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You know that liis creed supposes lines in the centre of the square. They that all human beings are the crea- then sang, When first this humble tures of circumstances; hence he con- roof I knew,' accompanied by a clatends, that if he had a colony of in- rionet; then The Banks of Aberfants, by suppressing all erroneous feldy ;' then The Banks and Braes reasoning and conclusions upon all of bonny Doon;' then · Auld Lang subjects, and by substituting truth, Syne. There were fifty singers. After which is, that of being tanght to make this, they then again formed a square ; no conclusion but what is thoroughly and the word of cominand was given understood, he could make man to for the dancers, who immediately came set at naught the things upon which into the centre as the singers had done. he now places the most value, and Two or three dances were then given unite in a community of interests that in a style which would not have diswould have the effect of producing graced some of our assemblies. After brotherly love and unity throughout dancing they marched again once or the world. Nay, he carries this idea twice : six ffers then led them down so far, that he supposes the highest stairs, the other six remained playing, ranks in society will find it the great- and all kept beating time until the est source of recreation to visit the whole deployed out of the room. establishments of their neighbours, and These interesting beings were all bareperform a few hours' labour at some- foot, but gracefulness was in their thing that will pay for their enter- steps. taininent. These results, and many others, which I have not time to men “ Next we entered the large school tion, Mr. 0. will have that he can on the same floor, capable of holding bring about in society, by means of 400 writers and accompters. There children. Then, is it to be wondered is a pulpit at onc end, and it is neatly at, that his character assumes the galleried, and will hold a congregation highest traits of benevolent and over- of 1200. There were boys and girls flowing pleasure, when he mixes among from four to twelve years old busily these germs of future men and women employed in reading, writing and ac

“ From the play-ground we entered counts, plain sewing, marking, &c. a large room for the purpose of play The greatest regularity and decorum and amusement when the weather prevailed. Heard children of four will not permit them to be out of years old read well in the Testament; doors. Here the most unrestrained others of five read, and that well, hisliberty is given for noise or amuse- torical pieces from various authors. ment. On each side of this room are The writers and accompters industrischools for this class, which runs from ous; the writing a good style. The latwo years old to six. Some are taken dies who were with us, said the sewing to the upper school at four, having and marking was very good. We next attained the learning necessary for went and stood in a gallery in the their advancement.

room where the singers, &c. had been, “From these schools we went up and saw below us a professional man into the large room for dancing, from Edinburgh, teaching four baremarching, &c., when soon the shrill fouted girls and four boys the different fife echoed up the broad staircase. steps, bows and curtsies and dancing. Six boys, in Highland plaids and caps, It was delighful to see the graceful. entered, playing a quick mareh until ness and ease with which these rustic all the boys and girls' (for girls march sons and daughters of the working here) entered the room : they were fol- classes made the obeisant compliment, lowed by other six fifers; the whole as or tripped on the light fantastic toe. they entered formed a square. After They have two violin players, who are this, the word of command was given, also professional men. right face, left face, &c. They then passed in review, marching round the After tea we went down to the room in slow and quick time. After village, and found the large schoolmarching, the boys and girls destined room (which is capable of holding to sing, at the word of command, ran 1200 persons) about two-thirds full: in a kind of dance, and formed two it was concert night. Concert night!

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concert! what, for the amusement of well-regulated family umited together the labourers in a cotton factory! by ties of the closest affection. We Yes; it was truly concert niglit, and heard no qaarrels from the youngest they are blessed with one once a week. to the eldest, and so strongly impressHow drivelling dost thou look, world ed are they with the conviction that in which I have been accustomed to their interest and duty are the same, live, when placed in comparison with and that to be happy themselves it is this community ? Here, the labourer necessary to make those happy by of two shillings per week can go to whom they they are surrounded ; that concert every week, and the fastidious they had no strife but in offices of souls of a town like Leeds, wallowing kindness. With such dispositions, and in unenjoyed wealth, can scarcely raise with their young minds well stored one, once in half a year. But here with useful knowledge, it appeared to too they are taught music, and, of con- us that if it should be their destiny to sequence, enjoy the captivating sweets go out to service or to be apprenticed, of sound. The band was military, the families in which they were fixed although they have violins, and con- would find them an acquisition instead sisted of two horns, one trumpet, of a burthen; and we could not avoid three bassoons, one serpent, five cla- the expression of a wish, that the rionets, flutes and fifes.

orphan children in our workhouses

had the same advantage of moral and “Whilst standing in the buildings religious instruction, and the same appropriated for the schools and prospect of being happy themselves amusements, with the magical sight and useful to the families in which before me, (for at this place almost they may be placed. all is wonderous and astonishing,) and On the return of the deputation 10 contemplating the enormous expense Leeds, the committee of the Leeds which must have been incurred to pro- Workhouse entered fully into the devide these buildings, teachers and every sires of the delegates upon this subother thing to move this comparatively ject, and a new code of regulations vast machine, produced from the fluc was adopted for the management of tuating sources of manufacture,- my the children, which, I am happy to ideas were enchanted with anticipation say, has already proved of essential in the prospect of that pleasure and service to these sons and daughters of profit which might be produced from poverty; which code 1 subjoin to these the combined powers of a number of remarks. villages united in a community of in

JOHN CAWOOD. terests. Who can say with how little Jabour their wants might be supplied ;

Education and Employment of the and who can tell the happiness which

Children. would accrue from the want of temp 1. That the boys and girls be kept tation to covetousness, and all the in a state of separation from the other deadly evils attendant upon man adult part of the inhabitants of the suffering from want? The temptation House. to do evil would be removed, and bro 2. That a separate room be devoted therly love be the bond of union. No solely to the girls, and fitted up for one with half the senses of a man, but their school-room and sitting-room. what can see this, in walking through 3. Every day in the week (Sunday the precincts of New Lanark. There excepted) the girls shall be employed is not a nobleman in England that is in learning to read and write, from giving so much comfort to so many half-past eight o'clock in the morning human beings as Mr. Owen is, and till twelve o'clock at noon, under the the very proudest of them would be superintendence and instruction of a astonished and confounded were they proper master; that from twelve to to spend one evening in this place.” half-past one they shall have dinper,

In the education of the children, with the remaining time for recreathe thing that is most remarkable, is tion. And that from half-past one to the general spirit of kindness and six o'clock, they shall be employed in affection which is shewn towards knitting, sewing, &c., under the suthem. In this they appear like one perintendence and instruction of a

suitable mistress. And that, in order a place of worship large enough to to accustom them to domestic service, accommodate all the slaves belonging two of the senior girls, in rotation, to the property ; but this design was shall be kept in the kitchen for one abandoned, on its being found that month at a time, and be then em- the overseer could permit is to employed in such work as the mistress ploy the boiling-house (the house in of the house shall direct.

which the cane juice is boiled into 4. The boys shall be employed in syrup) during that part of the year in the card-room from eight o'clock in which alone we bad any opportunity the morning until twelve at noon; of meeting for religious purposes. that, from twelve to half-past one, they This edifice answered our purpose shall have their dinners, with the re- sufliciently well, as long as the undermaining time for recreation; and from taking was regarded simply in the half-past one until six in the evening, light of an experiment: but had it they shall be instructed (in a room been determined to render it permasolely appropriated for that purpose) nent, a more convenient place would in reading and writing by the school. have been found necessary. master,

The Negroes usually quit the field, 5. In these arrangements the great for dinner, about one o'clock, to which est frugality should be united to the they never return till the end of two most persevering endeavours, to ren- hours; but it was understood, between der these orphan children useful mem- the overscer and myself, that on the bers of society. This cannot be more days on which they should have liberty effectually accomplished than by re- to attend me in the boiling-house, moving from their observation every they should not retire till nearly two, thing that is likely to give them bad 90 that the estate might be put to as habits, and placing before them every little inconvenience as possible. This thing which is calculated to inspire being the case, they were never ready them with good ones. These recom- for me before four, and sometimes not mendations duly, followed, will in time even till five in the afternoon; a cirmake these children of poverty rather cumstance which, however, I never sought after as apprentices in the regretted, not deeming it necessary, town, than despised and considered a or even desirable, to detain thein above tax; and instead of rising into man- two hours at a time. But had they hood and relying upon a parish all the been disposed to submit to a little days of their future life for a portion extra exertion, they most certainly of their support, they will feel an am- might, notwithstanding this, have been bition and a capacity to maintain with me by three, or very soon after ; themselves.

but they had no idea of devoting the

sinallest portion of their own time to Mr. Cooper on the Disposition of the So far, indeed, from this, it was found

the work of spiritual improvement. Negroes to embrace Christianity.

to be a matter of some little difficulty LETTER II.

to secure their attendance, even in Newcastle-under-Lyme,

their master's time. And, before the May 10, 1822. attempt was made, some individuals, T the close of my last communi- well acquainted with the Negro charac

cation, (pp. 217–219,) I stated ter, appeared to be very apprehensive that the slaves on Mr. "Hibbert's that it would be found necessary to estate were allowed half-a-day in a employ coercive measures with them fortnight, out of crop, * for the sole in this as well as in other cases : yet purpose of attendiog on me.

the inhuman and unchristian idea of proceed to explain the manner in driving the poor creatures to a place which that time was spent.

of worship by force, could not be enIt was the original intention to build dured for a moment. It was, there

fore, determined, without hesitation,

not to resort to it, but to meet them • That is, the Jamaica harvest, which on the following terms; which, it will commonly commences in Hanover early be perceived, reduced the business, in in December, or about the first week in a great measure, to a matter of their January, and ends some time in May. own free choice.

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VOL. XVII.

2 Q

As our sabbaths, as we sometimes affirmed, had been tried on the south termed them, came round, they were side of the island by a clergyman of informed by the overseer that they the Church of England, but without were at liberty to spend the afternoon producing the desired effect ; the Newith me in the boiling-house, if they groes withdrawing their attendance felt disposed to do so; but, if other- after the first few meetings, although wise, they must return to the field and the hours of instruction were taken work their usual hours. Immediately, from those of labour. But it does therefore, on seeing what the nature not appear that any efficient measures of our plan was, they agreed to throw were employed to secure their attendown their hoes and prepare for me. dance on the gratuitous labours of Not, I believe, that they felt any par- this benevolent individual, and, thereticular anxiety respecting inatters of fore, their conduct towards him was religion ; but because they knew, full nothing more than might have been well, that in paying a little attention expected. I believe the Georgia Neto these things, they should be exposed groes would never have attended me to far less bodily labour than would in the manner they did, had it not fall to their share, were they to remain been for the alternative which was in the tield under the scorching rays placed before them. They are all of a tropical sun. In this manner my excessively fond of novelty, but totally sable audience was collected; and, Í destitute of perseverance where they roubt not, that it might have been are not urged on by “fear and force, kept up, on similar principles, for any and consequently nothing regular can length of time, had such a measure be expected from them, for any length been deemed desirable. It is true, of time, when compliance depends that on most, if not on every occasion, entirely on their own will. The fact a few individuals were found guilty of is, they are mere babes in understandabsenting themselves, who ought to ing, quite ignorant of the importance have attended. Yet this evil never exist- of knowledge to a rational being, and ed to any very great extent; and, inost seem, without any exception, to take probably, it would never have been it for certain, that the whole of Chrisheard of at all, had we adhered with tianity is mprised in the ceremony perfect strictness to the plan on which of baptism. we professed to act ; but we were

After this it will, perhaps, be asked, fearful of pressing the matter too far, what good could a mere preacher and particularly anxious to leave as expect to result from his exertions much to the will of the Negroes as the amongst such a people as the negroenature of the case could be imagined slaves ? To which I reply, not so to admit of. Yet I now acknowledge, on

much as he would naturally wish, and looking back upon the business, that most probably promise himself; yet, I think we should have done better under proper patronage, he would be had ve been more particular in putting able to accomplish something. But the laws in force against those indivi- as things now are, nothing is achievduals by whom they were too fre- ed.* quently violated.

At the same time, I must distinctly maintain, that our

I allude to the condition of the experience abundantly proved the pos- slaves on sugar estates in general. sibility of raising and keeping up a the properties of several gentlenen, encongregation amongst the slaves with- deavours have long been, and are still, out the aid of the lash. And this we making for the religious improvement of always regarded as a point of some the slaves, but, I am fearful, with but importance, because it seems clearly trifling success. The Moravian brethren, to remove a common and a very plau- whom scarcely any difficulties can dissible objection to the moral reforma- courage, still continue to sow the seed in mation of these degradeil, unhappy hope, on the sterile soil of Jamaica. And people; viz. that nothing short of

I was informed by one of their missionameans which all object to, would ever

ries, who has spent many years in the be found susficiently eficacious to in- in this island is now in a flourishing con

West Indies, that one of their settlements duce them to attend, with proper dition. The brethren have long been punctuality, the lectures of a religious tried in Jamaica, and they seem to have instructor. The experiment, it was gained the respect of all parties.

On

My plan was, when I met them in foundations of the existing order of the boiling-house, to read a short por- things. I taught the children to read, tion of Scripture, and to inake such and treated them in all respects like remarks upon it, as appeared to me rational beings; whereas the govern. to be calculated to strike the minds ment under which they are doomed and suit the circumstances of my to live and move, contemplates them hearers. And they generally listen in the light of more animals. I think with apparent atiention, during the I may assert, without fear of contrawhole of the discourse. The service diction, that to hold a people in slaalways commenced and conclusieci with very, it is necessary to keep them in prayer. We had no singing ; that ignorance. The Negrocs feel, but they being a part of worship we could not do not see their chains, and therefore engage in for want of singing abilities. it is that they are contented to drag A few white people would frequently them. Let them once be enabled to take a seat with the rest, and I have read for themselves the sublime truth, sumetimes flattered myself that our

that God hath made of one blood meeting together was not wholly in all nations of men for lo duell on all vain. The Negroes always dressed the face of the earth,” and is it conthemselves for the occasion: not in ceivable that, with such views of hufinery, but in decent, clean apparel. Dan nature, they should be contentca This, however, I am aware, many of to regard themselves as the lawful them would not have done had l not property of the whites? insisted

upon it in the most particular But I am treading on tender ground, wanner. To say the least, their bodies and will, therefore, drop the subject were refreshed, and it was pleasing to for the present. see them drawn off from the toils of

T. COOPER the day, and join in the worship of the common Parent of our race. But Springfield, Clarke County, Ohio, such is the difficulty of getting the

Feb. 20, 1822. crop off a sugar estate in Jainaica, REY. AND DEAR SIR, that it is found to be impossible to I

MAKE no apology for addressing allow them any opportunities of this you from this remote part of the kind during six months in the year, world, because I know that any letter, without putting the whole concern to the subject of which is connected with very great inconvenience. The ques. the religious improvements of the hution is, whether the good which might man mind, will not be considered by be obtained would be equal to the you as unworthy of notice or perusal. cxpense and hazard of the undertaking. After a variety of changes and triais I think not, unless the people could I may, perhaps, consider myself as have the afternoon in as well as out of permanently settled, if any settlement crop : in other words, unless the crop inay be called permanent in this uncould be made to give way to religion, certain and precarious tenure of exand not religion to the crop. Besides, istence. I have, therefore, considered it cannot, surely, be expected that any it my duty to pay some attention to Christian minister would consent to what was passing about me, in and consune liis time amongst a people to among the various religions sects whom he should have not more than which prevail in this improving State twelve opportunities of preaching in a“ of the Union; and whenever I take a year. He would, no doubt, at times view of the deplorable ignorance which find a few other occasions of useful. pervades every class of professing ness ; such as burying the dead, visit- Christians in this country, I take ing the sick, and holding conversations shame to myself for the little value I with the Negroes in private, and in set upon my former great privileges endeavouring to instruct the young. in connexion with what I believe the To the latter class I devoted a consi. most enlightened societies of profesderable portion of my time during a sing Christians upon carth. Sir, part of the period I passed in Jamaica; these privileges, to be duly appreand I should never have relaxed myciated, must be lost, at least for a cxertions with the young, had I not time ; for I do believe that the great clearly perceived that my plans of mass of the Unitarian public do not proceeding went directly io sap the sufficiently estimate the real, tix ines

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