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press his astonishment on finding, that prepared. Mr. Buxton added, that wishwhen so important a subject as this was ing, if possible, to avoid introducing the brought before the house, the bench of discussion of such a subject into the Right Reverend Prelates had not declared House of Commons, he had not yet comin words-no, nor by a nod—nor even plied with the request of these iwo genby a gesture, whether they meant, to a tlemen. He had felt desirons, also, man, to sanction or condemn the con that their petitions should be considered duct of their Right Reverend Brother in the first place, in the House of Lords, (Hear, and a laugh.) Usually those Re where the Right Reverend Prelate might verend Prelates were not backward in have the opportunity of vindicating himexpressing their opinions on subjects self from the allegations they contained. comparatively unimportant. They had That discussion having since come on, he long been in the habit of attending, and (Mr. Buxton) did hope that what had very regularly, the discussions of their been said by their Lordships might have Lordships; but whether for mere orna the effect of inducing the Bishop to rement and appearance, or for any more consider the subject in question, and to useful purpose, their conduct on this return to that which had now for so long evening might possibly decide. Could a period been the practice of the Estatheir Lordships see with indifference a blished Church. If, however, the conBench of Bishops thus sitting in timid duct of the Right Reverend Prelate should silence ? Was it not almost a desertion disappoint these hopes, Mr. Buxton said, of those whom it was the bounden duty he should consider it his duty to call the of those Right Reverend Prelates to in- attention of the House to this matter at struct? On any great constitutional an early period of the next session."] question, particularly a year or two ago, they formerly could not complain that either the noble and learned Lord on the

HOUSE OF COMMONS, woolsack, or those Right Reverend Prelates, were slow to give the House the

JULY 31, 1822. benefit of their wisdom and experience,

Marriage Act. Bat here, on a question of church policy, Mr. BUTTERWORTH wished to call the both were silent. That the Right Reve- attention of an honourable and learned rend Prelates had come down to vote one Member (Dr. Phillimore) to a clause in way or other, was evident enough ; but the new Marriage Act, which seemed 10 the grounds upon which their votes were him to involve considerable difficulty, to proceed, their Lordships were not to There were sects of Dissenters who did learn. What would the public think, not baptize their children until they bewhen it was informed, that of the very came adult, and in fact there were promany Reverend Prelates who had come bably a great many persons in the country down that night to the House, not one who, acting under their peculiar principle, was to be found who had a single word were never baptized at all. Now such to offer upon the subject before their individuals would be placed in a situation Lordships ? (Hear.)

of great inconvenience by that part of the Strangers were then excluded from be new Marriage Act which went to provide low the bar.

that no person should be married without On our re-admission, we found the producing a register of his baptism. numbers to be on the question of refer Dr. PHILLIMORE begged to be distinctly ring the petition to a Committee)— understood as having had nothing to do

Contents, 19; Non-contents, 58. Ma with the clause to which the honourable jority against the motion, 39.

Member adverted. The clause had been

inserted in the Upper House : if he (Dr. [The above subject has been introduced Phillimore) had framed it, it certainly into the House of Commons also, as ap- would not have stood in its present shape, pears from the following paragraph in For the benefit of such persons as were the T'imes of Friday, June 28 :m" We unable to produce registers, there was, understand that, after a division which however, a saving provision in the Act : took place in the House of Commons on where it appeared that the register of Wednesday night last, and before the re. baptism could not be obtained, the Suradmission of strangers into the gallery, rogate might be satisfied by an affidavit Mr. Fowell Buxton stated, that he had from any sufficient person, that the party been desired some time since to present unregistered was really twenty-one years two petitions from very respectable clergy- of age. That provision he (Dr. Phillimen of the diocese of Peterborough, com. more) apprehended was enough to replaining of the conduct of their Bishop, move the difficulty which the honourable with respect to the eighty-seven questions Member (Mr: Butterworth) complained which that Right Reverend Prelate had" of; but he personally knew nothing of

the clause in question, and could only which the prisoners were tried. BENJArefer the honourable Member for farther MIN CONSTANT seems to have been partiinformation to the uoble Lord above, who cularly aimed at, but he has defied and, had taken part iu framing it.

as yet, repelled the malice of his perserna Mr. BurTERWORTH was obliged by the tors. One act of the French government answer of the honourable and learned has excited great attention in Englaud : gentleman (Dr. Phillimore) : he had we feel so strongly upon the subject, tha: werely asked the question in order to set we are constrained in prudence to conthe public mind at rest upon the point. tent ourselves with recording the fact Many persons had been seriously uneasy without a comment. Our friend and as to the effect of the clanse.

correspondent, Mr. JOHN BOWRING, has

been arrested by order of the government, FOREIGN

and thrown into prison. He was on the

point of embarking at Calais for Eugland, The news from the continent of Eu- when a telegraphic dispatch ordered his rope has been of late various and contra- detention and the seizure of his papers. dictory. The GREEKS are still struggling He was the bearer of dispatches from the with their oppressors, and have obtained Portuguese Ambassador al Paris to the some decided advantages in the Morea Portuguese Ambassador at London ; and and at sea. SPAIN has been agitated it is coujectured that his arrest was comwith insurrections of the party who are manded for the sake of procuring these for restoring Absolute Monarchy and the documents. He had about him, likewise, Inquisition : strange delusion! to be es.

as we suppose every Englishman has who plained only by the yet remaining intiu.

returns from France, certain private letence of the Priesthood in that land of the ters, of the contents of which he knew Faithful. These mad attempts to plunge nothing. For having these in his posthe country back into superstition and session, he has been accused of being the despotism have generally failed, and the bearer of “ a treasovable corresponfailures will, it is to be hoped, strengthen dence." At first, his confinement was the hands of the Cortes and of the friends

au secret, but we rejoice to hear that the of the new Constitution. There is exter- severity of his prosecutors has been renal quiet, but deep, dissatisfaction in cently relaxed. It remains to be seen FRANCE. The press is shackled beyond whether he will be brought to trial : if all recent example, and the prisons are

he be, we anticipate, even under French crowded with persons convicted or, which law, his honourable acquittal. Our own we fear is much the same thing in France, Government seem to have done every suspected of seditious desigus. The scan thing in their power to vindicate the folds too have streamed with blood. Il rights of an English subject, and to rethe trials of the persons who have pe- lieve the distress of Mr. Bowring's family rished, the unrighteous character of thc and friends; and of friends no man living French tribunals was most glaringly and has a wider circle, or in the circle more disgustingly exhibited; undisguised ata that from qualities of both head and heart tempts being made by the servants of the make their friendship valuable. crown to implicate some of the distin. guished friends of liberty in the plots for

CORRESPONDENCE.

Communications have been received from Messrs. Kentish ; Bransby; Bateman; James ; T. C. Holland; Acton ; H. Mace; and J. Cornish : from Captain Ross : and from Ben David; an Unitarian (Maidstone); Euelpis; - F. B.; a Barrister (Harrowgate); and Edinburgensis.

The “ Account respecting Coventry" is not yet received.

Had R. C. (whose communication was acknowledged last month) written as an inquirer, we should probably have inserted his letter ; but he could not surely expect that we should publish common-place objections to Christianity which are completely refuted in the works of West, Ditton, Sherlock, and a hundred other writers, and which are repeated in as dogmatic a manner as if they were discoveries.

We have extended the present number beyond the usual length, in order to introduce some articles of Intelligence, which, though they are no longer novelties, appear to us suitable and necessary to our work, which professes the peculiar object of registering all documents and proceedings relating to and affecting the great questiou of ecclesiastical reform and religious liberty,

Monthly Repository.

No. CCIII.]

NOVEMBER, 1822.

[Vol. XVII.

, a

Italian REFORMATION.
Select Memoirs of Italian Protestunt Confessors.

No. II.

Bernard Ochinus.* THE whole life of Ochin was a purity, and spoke it, in his public ment with which a Catholic writer of eloquence which charmed and capcommences his memoir of this cele- tivated his hearers. Early in life he brated person ; t and certainly, if we became a monk of the order of St. are to receive as credible all that Francis, and took the habit of the has been related of him by friends and Cordeliers. In 1534 he exchanged his enemies, among Catholics and Protes- habit for that of the Capuchins. This tants, his character will appear to be was a reformed branch of the same made up of the most discordant quali- order, who pretended to observe the ties that ever were found united in rule of St. Francis with greater strictthe same individual; for he is alter. ness, and derived their name from the nately represented as the greatest and long and pointed form of their hoods, the weakest of men, the most exem- which, they maintained, bore the near-plary saint, and the most profligate est resemblance to that which had sinner, a zealous and devoted confes- been worn by St. Francis himself. sor in the cause of truth, and the most Beza and others, with unaccountable shufiling prevaricator and hypocrite; inaccuracy, have represented Ochin an angel of light and a fiend of dark- as the founder of the Capuchins; but ness; novus Satan et filius tenebra- this honour, whatever it may be, be

longs to a fanatical monk of the name Bernard Ochin was a native of Sic of Matthew de Bassi, who was shortly enna, in Tuscany, where he was born joined by a man of greater talent, about the year 1487. Of bis parents Louis de Fossombrone, who chiefly nothing certain is known: it is pro- contributed to the final establishment bable that they were of a humble con- of the order. The Capuchins made dition in life, as the son appears to their first appearance in 1525; the have enjoyed few advantages of early order was confirmed by a Bull of Cleeducation, and evidently owed his ad ment the Seventh in 1528; and they vancement and celebrity to his per- are reckoned to have been three hunsonal conduct, and the native force of dred in number by the year 1534, his extraordinary genius. He seems wben Ochin took their habit.* to have known but little of Latin, Ochin observed the rules of his or. Of his native tongue he was an accom- der with exemplary strictness, and by plished master, wrote it with great the austerity of his manners, and the

sanctity of his life, secured universal

rum.

This name is variously spelt. In Latin writers it is commonly written Ochinus, * See a curious little work intituled, sometimes Occhinus, and occasionally “ La Guerre Séraphique, ou Histoire Ocellum. In the title-pages of his Italian des Perils qu'a courus La Barbe des Caworks it is printed uniformly Ochino. puchins par les violentes Attaques des The name is abbreviated from Occhiolino, Cordeliers. La Haye, 1740.” Under which is a diminutive of Occhio, an eye, this quaint title the author has published and has the same meaning as the Latin an account of the rise and establishment Ocellum,

a little eye." By French of the Capuchins, with the view of corwriters it is written Okin.

recting the mistakes and exposing the + Lamy, Histoire du Socinianisme, p. extravagances of Borerius, the professed 229.

annalist of the order, VOL. XVII.

4 P

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esteem and veperation. As a preach- and discretion as to raise it very coner his fame spread thronghout all siderably in the public estimation, and Italy, and his popularity was un- to obtain for himself the title of its bounded. “He was held in such high second founder. After having held estimation,” says a Catholic writer, the office with distiuguished reputa“ that he was considered the best tion for three years, he was again, in preacher in all Italy, who, by a won- 1541, at a chapter held at Naples, derful delivery and fluency of speech, elected to the generalship. On this turned the minds of his hearers as he occasion he evinced great reluctance pleased, and this the more particularly to re-accept the honour. His reasohis because his life harmonized with his for wishing to decline it have been doctrine.” * Some have affirmed that variously represented. Some have he was preacher and father confessor thought that his relactance was merely to the Pope, but the assertion seems assumed; but others have conjectured, to rest on insufficient evidence. that it was occasioned by conscientious

In 1538, at a chapter held at Flo- scruples respecting the faith of the rence, he was chosen, by an unani- Roman Church, which he would be mous vote, the general of his order, thus pledging himself to defend. It which he ruled with so much ability is certain that during his residence

at Naples at this period he formed

an intimacy with Valdesso and Peter * Boverius, as quoted by Bayle, Art. Martyr, who had embraced some of Ochinus. Bayle gives the following ac. the leading tenets of the Reformers, count of Ochin from the Bishop of Ame- and were actively engaged in making lia's Life of Cardinal Commendon :-“His proselytes. That from his conversaold age, his austere way of living, the tions with them, or by the perusal of rough garment of a Capuchin, his long the writings of the Reformers which beard, which reached below bis breast, they put into his hands, his confidence his grey hairs, his pale and lean face, a in the truth of his own system was certain appearance of a weak constitu- shaken, is highly probable. He did tion very artfully affected, the opinion of his holiness, which was spread all around, evidence of a change in his opinions

,

not then, however, give any public made him be looked upon as a very extraordinary man. Not the common peo- but after some hesitation and resistple only, but even the greatest lords and ance, suffered himself to be reinstated sovereign princes revered him for a saint. in his office as general of the Capu. When he visited them, they used to go chins. and meet him with the greatest demon. In the year following (1542) he strations of love and esteem imaginable; was, at the earnest solicitation of the and waited upon him after the same inhabitants, appointed to preach at manner, when he went away.. for his Venice, during the season of Lent. part, he made use of all the artifices that In the sermons which, on this occacould support the good opinion men had of him. He always walked on foot in sion, he delivered to crowded audihis journeys, and though he was old, and tories, composed not merely of the of a weak constitution, he was never

common people, but including many seen on horseback. When princes obliged of the nobility ; it is stated that he him to lodge at their palaces, neither the introduced many things which appearstateliness of the buildings,nor the magnifi. ed to some of his hearers to be at cent dresses, nor all the pomp of this world, variance with the doctrine of the Ro. could make him abate any thing of his man Church. Fortunately for the usual poverty, nor omit the least mortifica- preacher, the Inquisition was not yet tion required by the statutes of his order. established at Venice, where it was At entertainments he would never eat not admitted till after the Council of but of one sort of meat, and eren of the Trent. But the Pope's Nuncio hasing coarsest and most common, and he drank hardly any wine. He was desired to lie received intimation of the obnoxious on very good beds, richly adorned, to words, summoned him to appear to refresh himself a little of the fatigues of render an explanation of bis conduct, his journeys ; but he would only spread As Ochin had spoken in vague and his cloak upon the ground and lie on it. general terms, no specific accusation The reputation he gained and the ho could be proved against him, and he nours he received throughout all Italy easily succeeded in making his peace. are incredible.”

A few days subsequently to this inter

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view, the Nuncio committed to prison went to Florence. Here he found a professor of theology of the name Peter Martyr, whom he immediately of Julius, called, from the place of his consulted on the state of his affairs. nativity, Julius of Milan, who had de- Their deliberations terminated in a clared in favour of the Reformation. resolution that they should both, with Ochin was highly incensed at this as little delay as possible, quit Italy treatment of his friend, and expressed fo some Protestant state. Oc his indignation in strong terms in his cordingly took his departure instantly public discourse.

“What course,” for Geneva, and in a few days afterhe exclaimed, “is left to us, Sirs ? wards Martyr went to Zurich. Ochin's To what purpose, oh most excellent sudden resolution not to proceed to of cities, queen of the Adriatic! do Rome appears to have been gecasioned we undergo so many labours and af- by a report which reached him on the fictions, if they who preach the truth road, that his death had been deterto thee are placed under restraint, mined upon, and that the management immured in prisons, and confined in of his case had been entrusted to six chains and fetters? What other place, Cardinals, who had instructions to what freer field remains for truth? proceed against him to the last extreWould that the truth could be openly mity. This rumour derived great proand freely proclaimed! How many bability from a fact which he afterblind, now excluded from the light, wards ascertained, that an armed force and trembling in darkness, would then had been sent to Sienna and Florence be illuininated !” These offensive to apprehend him, but that he had words were soon reported to the Nun- providentially escaped it by his sudden cio, who immediately suspended Ochin departure.* from his office. The Senate, however,

The circumstances attending Ochin's with whom Oehin was a great favour- flight from Italy have been somewhat ite, interposed their powerful media- differently related. It has been stated tion, and prevailed upon the Nuncio that while preaching before the Pope to withdraw his interdict, which re- he openly accused him of pride, conmained in force only three days. Dur- trasting his pomp and state with the ing the remainder of his term, Ochin, huinble condition of Jesus when he who was aware that the Nuncio kept entered Jerusalemn ; that after the tera strict watch over his conduct, spoke mination of his discourse the Pope's with more caution, and escaped fur- high displeasure was intimated to him ther animadversion.

by a cardinal, who persuaded him inAs soon as Lent was concluded he stantly to depart. But this account went to Verona, where, as the head of is extremely improbable, and is supthe order, he assembled some young ported by no good evidence. It has men who were destined for the office also been asserted, that in preaching of preachers among the Capuchins, on the subject of the Trinity, he stated for the purpose of giving thein some at length the arguments against the instructions to qualify them for their doctrine, and then, under pretence charge. With this view he delivered that the time was elapsed, postponed to them a course of Lectures on the the arguments on the other side to a Epistles of Paul, in which he took future opportunity; but that imme. occasion to inculcate many things that diately after quitting the church he trere adverse to the doctrines of the left Italy, and escaped the Inquisition. Church. The Pope being apprised of But this account seems equally unthis circumstance, and also of his pro- founded with the preceding, for there veedings at Venice, became highly is not the slightest proof that Ochin exasperated against him, and ordered entertained any scruples on the dochiin to appear forthwith at Rome. trine of the Trinity till long after he His displeasure, however, was disguised, that Ochin might not be alarmed,

* Ochin quitted Italy in the autumn and think it necessary to take precau- of the year 1542. Whence it appears tionary measures to secure his safety. that he could not have been a member He immediately obeyed the summons, of the College of Vincenza at the time of and proceeded as far as Bologna on its dispersion in 1546, as stated by Luhis ivay to Rome. At Bologna hebieniecius and others. The probability changed the direction of his route and is, that fie never belonged to it,

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