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prevent my being diverted from those styled Jehovah Elohim. It remains to views which I had once for all adopted, be asked, if so striking a difference I considered myself bound to pass can be the effect of mere chance, or over the previous labours of Astrnc, rather if it ought not to be considered and to decline his assistance as my as denoting the existence of two disguide. What the results of my inves- tinct works, the productions of diftigations are, shall be hereafter de- ferent writers ? tailed, without the smallest claim on The second chapter, from the fourth my part to any superiority over my verse, and the whole of the third, predecessors, by affecting to shew breathe the same spirit, and exhibit wherein Clericus and Simon may have the same train of thought and ideas; suffered themselves to be misled, or in so that in fact the narrative contained what particulars Fleury and De Fran, in both, appears as intimately conçois may have been mistaken, and nected and suited together as ever two Astruc, Jerusalem and Ilgen may have fragments of an antique monument fallen into error. In the mean time, can possibly be supposed to be. They and as a necessary step to our ulterior inform us, that “ God allotted to the proceedings, it may not be amiss to first human pair a beautiful part of devote a section or two to consider Eden for their residence, where they the most ancient modes of preserving were permitted to partake of all kinds history,
of fruits and herbs; but at the same (Desunt $$ 416, 6. et c.)
time cautioned against the produce of
a certain tree of a deadly nature: not$ 417.
withstanding which, they suffered
themselves to be persuaded by a ser1. The Book of Genesis contains several separate and distinct Docu- pent to eat of the prohibited fruit,
and, in consequence, became subject ments or Records.
to death and expulsion from the happy Several chapters in Genesis bear abodes of paradise.". Lastly, in no the stamp of being distinct, isolated other part of the whole book of Geo records, the authors of which, as far nesis, except in the second and third
at present able to judge, chapters, is the name Jehovah Elohim had nothing whatever to do with the applied to God. Such a union of cirremainder. That portion of it com- cumstances naturally warrants the inprising the second chapter, exclusive ference, that both chapters compose of the four first verses, but including one distinct and separate document the whole of the third chapter, exhibits connected with the remainder of the an instance of such a distinct and book, solely by the subject of which isolated document. The first chapter they treat, namely, the earliest history is in no wise connected with the second of 'maukind, and in no wise by the from the fourth verse, and the super- name of their author. scription itself, (chap. ii. 4,) ""This The fourteenth chapter, which is is the origin of heaven and earth," introduced into the narrative of Abraplainly enough separates them. The ham's history, appears equally abrupt reader will moreover find, that in the and isolated. It has nothing to do first chapter a very ingenious plan is with the fifteenth, and is merely conlaid down, which throughout is fol- nected with the twelfth and the thirlowed up with no small display of art, teenth chapters by the circumstance and according to which every idea has of its referring to an event which its appropriate place allotted to it; occurred subsequent to the separawhereas a perusal of the second chap- tion of Abraham from Lot; whilst ter will shew, that from the fourth its general tone and style shewa verse the narrative is that of early marked difference between it and childhood, characteristic of a noble any preceding or subsequent chapsimplicity, and breathing the language ters. 'In it alone God is mentioned as
. , “ The name Elohim is invariably applied most high God, possessor of heaven to God throughout the first chapter, and earth ;" in it alone the Creator of and as far as the fourth verse in the the universe is designated as op second; but from thence to the end 78 D'OW," the possessor of heaven of the third chapter he is as invariably and earth ;" and in this chapter only
קנה שמים into ,ברא שמים וארץ
are a succession of parentheses to be his professed love of truth, writes to met with explanatory of geographical him thus : 'It is pity, after you have names. (See vers. 2, 3, 7, 8, 17.) Last- been more than thirty years a teacher ly, the whole spirit of this fragment of others, you are yet to learn the proves its author not only to have first principles of the oracles of God. lived prior to Moses, but even to have Was Dr. Owen's Church to be taught written at a period not very distant another Jesus ?—that the Son and Spifrom the time in which those events rit were only two powers in the Ditook place which are recorded by him. vine Nature ?!" (P. 91.) The style is at once as refined and To the same purpose was a pamapposite as can possibly be expected phlet which I once met with, only from an historian narrating the events long enough to copy the following of his own times, and writing at an title-page: “The Scripture Doctrine early period, when no fixed rules of of the Trinity, vindicated, in opposi. authorship existed. The writer is tion to Mr. Watts's Scheme of One careful not to let the foreign king of Divine Person and Two Divine Powers, Salem speak of God as Jehovah, or by Abraham Taylor, ed. 2nd, 1728.” El Shadai, or even as Elohim, but as The author ivas tutor of an indepenIP68 3x, the most high God;" nay, dent Academy at Deptford, which prehe even makes him change the Hebrew ceded the institution now fixed at epithet of creator of heaven and earth, Homerion.
, . In Vol. XVI. pp. 223, 224, I men, the possessor of heaven and tioned Dr. Tindal's “ · Rights of the earth.” On the other hand, when Christian Church," the controversy Abraham, as a genuine Hebrew, it produced, and how the doughty swears to the king of Salem, he raises champions of High-Church, to quote his hand to Jehovah, the “ most high the well-known sarcasın of Jortin, God, possessor of heaven and earth, “called upon the constable to come and his friend. Expressions like and help thera." Looking very lately these, varying according to the situa- among those treasures of historical tion and circumstances of the parties information which Dr. Birch be. by whom they are used, speak in fa- queathed to the British Museum, I Four of the writer's having lived at found in his hand-writing the follow, a period when the events narrated by ing extract, entitled “ Dr. Burnct, him occurred, whilst the ancient geo Bishop of Salisbury, to Archbishop graphical names adopted by him, de Tennison, 1st June, 1706." (Ayscidedly pronounce him to have existed cough, 4292; 73.) Nonconformnists prior to those important changes which ought, I think, to acknowledge the fairswept away the original names of the dealing of a clergyman of the Church country in which they took place. of England who preserved for posterity (To be continued.)
such an ecclesiastical document.
“as for Tindal's book, I
shall be sorry if any of our friends
Clapton, answer it; for so inuch must be SIR,
August 1, 1822. yielded, if we well defend the Refor1 :
409) is acquainted with the cir; troversy; for hot people will think cumstance that the opinions of Dr, the church is given up, by what is Watts, which he has quoted from a yielded, I know Mr. Kelsey's nowork first published in 1725, were tions are generally wrong in that matconsidered by strict. Trinitarians ter; and to call for his book and not among his immediate contemporaries, to make use of it is to affront him. as a virtual renunciation of the doc- But if your Grace insists on this, I trine of the Trinity. Thus, according will ask it of him." to Johnson's Life of Watts, with Notes, The annexed letters I copied from &c., by the late Rev. S. Palmer, (ed. the same volunue, where they are also 2, 1791)
in the hand-writing of Dr. Birch, Of “Mr. T. Bradbury, in a letter dated these documents I was not aware when 1725, charged him with making the 1 sent you in 1919, (XIV. 721,) some Divinity of Christ to evaporate into a account of the controversies in the mere attribute,' and after jeering at Church of England, on the once
warmly disputed validity of Lay or to dine with your Grace the last week.
But yet for all that, I can by no
means come into the proposal your
Grace has now made in your letter, Archbishop Tennison to Archbishop
viz., that we should all declare under Sharp
our hands, the validity of lay-bap
tism; for I am afraid this would be
too great an encouragement
Dissenters, to go on in their way of In pursuance of the agreement irregular, uncanonical baptism. made here by your Grace and the rest I have, as your Grace desired me, of my brethren the Bishops, when I communicated the matter to three of had the favour of your good compa our brethren the Bishops, and we bave nies on Easter-Tuesday, I met yester- had a full discourse about it, and are day with some of them, and we drew all of the same opinion, that I have up a paper suitable (as we judged) to now represented. the proposal then made. It is short I am, with all sincere respects and and plain, and, I hope, inoffensive, liearty wishes of health and happiness and for a beginning (as I humbly con to your Grace, ceive) full enough. I here inclose a Your Grace's most faithful copy of it for the use of your Grace, Friend and humble Servant, and of as many others as your Grace
JO. EBOR. shall think fit to shew it to. I send Ayscough, 4292. 67. the declaration unsigned, because we, who were present, desired first to have Mr. Cooper on the Disposition of the the opinions of your Grace and others, Negroes to embrace Christianity. who were absent, and should be glad
LETTER III. to know, whether you would have any thing added to it, or altered in it; for
(For Letter 1. see p. 217, and Letter II. we affect not the vanity of dogma
Newcastle-under-Lyme, We hope for your Grace's speedy
August 2, 1822. answer, (to-morrow, if it may be,) COUR readers will remember my because the evil grows, and we have heard of inore odd books and sermons the time I was in Jamaica, I paid consince we met, and of an increase of siderable attention to the instruction the scrupulous, and your Grace well of the Negro children. I formed them knows, that the more timely the into a class, had them to my house check is given, the likelier it is to have, through God's blessing, a good effect. assistance of Mrs. C., succeeded ir
every day in the week, and with the I commend this weighty affair to teaching a few of them to read. At your Grace's most serious consideration, and yourself to the protection of under
our care, but this number was
one period we had as inany as twenty the great Shepherd of souls, and re soon diminished, in consequence of main
four or five of them falling ill with an Your Grace's most affectionate infectious disease; and we were never
able to get a sufficient supply of re.
cruits to repair the breach. That such Endorsed, copy of my letter to A. B.
should actually be the case, will, I Y., April 27, 1712, concerning a doubt not, appear rather an extraor, declaration against Rebaptization. dinary case to persons unacquainted
with the state of society in the West Dr. Sharp, Archbishop of York, to
Indies, but who have been told that Archbishop Tennison. we resided on an estate containing, My LORD,
population of four hundred souls.
April 28, 1712. The fact is, the Negroes in Jamaica I had the honour of your Grace's letter, with the declaration inclosed, they are naturally so, for they are evi
are a very unprolific race: not that the last night. I am entirely of the dently made barren by that brutal and same sentiments that we all declared' demoralizing system of government we were of, when we had the honour under which they are doomed
their wretched lives. It is notorious, that arrangements might be made that slavery is most unfriendly to the with the greatest ease, sufficient to production of life, and also that in secure to the slaves the means of a several ways it leads directly to its common education; but the policy of destruction.
the measure is, no doubt, another The few scholars we had, made, on question. What I now chiefly conthe whole, a satisfactory progress. lend for is, that the children might Before they left us, eight of them, in- be brought to a valuable degree of cluding two brown girls, could read forwardness by the time the planters the Scriptures with considerable ease: would think of employing them in the they went through three of the Gos- cane-field ; and till they are employed pels, besides reading various extracts there, any thing they may do in the from the Old Testament and the Acts shape of work, can be of but trifling of the Apostles. But it is unneces- importance to the estate. sary that I should dwell on this point, own part, I have no hesitation in conit being so well known and generally fessing, what I have indeed, in effect, acknowledged, that the Negroes are stated before, viz., that I quite believe capable of learning to read with as education would bring on a revolt much facility as any other people. I amongst the slaves ; for I cannot be must not, however, omit to explain a brought to believe, that an enlightened circumstance of soine importance, as people would ever subunit, with the connected with their instruction in least degree of patience, to the indigthis art, upon which, I flatter myself, nities, privations and hardships which considerable light was thrown by our naturally result from slavery, as it experience. The loss of time which now exists in Jamaica. Any people it might be supposed would be occa- may be held down for a time, by dint sioned to the master, if the slaves of mere force, but as long as they rewere allowed an opportunity of learn- tain the feelings, faculties and virtues ing to read, has been regarded as con- of men, they will be sure to watch for stituting a most powerful objection to and embrace the first opportunity of the measure ; but the children under escaping. As long, therefore, as the our tuition inade the progress de. Negroes are to remain the victims of a scribed above, by the time it is usual disgusting tyranny, it seems to be no. to send them into the field to work, thing more than a piece of necessary and, consequently, an important ob- policy to keep them from every speject was accomplished without putting cies of intellectual improvement; and, the estate to any inconvenience what- what is worse, even to instil into their ever. Now there certainly is no rea- ininds a number of false maxims and son why the children of other estates erroneous doctrines. It is consistent, might not be brought to make a simi- if not huinane, in those masters who lar improvement with as little loss or will not admit of the idea of ultimate inconvenience to their owners. But emancipation, to keep their slaves not it will, perhaps, be said, that by the only from reading and writing, but time they become of age to learn their from every thing that may be regardletters, they might be formed into a ed as at all above the wants of animals gang, and sent out to gatlier green doomed froin their birth to hard laherbs for the pigs, under the superin- bour. Where is the kindness or wistendence of an aged woman; and on domn of pointing out to a fellow-creasomne estates this is done ; not, how- ture the miseries of his situation, when ever, so much in consequence of the it is decreed that the cause of them value of what is brought in, as the iin- shall not be touched till he goes to portance of keeping the little creatures the place appointed for all living? I out of idleness, and getting them to am disposed to believe, that the planform habits of industry in early life. ters in general would rejoice to see But surely the school-inaster or mis- the Negroes become an informed and tress would be able to secure the for- happy peasantry, provided such an mer as effectually as the driver, if not amelioration in their condition could the latter also, and at the same time, be brought about without endangering make sure of laying a good foundation their fidelity; but that they are not for their future advancement in know. prepared to risk; and hence they ledge and virtue. Thus it appears,
to be quite opposed to every
plan of improvement which, either and sold to pay the debts of their directly or indirectly, contemplates a owners. These evils might be reblow at the root of the evil. The moved by attaching them to the soil, highest object aimed at by the most but then others would remain, of a benevolent seems to be, to make them nature almost equally formidable. as happy as their situation will possi- Every slave being compelled, under bly adunit of. But this may not be pain of corporal punishment, to yield doing enough; for liberty seems evi- implicit obedience to the will of the dently to be the natural right of every master, the wife, as well as the hushuman being. Why not then admit band, would be under the necessity of of their being prepared for the enjoy- joining a gang under the command of ment of privileges which cannot be a driver, and in case of not giving him held from them without acting con. satisfaction, to submit to the most trary to the sacred laws of truth and degrading chastisement, administered justice? The planters, however, are in the most indecent manner. I bave not the only persons with whom I known them point to things of this would remonstrate on this subject, description for the purpose of shewing for all who indulge in the consump- that it is impossible for them to tion of West-India produce, or contri- marry. Over their children, it is ob bute in any way to the maintenance vious they could have no authority of the present order of things in our resembling that which parents in a sugar islands, ought, in common fair. free country possess : they could ness, to bear their share of the blame. only leave them the same wretched With what propriety can a consumer inheritance which they received froin of rum or sugar cast a stone at the their ancestors. Hence, those who cultivator of the sweet cane ? The have children, are generally careless Negro is the injured individual : he is with respect to the habits they form robbed of his liberty, and with that, and the lives they lead : they know of every thing that can render a raó they can never sink lower in the tional existence desirable. He is de scale of society than they already find nied all the advantages of education; themselves placed, and they have no condemned to the vilest ignorance, lest hope of rising. A regular line of by becoming informed he should dis- orderly conduct may save them from cover and seek to remove the cause the Jash, but it can effect no radical of all his unmerited misfortunes. He change in their condition. The highest cannot marry, and is thereby not office to which they can ever aspire is merely tempted, but in a manner com- that of a driver; an office which no pelled, to form the loosest and most one, not destitute of every manly and unhallowed connexions. I would ap. generous feeling, could wish to hold. peal to the common discernment and in short, they have nothing to gain feeling of mankind, whether marriage and nothing to lose ; they have no can exist where a third person has it in character at stake ; a good name, his power to step in and disannul the which, Solomon says, “is rather to holy league. Now, every one knows be chosen than great riches,” is of no that this is virtually the case with avail to them. Their worth is esti. respect to the slaves in the West In- mated by the strength of their bodies, dies. The connexions which they and the talent and disposition to perform do not always take place be- form their masters' work. The greattween individuals belonging to the est villain, therefore, in a moral resame proprietor; in numerous in. spect, may be, and sometimes is, the stances they are the property of dif- most valuable slave; the natural conferent persons. But it is no uncom. sequence of all which is, that the Ne. mon thing for the inhabitants of one groes, as a people, are as destitute of plantation or settlement to be removed correct morality as they are of liberty. to another, situated, perhaps, on the Chastity is utterly out of the question opposite side of the island; and, con- amongst the whole tribe, and both sequently, in all such cases, husbands, men and women are found to vindicate, wives and children belonging to other as innocent, practices which it is gangs, are, contrary, no doubt, to the scarcely allowable to name amongst wishes of the respective masters, left Christians. This is followed by low behind, Others, again, are seized cunning and contempt of truth, a