in the begincessary for rendering the atmosphere ring, or that this original creation of subservient to the purposes of light, worlds is to be understood as having which are necessary also for exciting been antecedent to the commenceand controlling the occasional agita ment of the six days, then this actions of the air, or the winds, and count of the fourth day can have no which are essential to the support and such meaning as has been commonly preservation of the vegetable and ani- supposed; but, on the contrary, it demal productions which the all-wise clares what is agreeable to facts and Creator designed.
perfectly right. The Common VerThe third day's account presents the şion begins the narrative of the fourth disposal of the waters that remained day with—God said, Let there be on the face of the earth after the lights in the firmament, which imports atmosphere had been sufficiently re- that the celestial luminaries were first plenished with moisture, and deter- brought into existence on this fourth mining what portions of the world day; but the Hebrew words have a should be the dry land. Let the signification that obviates this opinion waters below the expanse be gathered which reason and science pronounce to together in one place, and let the dry be erroneous, D'own pipia nini?" land appear. And let the earth bring Let the lights in the erpanse of the forth grass, &c. It may be properly heavens be, and the Greek Version supposed, that on this day there was in the Septuagint will admit of the not merely a separation of the land same rendering, Γενηθήτωσαν φως ηρες and water, which of itself would have
εν τω Σερέωματι το έρανο εις φευσιν επι left the latter a stagnant mass, except insyns. So translated, the passage will as it might be disturbed by gales of read, consistently with probability, Let wind, but that the ocean was saturated the lights, so called because they had with salt for securing it from putre. been shining to the earth during the faction, and its regular motions begun; three preceding days, in the expanse and that the land was made fit for the of the heavens, be to divide the day uses intended, those occult principles from the night, and let them be for ordained which guide chemical affini- signs and seasun, and times and years : ties and combinations in the formation evidently meaning, that the luminaries of secondary rocks, crystallizations before created were then permanently and minerals ; fertility given to the appointed to these uses. The remainsoil of the earth; and the laws of ing verses, which describe this fourth vegetation established, which direct day, have the appearance of a paren
thesis, declaring particularly what were employs another word, Psalm lxxiv. the luminaries which the Most High 16, Thou hast prepared the light and had made, and the respective uses the sun. It has been already observed, assigned to them in the great machi- that the light of the sun was brought nery of the universe. Even upon the to the earth on the first of the six days, hypothesis that the Jewish prophet and motion must have been then given intended here to speak respecting the to it to produce the alternations of origioal creation of these lights in the morning and evening, or of day and heavens, the importance of the subject night, which the Creator was pleased would sufficiently account for such a to ordain, apparently for measuring recurrence to it by a repetition of the the periods of his own proceedings, assertion, no less true than grand, to become the subjects of future rethat the hosts of heaven were all the cord, that the generations of men may work of the one infinite and everlast- know who hath done all these things; ing Being. But as he does not here but on the fourth day he permanently employ the verb 873, as in the first established the great laws of nature, verse, which signifies bringing into by the operation of which the transexistence, but another word, which inission of light from the sun is conmeans to prepare, on which there will tinued, and the lunations are governed be occasion to insist further under which cause the solar rays to be reanother passage, there is good reason flected on the earth at stated times, to conclude that to speak of their cre- and occasion the ebbing and flowing ation was not his design, but only of of the tides of the ocean. By the their allotted functions with respect appointments of this day also the dito the earth. Ver. 16: God prepared, urnal rotations of the earth were peror adapted, two great lights; the petuated for continuing the changes greater light to rule the day, and the of day and night; and its annual revolenger light to rule the night, and the lutions for producing the alternate stars also. That is, the sun to regu- seasons of the year, and marking the late the day, and the moon, and also progress of time, which could not have the stars, to regulate the night, by been the order of nature if the world causing their rays, whether primary had remained stationary as when it or reflected, to reach the earth, which was first commanded into existence, could no more have been without being or if the Divine power had not supercaused by the Divine power, than these added to the creation of the earth the luminaries could have created them- cardinal laws of nature, which impel selves. The word, in ver. 17, which its daily motion and annual course. is translated set,-God set them in the The fifth day's work was the forfirmament of heuven,-seems, accord- mation of sentient creatures ; fishes lo ing to this version, to import that these occupy the waters ; and the feathered shining bodies were studded in a con- race to fly in the atmosphere, called care solidity, or at least that they the expanse of heaven. " Anterior to were the first placed in their respec- the foregoing adjustments and prepative stations; but this is not its true rations there was not a spark of animal signification. This verb, inny, means life connected with this rolling planet; gave or appointed, and being thus not a single rational inhabitant to surread, it is in full accordance with the vey and admire the beauteous works foregoing remarks concerning their of God ; not a quadruped trod the prior creation. And God guve, or ground, not a bird winged the air, appointed, them in the expanse of nor a fish finned the water; not even a the heavens, signifying that he de- reptile nor an insect existed in either creed what offices they should perform province of nature; but all that had to the earth, which is supported by been hitherto created was unpercepthe prophecy of Jeremiah, xxxi. 35, tive, inanimate matter, and but for where the same Hebrew verb is used, the vivifying energy of that Being who and properly construed— Thus saith is alone eternal and self-existent, the Jehovah, who giveth the sun for a world must have remained in lifeless light by day, and the ordinances of the silence for ever. Ver. 20: And God mom and of the stars for a light by said, Let the waters bring forth abun, night. And the same sentiment is duntly the moving creature that hath expressed by the Psalmist, though he life, and fowl that may Ay above the
earth in the open expanse of heaven. their wants, and suited to the enjoyIt is observable in the Scriptures, tbat ment of the life they received; togethe term hearen has several distinct ther with the enactment of the laws significations, which are worthy of of their respective natures for perpebeing noticed. These are three : the tuating the existence of each species highest or third heaven, which is the of these sensitive beings through all celestial abode of the Almighty, or successive ages--most strikingly evince where his glory is more immediately the infinite skill, beneficenee and manifested"; 1 Kings xxii. 19; Job power of their great Creator. And xxii. 12 ; 2 Cor. xii. 3: called also last of all were mankind brought into heaven of heavens, 1 Kings viïi27. existence in the Divine image, male The second heaven, which is the mag- and female created he them, in whose nificent region of the planetary orbits formation were combined the most and of the fixed stars, which are called curious organic constructions and the host of heaven, and the ordinances wonderful contrivances belonging to of heaven, Deut. xvii
. 3; Jer. xxxij. those animals which had been before 25. And the lower heaven, in which produced. And, in addition to the are clouds, rain, dew, snow and winds; excellencies of their corporeal frames, Dan. vii. 2; Gen. vii. 1), xxvii
. 28; they were endned with intellectual Isaiah lv. 10; Dan. vii. 13; and in faculties, that not only qualified for which the fowls fly as their proper all beneficial temporal purposes, but element. A due attention to these were also susceptible of high improve distinctions is needful for understand- ment ; such as capacitate the human ing the several uses of the term in race, in every age, for contemplating this chapter, as in the 1st, 14th, 15th and adoring the perfections of their and 17th verses, it means the second glorious Maker, for reflecting on their heaven, or all the luminaries which it peculiar moral obligations, cherishing contains; and in the 8th, 20th and a consciousness of responsibility, and 30th, it signifies the lower heaven, or, anticipating immortal life. lovested as it is translated in the last of these with these mental powers, were the verses, the air, with all that appertains first parents of mankind distinguished to it as a necessary appurtenance of for a most decided pre-eminence over the earth.
all other animated natures, in dignity
, The atmosphere and waters having adaptation for usefulness and capabibeen supplied with suitable tenants, lity of happiness, and constituted the it remained on the sixth day to pro- glories of God's terrestrial creation vide appropriate animals to inhabit the The whole of this account
Ver. 24: And God said, dering our world a proper abode for Let the earth bring forth the living living creatures, and especially for the creature after his kind, and cattle human race, unquestionably written after their kind, &c.
Whether the in that early period when knowledge divers sorts of creatures were pro- had made but small advances towards duced for these different departments the comparative maturity of the preof nature, the water, the air, and the sent age, is so consistent with the apJand, by the transformation of mate. pearances of nature, so analogous to rials previously existing, or by being principles which the understanding immediately created, which the He- and experience of cultivated ages have brew suggests to have been the case demonstrated and confirmed, and so with some, they ininister to the glory far superior to every representation of of the Supreme Being, whose plastic the origin of nature given in remote might instantly produced what his in- times by anassisted reuson, or philocomprehensibly intelligent and benc- sophical science in the mere light of volent will designed. Their production nature, that I conceive there cannot in such innumerable genuses and tribes, be a more rational conclusion than all so admirably framed in their ana- that it was the result of a divine com. tomy, so aptly compacted in their munication to a favoured prophet, forms, exquisitely organized in their This belief, too, is so much in bar systems, and endowed with senses, mony with the divine legation of Mo instincts and sagacities so accurately ses, with the sanctity of the Jewish adapted to their various stations ; fitted dispensation, and with the hearenly for securing their safety and supplying authenticity of the Christian rerela
tion, that it is, 'in my view, highly ing or preparing. Thus, in this book desirable it should have a firmly-esta- of Moses, Gen. vi. 14, Make thee an blished credence in the minds of all ark of Gopher wood; and ch. xxxv. 3, the adherents to Christianity. If we I will make there an altar unto God, conclude the Mosaic narrative, or the same verb is used, and obviously what is commonly esteemed such, to in the sense of making fit or fashionbe incompatible with the systein of ing; as the materials already existed nature as elucidated by science, must which were to be fashioned into new not that confidence in the truth of its forms, or prepared for the specified theology be greatly enfeebled, which purposes. The word baving this sig. a belief in its historical accuracy will nification in the Decalogue makes at least tend to strengthen and con- it confirmatory of what has been adfirm? And viewing this account as vanced respecting the six days, and false in its detail, how are we to re- the employment of the Divine wisdom gard the language of the Decalogue and power in these first divisions of
given to the Hebrew nation, as pro- time. In six days Jehovah prepared, ci ceeding from the Supreme Potentate, or adjusted, the heacens and the earth.
wherein his resting from his six days' This Hebrew verb appears also in work is assigned as a reason for the Gen, i. 31, and repeatedly in the besanctity of the seventh, which was ginning of the second chapter, and in appointed to be the Sabbath? Exod. the 3d verse both of these words are XX. 11: For in six days Jehovah used, and so as to shew their distinct made heaven and earth, und the sea, significations; He rested from all the and all that in them is, &c. If the works which he had created and prerepresentation in the first chapter of pared. They appear likewise in the Cenesis, concerning the divine trans- prophecy of Isaiah with the same actions during six days be fictitious, ineanings; ch. xlv. 18 : Thus suith which it certainly must be, if not cor- Jehovah, who creuted the heavens, rect in its philosophical statements, God himself, who formed the earth then the declaration here evidently and prepared it. And Jeremiah, using alluding to it, and not inerely imply- the latter, word, says, ch. x. 12, He ing its verity, but positively adopting hath prepared the earth by his power, it as sacred truth, must also be of the he hath established the world by his sume spurious character. On the con- wisdom, and stretched out the heaven trary, if
, as Moses asserts, Exod. xx. by his discretion. 1, God spake all these words, then the Moses does not, indeed, declare telation given of the six days and that he received the knowledge which their occurrences, must be a descrip- his account conveys immediately from tion of certain facts and realities, Gød, nor to whom it was originally which cannot be disbelieved without imparted; but this silence cannot be the authenticity of the whole Levitical justly considered as sufficient to invaeconomy being rendered disputable, lidate its divine authenticity. If the and the credibility of the gospel re- narrative contain what may be fairly velation being seriously affected and deemed internal evidence of divine impaired. But it may be alleged, as inspiration, this is equivalent to any a supposed refutation of the theory assertion to that effect, if not, of which I am attempting to support, greater validity, especially when corthat in this passage of the Decalogue, roborated by other sacred documents. as it stands recorded in Exodus, Jelio With such testimony, which is not vah is said to have made the heavens wanting if the foregoing observations and the earth in six days. It is to be well-founded, it is perceived as the be again remarked, that thongh made pole-star of revelation, not only éle is the word used in the English Ver. vating the intellectual views with re. sion, yet the Hebrew verb, so trans- gard to the wisdom, goodness and lated in this and various other in- power of the one eternal Deity, as stances, is not, as in Gen. i. 1, xna, employed in the creation of the uniwhich means to create in the strictest versal system with its countless worlds, sense, or to bring from nothing, but and in the excellent adjustment and nue, as in the 16th verse, which sig- preparation of our own for the uses nifies to make in the sense of fashion intended ; but it further prepares the
attentive mind for rightly receiving renewed and ample testimony to their those irrefragable proofs of the Divine being the well-adapted means of his benevolence to his human offspring, superintending and bountiful proviwhich not only nature proclaims, but dence, which upholdeth nature in pristhe Scriptures largely describe; and tine vigour, and giveth life and breath, for regarding their allusions to it as and all things conducive to the general just sanctions to its holy verity and welfare and happiness of his creatures. worth. Besides the several instances
RICHARD FRY. in the Psalms of evident reference to this introduction of the sacred writ. Sir, ings, the prophets allude to its de
HAVE been much gratified by a scriptions; and their sublime celebra perusal of the Sketch of Eichhorn's tions of the attributes of God, as dis “ Introduction to the Study of the played in his works, tend to attest that Old Testament,” given in the last vothe Mosaic account was the source of lume of the Monthly Repository, and their information, and to certify that cannot help thinking that it would it was believed by them to contain an contribute to gratify the curiosity of unquestionably true statement of the many of your readers, if the same origin of nature. The same valid gentleman to whom we are indebted sanction is given to the truth of this for that sketch, or any other person primitive record by the various indic who possesses a competent knowledge rect allusions to its contents by our of the German language, would furSaviour and his apostles, for it is not nish a translation of the 426th Seccredible that they would have referred tion, which contains an outline of the to it in a manner that would be liable author's theory respecting the origin to be understood as implying their of the Book of Genesis, and a statepersuasion of the reality of its repre- ment of the reasons by which he has sentations, if they had viewed the nar been guided in assigning the different rative as being in any respect fabu- portions of that Book to the doculous. Thus, then, unless I am much ments from which he supposes them mistaken, the first chapter of Genesis to have been respectively taken. briefly, but truly and faithfully, por If my own acquaintance with the trays the institution of those princi- German had been more intimate than ples and laws which originated in it is, so as to have given me confiunerring wisdom and unbounded bene- dence in making such a translation, I volence, and are invested with never- should have been glad to have supfailing efficacy to perform the good. plied what I am now under the neceswill of God; and every season of the sity of asking as a favour. year, yea every revolving day, bears a
A List of Students educated at the Academy at DAVENTRY under the Pa
tronage of Mr. COWARD's Trustees, and under the successive superirtendence of the Rev. CALEB Ashworth, D. D., the Rev. Thomas Robins, and the Rev. Thomas BELSHAM. Communicated by Mr. Belshan.
(Concluded from p. 164.) Year of Name.
Remarks. Admission. 1779, d. Thomas Hawkes,
a manufacturer at Birmingham.
Lambrook. d. Mordaunt Crachcrode, m. no very distant relation of the celebrated Pre
bendary of Westminster, who assisted to support him at the Academy; died on the road as he was going to preach a lecture.