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ment of seamen, and to urge the neces. of their assessments, and upon rating sity of a treaty with the maritime powers the parsons to the full amount of their of Europe for allowing the reciprocal tithes, as well where they are compounded right of search, under certain modifica. for as when taken in kind. Let the tions, with a view to prevent the fraudu- farmers generally adopt this plan, and leut exercise of the accursed traffic. The they will not only obtain immediate and committee allege that the horrid trade considerable relief, but, in a few months, has been chiefly carried on of late under they will see the clergy as clamorous for the French flag, though they seem willing Reform as the most devoted radical; for to allow that Frenchmen may not be nothing short of Reform, any alteration privy to the guilt. There are, no doubt, in the law being wholly out of the quesin all countries wretches whom the lust tion, can now prevent the tithes from of gold will draw into any crimes how- being wholly swallowed up in Poor Rates. ever monstrous. All the world exclaims The above principle was acknowledged, against the characters of such monsters ; in its full extent, a short time since in but will they not abound of necessity, the Court of King's Bench : Mr. Justice while bloodshedding under the name of Holroyd having expressly declared, that war is accounted honourable, and rob- rate on land is, in effect, a rate on bery on the high seas justifiable ? the profits on land ; for, where there are

no profits, there is no beneficial occupaTithes chargeable with Poor's Rates. tion.

At the last Norfolk Quarter Sessions, held at Norwich, on Wednesday the 17th

PARLIAMENTARY. of April, the Court came to a most im.

House of COMMONS, APRIL 30. portant decision on the Poor Laws, on Admission of Catholic Peers to the an appeal by the Rev. Dr. Bulwer, Rec

House of Lords. tor of Cawston, against the Poor Rates MR. CANNING brought forward his mofor that parish. The Doctor had been tion for allowing Catholic Peers to sit in rated at 5501. for his tithes, against the Upper House. His speech was elewhich he appealed, upon the ground quent and impressive ; but the less intethat it exceeded a fourth of the assess- resting as it proceeded on narrow grounds ment upon the titheable property in the of policy rather than enlarged principles parish, which he contended was the pro- of freedom. The principal antagonist of portion, at which tithes should be as the measure was Mr. PEEL, who vindisessed to the Poor Rate. The Court cated the intolerant side of the question dismissed the appeal, being unanimously with great gravity, little reason and not of opinion, that there was no rule in law more bigotry than his argument absofor allixing a proportional assessment on lutely required. The motion in favour of tithes compared with land, and that the the Catholic Peers was carried by a maonly principle was, to assess all real pro- jority of four. The Bill thus brought in, perty according to the productive value was read a second time, May 10th, when or profit which it yielded. This determi- another division took place, the majority nation is important, as it recoguizes a in behalf of the measure being now inprinciple, the general application of which, creased to twelve. On the third reading, at the present time, will necessarily be May 17th, the Bill was allowed to pass attended with the most serious results, the Commous without a division. It both to the farmer and the clergy; upon will now go to the House of Lords, where the latter of whom the chief burden of its reception will depend upon the temper the poor will now, as in former times, be of the Court. We fear ihat it will be thrown. According to this principle it is thrown out. evident that, at present prices, the as. sessment upon land ought to be merely Various petitions have been presented to nomipal, and that the tithes should be both Houses by the Unitarians throughassessed to their full amount, it being out the country, praying for relief from notorious that no profit whatever is now the Marriage Service, as far as it implies afforded from land in general, and that Trinitarian worship. One counter petiwhich the landlord receives in the nanie tion was presented to the House of Coniof rent, is, in fact, a payment out of the mons, May 17th, by Sir Wm. Lemox, farmer's capital; while tithes, heing taken from several Clergymen in the neighbourclear of taxes and all other expeuses hood of Bodmin, in Cornwall,“ praying attending the raising of the crop, are that no alteration might be made in the nearly all profit. This decision has, we Marriage Act in favour of Unitarian Disunderstand, excited a great sensation in senters." Sir William bad previously Norfolk, and the farmers, in many places, presented an Unitariau petition from Falhave already insisted upon a reduction mouth.

Monthly Repository.

No. CXCVIII.)

JUNE, 1822.

(Vol. XVII.

ITALIAN REPORMATION.
Select Memoirs of Italian Protestant Confessors.

No. I.

Galeazzo Caraccioli, Marquis of Vico.* GALEA VALEAZZO CARACCIOLI, desso * was endeavouring to dissemi

whose name stands connected nate at Naples the principles of the with the history of the Reformation in Reformation, and it must be conItaly and in Switzerland, was born at fessed, that, basking as he then was Naples in Jan. 1517. He was descended in the sun-shine of the royal favour, from an ancient and honourable family, already possessed of noble rank and who held large territorial possessions ample revenues, and having the fairest in the vicinity of Capua. His father, prospects of Court promotion to graCalantonio Caraccioli, had distinguish- tify his youthful ambition, nothing ed himself in the service of the Em- could be thought more unlikely than peror Charles V., who, in testimony his secession to the unpopular cause of his friendship and confidence, had of the Reformers; and his congercreated him Marquis of Vico, and sion must be regarded as a singular associated him with the Viceroy in the triumph of integrity over every consigovernment of his Italian dominions. deration of worldly interest and fame. On his mother's side he was connected The change in his religious sentiby blood with the family of Caraffi, ments is said to have been effected, in which gave a Pontiff to the See of the first instance, through the instruRome. At the age of twenty, the mentality of John Francis Caserta, a young Caraccioli formed an alliance near relation of his, and one of Valwith another of the noble houses of desso's earliest disciples. + Having Italy by marrying Victoria, the daugh- himself warmly embraced the reformter of the Duke of Nuceria, with whom ed doctrine, Caserta availed himself he received a munificent portion. The of the opportunities afforded him by influence of his father had obtained their frequent and familiar intercourse, for him an honourable appointment to explain and recommend them to at Court, where his superior mental his young friend. His first endeavours endowments, his personal accomplish- in this way do not appear to have ments, his elegant and engaging man. been followed by the desired success; ners, rendered him a general favourite, but he so far prevailed as to induce and recommended him to the especial Galeazzo to accompany him to hear esteem of the Emperor.

the lectures which Peter Martyr was Such were the circumstances in then delivering to a select audience on which he stood at the time when Val- the first Epistle of Paul to the Corin

thians. To the observations of the

lecturer he listened with the deepest • The Life of Galeazzo Caraccioli was attention. They struck him equally written in Italian by Nicholas Balbini, by their novelty and their impressive minister of the Italian Church at Geneva. force; they awakened within him a This was afterwards translated into Latin spirit of religious inquiry; and deterby Beza, and subsequently, "for the be- mined him to satisfy his own mind by nefit of our people, put into English" by a careful perusal of the Scriptures, William Crawshay, and published under the following title : “ The Italian Coovert; News from Italy of a Second • See Monthly Repository, Vol. XVII. Moses; or, the Life of Galeacius Carac. p. 3. ciolus, the Noble Marquis of Vico," &c. + Caserta afterwards suffered death at &c. From this work the chief facts of Naples, on account of his Protestant the following Memoir have been taken. principles. VOL. XVII.

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which he now learnt to regard as the all hands by the affectionate importu-
only fountain of religious truth. After nities of the friends whom he most
devoting himself for some time to this
employment, he arose from his self-
imposed task, convinced of the error

mon people, colouring them over with of his former creed, and of the truth ing Galeacius not fully settled as yet in

glorious shows. These fellows perceivof the system of faith which Martyr religion, nor yet sufficiently grounded in was promulgating. His conversion is the Scripture, tryed all means they could assigned to the year 1541, which was

to entangle him in their errors and blasthe twenty-fourth of his age.

phemous fancies; wherein the mighty The gaining over such a proselyte work of God was admirable toward him, was naturally a source of high gratifi- for he being a youth, a gentleman, but a cation to the friends of the Reforina- mean scholar, and little studied, and but tion, who were forward to offer him lately entered into the school of Chris. their congratulations on the occasion. tian religion, who would have thought But the event was regarded with very that ever he could have resisted and different feelings by his own immediate escaped the snares of those heretics, many connexions; and they spared no pains lars, and throughly studied in the Scrip

of them being great aud grounded schoto induce him to retrace his steps. ture? Notwithstanding, by the sincere His father viewed the proceeding with simplicity and plainness of God's truth, peculiar regret and alarm. He anti- and the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, cipated from it the alienation and loss he not only descried the fondness of their of a son, through whom he had hoped heresies, but even untied the knots, and that the honours of his house would brake their nets and delivered himself, pass to a long posterity; and he was and mightily confuted them; yea, such justly apprehensive that the Emperor, was the working of God, as being somewhen apprised of the circumstance, time in their meetings, he was strongly would be incensed, and be likely to confirmed in the doctrine of the truth by give vent to his displeasure in some God's mercy, he escaped, and was con

seeing and hearing them. Thus, by act of vengeance upon the unoffending

queror in this fight. branches of the family. The young “ But the devil had not so done with Marchioness, also, who was tenderly him, for another more dangerous battel attached to her husband, and who had presently followed. The Waldesians, of borne him six children, viewed his whom we spake before,” (when mentionconversion with the most painful sen- ing the first conversion of Caraccioli,) sations. She felt she could not quit “ were at that time in Naples in good the religion in which she had been number. With them did Galcacius daily educated, and by such a step share the converse, their courses of life and study lot of her husband ; and the thought Waldesius knew as yet no more in reli

These disciples of of losing him was insupportable agony. These circumstances operated misliked and eschewed some abuses of

gion but the point of justification, and as a severe trial to the young Carac. Popery, and nevertheless still frequented cioli,* who found himself assailed on Popish Churches, heard masses, and were

present ordinarily at vile idolatries. Ga

leacius for a time conversed with these * The writer of the Life of Caraccioli men, and followed their way; which piously ascribes this and the other trials course doubtless would have spoiled him, to which the constancy of the young con as it did a great sort of them; who vert was exposed, to the machinations of afterward being taken and committed the devil. He ascribes to this powerful for the truth, were easily brought to reagent some trials which are not noticed cant their religion, because they wanted in the text, but which I shall bere insert the chief and the most excellent points, in the words of the English translation, nor were not sufficiently setled ; and yet

“But above all these," (he is speaking afterward again, not daring to forsake of the temptations arising from the soli- their hold in justification, and therefore citations of his family,) “Satan had one coming to it again, were taken as reassault strongest of all, whereby he at- lapsers and backsliders, and put to extempted to seduce him from the true and tream torments and cruel death. In the sincere religion of God. About that time like danger had Galeacius been, but that the realm of Naples was sore pestered the good providence of God otherwise with Arians and Anabaptists, who daily disposed and better provided for him,"broched their heresies amongst the com- that is, by sending him into Germany to

4

loved, to abandon a faith which he had to represent to him the calamitous newly embraced under an imperative consequences to which his conduct sense of duty. The difficulties and was likely to lead, and the affliction in the dangers of his situation presented which he had planged his wife and themselves at once to his mind in their children. But though the young Marutinost force. He clearly saw that quis received his friend with great whilst he remained in the bosom of kindness, none of the arguments he his family he should be exposed to advanced, powerfully as they might strong temptations to give up a pro- have affected his feelings, could in the fession which he observed to be to least shake his determination to rethem the occasion of so much grief. main where he was. There appeared to him to be but one Shortly after the return of this mescourse which he could safely follow, senger, a royal edict was published, in it was to sever himself from the ob- which Galeazzo was denounced as a jects of his affection, and go into vo- traitor, the property which he had luntary exile. When he had resolved inherited from his mother, declared to upon this step he communicated his be confiscated, and himself and his intention to a few confidential friends, children proclaimed incapable of sucwho had joined the Reformed party, ceeding to the family honours and and obtained their promise to accom- possessions. pany him; but when the time fixed The cxtremities to which measures for their departure arrived, their cou were carried by this severe instrument rage failed, and they broke their en- induced the old Marquis to renew his gagement. Nothing dauated by this endeavours to bring him back to the disappointment, he collected some Roman Church. Having resolved property, which he had inherited from upon a journey into Germany to petihis mother, and quitted Naples in tion in person for the revocation, or March, 1551. In order the better to for some modification of the sentence, conceal his real purpose, he went, in he wrote to his son to meet him at the first place, as he had been accus- Verona, transmitting to him at the tomed to do, into Germany, and joined same time safe conduct to relieve the Emperor's Court at Augsburg, him from all apprehensions of being where he remained till the middle of forcibly detained in the territories of May. He then took his leave, under Venice. Galeazzo augured no good pretence of going into the Low Coun- from this interview. He deterinined, tries, but pursued the route of Geneva, however, to comply with his father's where he arrived in safety on the 8th injunctions, and to proceed to the of June following:

place he had appointed. The conWhen the intelligence reached Na- ference which followed ended by leavples that he had taken up his residence ing the parties just where they were at among the Reformers in Switzerland, its commencement. Galeazzo would his family were filled with astonish- immediately have taken his departure, ment and dismay. His father instantly but his father prevailed upon him to dispatched to Geneva a near relation remain at Verona till he should return.

When he came back he informned him

that he had succeeded with the Emattend the emperor's court. See “ The peror so far as to obtain the remission Italian Convert,” &c., pp. 28—30, it is ob- of that part of the sentence which reservable that the Author, in the above lated to Galeazzo's children, and the passage, distinguishes between the Ariaus appointinent of his eldest son to be and Anabaptists, and the Waldesians, as the heir to the family titles and estates. he calls them, or the disciples of Val Galeazzo now returned to Geneva, desso. He seems to exonerate the latter but he had scarcely reached the city from the Arian heresy, and confines him- when a fresh atteinpt was made to self to the reprobation of their temporising policy in endeavouriug to keep upon and the Reformers. The recent ele

prevail upon him to quit Switzerland good terms with their Popish neighbours, vation to the Papal throne of Paul the and with the church by occasional conformity; that is, by countepancing, by Fourth, who was his mother's brother, their presence, the faith and worship of having opened to the family new proa church which in their conscience they spects of aggrandisement and political believed to be false and idolatrous. influence, his father thought that a

favourable opportunity presented itself after he had arrived in Dalmatia, he to weaken or destroy his attachment took the resolution to pass over, at to his Protestant principles. Under all hazards, into Italy, and meet her this impression, he invited him to a at his father's mansion. Here a most friendly conference at Mantua. Ob- affecting interview followed. His serving, however, as he had before father, his wife and his children urged experienced, that his son was still in- every topic which affection could sugflexible on this point, he endeavoured gest or enforce, to persuade him to to shape for him a middle course, and remain amongst them; whilst he, on to persuade himn to remove his resi- the other hand, with equal earnest. dence to some place within the Vene- ness and feeling, laboured to prevail tian territories, where he might be upon his wife to become his compajoined by his domestic circle ; and, as nion in his self-banishment. But on an additional inducement, he inforned both sides religious considerations inhim, that he had obtained from the terposed an insurmountable barrier Pope a dispensation securing to him against either proposal. Galeazzo full liberty of conscience in the main- could not sacrifice his principles to tainance of his belief. To this pro- his affections; and the Marchiones, posal, apparently so fair and reasona- preparatory to the interview, had been ble, and so powerfully recommended effectually steeled against every sugby the prospect of enjoying the society gestion of conjugal love by the arguof his wife and children, he felt at first ments of her confessor, who had perdisposed to accede. But apprehend- suaded her to consider her eternal saling, on reflection, that by acting upon vation as depending on her refusal to it he should place himself in a situa- become the companion of her husband tion of danger, in which he would be among the enemies of her faith. All exposed to temptations to apostatize solicitations and remonstrances appearfrom his adopted religion, he finally ing thus to be vain, and no further resolved to decline it.

prospect of accommodation remainThe failure of these repeated at- ing, he bade the inan affectionate and tempts, which were, no doubt, prompt- final farewell, and quitted his natire ed principally by the affection of his land for ever. relations, did not wholly discourage After the lapse of some years, his them, or leave them without some want of domestic comforts suggested hope of ultimate success. It was now to Caraccioli the thought of contractdetermined to try another course, and ing a second marriage. It seemed to that his wife should, by a personal him that the adherence of his wife to interview, endeavour to effect what a religion which he deemed false and his father had been unable to accom- idolatrous, after repeated endeavours plish. At her solicitation he consent- to withdraw her from it, and her peed to meet her at a town on the Dal- remptory refusal to live with him matian coast, to which she could easily where alone he could conscientiously cross over from his father's estates at reside, had, in effect, annulled their Vico. After he had reached his desti- marriage contract. Upon this diffination, some circumstances prevented cult and delicate subject he applied to the Marchioness froin undertaking the his friend Calvin for his opinion and voyage, and she sent her two sons to counsel. Though Calvin did not obaccount for her absence. Galeazzo ject to his marrying upon the ground immediately returned to Geneva, where of the illegality of such a measure, however he had scarcely arrived, when yet he endeavoured to dissuade him he received a second request to repair from it by considerations of prudence to the same place, accompanied by and policy; representing to him that assurances from his wife that nothing he might thereby occasion some scanshould prevent her meeting him. He dal, and give some offence to the was the more disposed to assent to church. As, however, these objecthis proposal, by the hope that he tions did not satisfy Caraccioli, Calvin might be able to prevail with the Mar- recommended him to submit the ques. chioness, if not to change her religion, tion to the consideration of the Swiss at least to consent to remove with her ministers. This he accordingly did, children to Switzerland. Some ob. and received from them an unanimous stacles having delayed her voyage, decision in his favour. On the ground

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