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of this jailginent he afterwards obtain moments the most consolatory and ed from the Srviss law courts, a formal animating support from the review of sentence of divorcé, abrogating his the honourable part he had acted in marriage with the Marchioness Vic- giving up all for the sake of truth and toria. The legal impediment being a good conscience. thus removed, he united himself, in
R. S. 1560, to a widow lady from Rouen, in France, who had removed to Switzer SIR, land on account of her religion. Caraccioli, after his settlement at
readers of the Repository, the Geneva, became the active supporter death of that very amiable and estiof the Protestant cause ainong his mable man, Mr. Butcher. To certain own countrymen, who, like himself, queries which, some months past, he had sought an asylum in Switzerland. proposed respecting the Book of Job, He assisted in the establishment and [Mon. Repos. XVII. 10, 11,] I insuperintendance of the Italian churches tended to return an immediate answer : which were formed for their use, and, and I perused it at the time for that after some time, accepted in one of purpose, divesting myself as much as them the office of elder. The sacri- possible of all regard to modern theofices which he had made to the dictates ries, and considering the work as conof his conscience created for him, in nected with the early history of the the breast of every Protestant, a feel- Jews as the most likely way of discoing of respect approaching to venera- vering its nature and object. A veil tion; whilst his upright and exemplary of obscurity has assuredly hung for demeanour in private life won for him ages over that sublime composition; the affection and friendship of his first to say will pave the way to restorian's
of all with and I flatter myself that what I have whom he associated. arrival at Geneva, he contracted an to its original lustre. The Egyptians intimate friendship with Calvin, which appear ever to have maintained that continued uninterrupted till the time the God of the Jews was an evil Being, of the death of that eminent Reformer; and they could not fail to point to the who has transmitted to posterity an condition of that people, while yet deadditional proof of his esteem for Ca- graded in Egypt, as proving that he raccioli, in the dedication to him of a delighted in the sufferings of bis votanew edition of his Commentary on the ries. The argument was as specious first Epistle to the Corinthians.* as it was malignant: nor were the
The last years of Caraccioli's life taunts and reproaches of open enemies were greatly embittered by a painful the only circumstance which embitasthmatic disorder, which at length tered the distresses of the Israelites. overpowered his declining strength, Their afflictions were rendered still and terminated in his death. He bore more bitter by the imputations of perhis sufferings with exemplary patience sons who at heart were their friends. and resignation, deriving in his dying in the ages succeeding the flood, the
Heathens, descending from Noah in Calvin had dedicated the first edition
common with the Jews, had the same to James of Burgundy, Lord of Fallaix, means to know and the same grounds who had professed the Protestant religion for believing in, the one true God : for several years, but who, disgusted by and we may reasonably conclude that the disputes between Calvin and Bolsec, numbers in every country, even in Caafterwards quitted the Reformers. In naan and Egypt, though the majority. the dedication to Caraccioli, Calvin speaks were plunged in superstition and idowith apparent regret, but with no small latry, still retained the doctrine and measure of self-complacency, of the neces- worship of their illustrious founder. sity under which he felt himself of blot- These Pagan Unitarians, as I may call ting out of his Epistle Dedicatory the them, must have regarded the Patriname which he had first inserted. “I lament,” he says, “ that the man has archs with veneration, and could not thrown himself down from that seat of fail to look with sympathy and regret fane wherein I have placed him, namely, on the unhappy fate of their descenin the forefront of my book ; where my dants in Egypt. But in spite of their desire was he should have stood, thereby sympathy, they were led, by the preto have been made famous to the world.” judice of education, to entertain very
erroneous notions as to the real cause enslaved lie together in tranquillity, of their sufferings. They knew that nor do they hear the voice of the task Jehovah was all-good and all-powerful. master. The small and the great are No supposition was, therefore, left there, and the slave is emancipated to account for the degradation of his from the tyrant.” followers, but that they had, by a 2. The command which the king of course of sin, forfeited his favour and Egypt gave to destroy the male chilprotection.
dren, is thus alluded to: “Perish the This being the previous state of day in which I was born, and the night things, I proceed to shew that Moses in which it is said, A male child is is the author of the Book of Job, that brought forth.” They were concealed while yet in the court of Pharoah, or in order to be preserved; and God at least before the deliverance of the raised a hedge around them by makIsraelites, he composed this sublime ing the midwives appointed to destroy drama against the enemies of the Jews them, the means of preserving them. on one hand, and their mistaken friends To this there seems a manifest referon the other ; representing, with this ence in verse 6, “To the male child view, the Egyptians under the charac- whose path is hidden,” (i. e. whose ter of Satan, the immediate author of birth was concealed before it could be their calainities; the sufferers under saved,) "and around whom God hath the name of Job: while he represents made a fence.” the friends who consoled and com 3. Pharaoh ordered the male chilforted him in the person of Eliphaz, of dren to be thrown into the Nile, a prey Bildad and of Zophar. If we consider to the crocodile : the principal agents the prosperity of the Israelites as the in this work of cruelty and wickedness descendants of Abraham, and more were probably the sorcerers and the especially as the family of Joseph, priests, who, by a settled form, cursed their subsequent degradation and their the new-born babe when devoting him final deliverance, we shall perceive in to destruction.
Hence Job says, the outlines an exact correspondence “Let the sorcerers curse the day,” with the history of Job, and parts of (that is, the day in which the infant is the book afford unequivocal evidence born,) “ and the most ready to call that his sufferings are only a figura- up the crocodile," i. e., to attract it tive representation of the hardships to seize its prey when thrown into the which the children of Israel endured river. in Egypt.
4. The midwives were directed to A very brief but important account inspect the troughs, i. e., the excaof the manner in which the children vated stones in which it was usual to of Israel were treated, is given in the wash the new-born infant, where he first chapter of Exodus; and the na- might be stifled if a male. To this tural feelings of the human heart, in characteristic circumstance, Job pointsuch circumstances, are powerfully edly alludes, verse 7, “Let that night and pathetically portrayed in the be a barren stone, and let there be no third of Job. The common version is rejoicing in it,” which means this, so imperfect, that the sentiments are “Let the stone which is used that either entirely misrepresented or much night for a trough to wash the babe, weakened : I will, therefore, point out be made the means of destroying him; a few of the instances in which the and let the mother, instead of having contents of the two chapters refer to a son the fruit of her womb, have a and illustrate each other, giving what fruitless stone, and thus instead of I think a inore correct translation of rejoicing over the birth of a child, she the original.
should have to mourn over its prema1. We read that the Egyptians made ture death." In order to comprehend the children of Israel serve with ri. the point of this apparently harsh exgour, and they made their lives bitter pression, it is necessary to mention a with hard bondage, having set over circunstauce existing in Hebrew and them task-masters for this purpose. Arabic, which is, that ben, a son, and Now read the following language of aben, a stone, are terms of the same Job, (iii. 17,) “There the oppressors origin, and may be used one for the cease to harass; there they whose other; this affinity between the two strength is exhaused find repose; the nouns is the foundation of the follow
ing adage in Arabic : “I set my heart than by the influence which early upon my son, while he sets his heart associations of ideas possess on the upon a stone" (that is, upon fruitless human mind at distant periods of its pleasures, or upon his own son). It existence. A strong impression made is remarkable that the same corre- in youth, though lying dormant for spondence exists in Greek, between years, and apparently obliterated by a 1365, a people, and hans, a stone, and succession of new thoughts, or lost it is certain that our Lord alludes to amidst the multiplicity of more recent the same point of resemblance when acquisitions, often unexpectedly rehe says, that “God is able of these curs with original force. Some kinstones to raise up sons unto Abra- dred sensation, with which it was priham,” pointing to the Publicans and marily linked, some assimilation of other Gentiles who were present on place or circumstance arises, and inthe occasion.
stantaneously brings back a whole 5. Finally, Job alludes to the well- train of images and feelings into priknown pyramids, or tombs of the an, mitive energy. The maxim of the cient kings of Egypt : “For then I wisest of men, “ Train up a child in should lie down and be still ; I should the way he should go, and when he sleep and find repose with kings and is old he will not depart from it,” is rulers of the earth, who build for founded upon the true philosophy of theinselves lonely sepulchres, or with human nature. princes, who fill their long home with I have been led to these reflections silver and gold.” Mark the declara- by attempting to account for the late tion here made. Job says, that if he fuctuations in my religious opinions. had died young he would have been In a paper, addressed to you, dated buried in the same tomb with the 15th January, 1820, but concerning Egyptian kings. If Moses were the which I am yet ignorant whether it author of this book, it would have been reached you, or if it has obtained natural that, when delineating the cha- publicity, * I acknowledged myself racter of his suffering brethren, he the advocate of a mitigated kind of should insensibly mix with it some Calvinism. As I did not then retraits peculiar to himself. He was nounce the right of thinking for mybrought up as one of the royal family self, and gave some evidence that, of Pharoah, and, unquestionably, had however shackled by educational ina premature death been his fate, he fluence, I still exercised it in some would have been honoured with the degree; I must now inform you, that same grave.
the continued exercise of that birthSome of the pyramids might have right has convinced me that I have existed long before the days of Mo- been preferring error to truth, and ses, and men might even then be had become entangled again with the anxious to dig into and explore their yoke of bondage. I should not preinterior with the hope of finding trea sume to obtrude such circumstances sures. This spirit in every age seems upon public attention, but that there to have actnated the people of Egypt appears a kind of necessity imposed and the foreigners who visited that upon me of doing so. Having, from country, and whoever has read Mr. conscientious motives, stated my senBelzoni's Travels, will be strongly im- timents on important points of Chrispressed with the sentiments contained tian doctrine, it seemed to be my duty in the following verse (21): "Who gaped publicly to recede from these opinions for death where it exists not; who dig when I no longer considered them to for it more than for hidden riches, be true; and all will now agree with who are glad and rejoice even to ex me, that, when this temporary illusion ultation if they find a sepulchre.” has been dispelled, it would be the
BÈN DAVID. height of disingenuousness not to con(To be continued.)
fess my error and retract those pre
mature concessions. I shall sincerely Colombo, Ceylon, SIR, September 11, 1821.
* Mr. Harwood's letter, to which he VE importance of education can here alludes, was inserted in our XVth
regret if I have thrown any obstruc- bow implicitly to its dictates. I will reject tion in the way of inquirers after truth, no doctrine on any other groud than and feel from thence an increased that it is not to be found in the Holy obligation to declare unreservedly
my Scriptures, and earnestly desire that every renewed devotion to Unitarian princi- the obedience of Christ.
thought may be brought into captivity to ples. Amidst the errors, misconcep The doctrine of the Trinity, as it is tions and frailties of our present state, pot expressly taught in any part of the it is consolatory to reflect that an infi- sacred volume, so also, it appears to me, nitely wise and benevolent Being pre- is not a necessary inference from any sides over all, who will produce good thing that is clearly asserted; and that from evil, and that, however irrational, which is neither an explicit statement contradictory and weak our conduct nor an unavoidable deduction of Revelamay be,“ we can,” eventually, “ do tion, cannot be obligatory on our faith. nothing against the truth, but for the Upon reviewing what I before wrote, truth."
I do not find that I have much to retract Conceiving it to be due to the inte. except on this point. I was chiefly inrests of religious truth, as well as to distinction of persons in the Godhead, by
fuenced to assent to the doctrine of a the vindication of my own character, applying the term “ Word” in the intro
former letter was made public duction of John's Gospel, immediately to that it should be counteracted through the person of Jesus Christ; whereas I the same medium, I transmit you am convinced now it is a personification herewith an extract from a letter ad- of the wisdom and power of God, by dressed by me to a Baptist Missionary which he created all things, imparted stationed in this island.
existence and intelligence to man, comDANIEL HARWOOD. municated his will at sundry times and
in divers manners, and dwelt with all his Kandi, May 23, 1821. fulness bodily in Jesus. All the expres1 .... wish that I had possessed a sions which are considered as teaching or degree of prudence which might implying the deity of Christ, may, I think, have preserved me from forming such a be referred to this indwelling Word, precipitate judgment, and prevented the without violating the uni-personality of necessity which I have long considered the One God. The title “Son of God" inevitable, of retracing my steps, and is not eqnivalent to God, but is synony. again claiming the name of Antitrinita- mous to Messiah ; as is that of Holy rian.
Ghost to Divine Spirit, which seems, If I have deceived you, it was not until therefore, to be only an appellation disI had first deceived myself. I have never tinctive of the exertion of supernatural attempted to conceal my doubts, and I influence. wish not for a moment to retain the The Trinitarian doctrine does not even character of orthodox after I cease in seem to be essential to the Calvinistic popular estimation to be entitled to it. scheme. I do not see wherein the hypoI have always felt it my duty boldly to thesis I have just stated derogates from avow what appeared to me to be truth. the dignity of the Mediator; or why the From the same motive I have at different indwelling of the Deity, equally with the times professed myself an Unitarian and union of one person of the Trinity, should a Calvinist, and from a regard to truth, not capacitate him for offering an efficaand a conviction of duty, I now again cious atonement for sin. I can still, disclaim being considered as a Trinita- therefore, maintain the same great and rian. I trust that I am, as you say, “not glorious ends to be answered by the only a sincere but a humble inquirer after death of Christ as I did before. But I truth.”. By a humble inquirer after truth, perceive a fallacy in the argument on I conclude you intend one disposed to which I founded the necessity of an submit to the authority of revelation. atonement, and of its being offered by a Unitarians are frequently charged with Mediator of infinite dignity. God is infisetting Reason in opposition to Revela. nitely worthy of our love, and if we were tion, and with rejecting every thing which capable of giving him all that he is worthy does not harmonize with their own pre- to receive, it would be an infinite fault to conceptions. With the truth or false- fail in that love; but being finite creahood of this imputation I have nothing tures, he does not claim to be lored by to do at present, farther than to disavow us infinitely but supremely, and our fault any such intention myself. I will rest in withholding from him that love which only upon universally-admitted principles, is his due, though of supreme magnitude confine Reason to the province of ascer or the highest that our natures are capataining what Revelation teaches, and ble of, still falls short of infinitude. All
the deductions, therefore, which I made Brief Notes on the Bible.
No. XIX. is impossible we can perform an infinite “ As in Adain all die, even so in Christ duty, sin cannot be an infinite eril, de shall all be made alive; but cvery serve an infinite punishment, require an man in his own order."-1 Cor. xv. atonement of infinite value, or a Media
22, 23. tor of infinite dignity. The great point that has always been urged in support
T is customary with Christian diof the personal deity of Jesus Christ, is the necessity that exists that it should be ject of a resurrection, to assume that so in order to his making atonement for the whole human race is to be rcanisin; but if there is no such necessity, the mated en masse, but that, however inference is obvious. I admit that his many ages individuals may have slept, death answered all the public ends which they will be unconscious of any interare ascribed to it in the moderate Cal- val' between their deaths and their vinistic scheme; that, as the representa- springing at once and together into tive of mankind, he offered a satisfaction renovated life. to public justice; that it was the same It deserves consideration whether in nature, though superior in degree, to this notion be quite unimpeachable. the sacrificial institutions of the Mosaic dispensation ; being a symbolical and vi
Though the sleep of death be so carial representation of the consequences profound, that, on awakening from it, and desert of sin, and calculated to excite
however protracted, it may, appear and promote repentance and faith. At like an instantaneous transition from the same time, I will not deny, that I one state of existence to another; yet think repentance conveys all the ideas of the idea of remaining torpid, say for a individual atonement which God requires few thousand years,till the day appointof man. It implies an acknowledgmented for a general resurrection, is a very that the divine law is holy, just and cheerless and chilling one to a virtuous good : that our lives are forfeited to mind, consoling as it may be to men Divine justice; that punishment is our of an opposite character. equitable portion ; and that in future we desire to honour the great Lawgiver, by to weaken the stimulus to virtue, and
May it not have a twofold tendency, a course of exemplary obedience. those only who thus vindicate the law of subdue the fear of retribution in the God and make it honourable, will be par
minds of the vicious ? doned, while the impenitent will be
That the final consummation of this
punished, the honour of the Lawgiver is world's affairs is awfully distant, may maintained and magnified, and every be rationally inferred from a retro. purpose which the common doctrine of spect of its eventful history, its preAtonement proposes is accomplished. sent state, and the mighty events and
I see sufficient reason for doubting purposes still to be accomplished. the validity of the principle on which Mr.
The world has been nearly 6000 Fuller's View of the Systems is founded; years in arriving, by slow and interand as all the grounds on which my rupted pace, at its present imperfect former change of sentimeuts principally state of civilization. Christianity has rested, have vanished, it is nothing sur- effected much good, but how much prising to find the system built thereon, “sink like the baseless fabric of a dream.” remains to be effected ;-it has made I have no expectation of seeing any new considerable progress, but what imarguments in support of Trinitarianism, mense regions it has yet to enlighten, stronger and more irresistible than those; and even to penetrate,-need not be and, though it may cost me your friend dwelt upon; and we cannot even imaship, I must, therefore, despair of ever gine, reasoning from analogy to the being able to receive it as the doctrine of past, that its destined effects will be revelation.
crowded into a very limited period.
Nor, in the contemplation of that highDANIEL HARWOOD,
ly aineliorated condition of the human race which it has an obvious tendency to produce and ultimately establish, can it be reasonably supposed that
Matt. xxiv. 14.