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Copy of a Letter from Mrs. Adams, these foes of the rights of human na
Wife of Mr. Adams, a Member of ture: our commerce has been destroythe American Congress, to the Rev. ed, our cities burnt, our houses plunMr. Smith, then of Sidmouth, in dered, our wonen sacrificed to brutal Devonshire, but a Native of Boston, lust, our children murdered, and even in New England, which place he the hoary head of age has oftentimes left at the Commencement of the glutted their savage malice. These Wc
Par, and returned to it at_the_are indisputable facts, and will, I Peace. (Communicated by the Rev. hope, be recorded by the faithful hisJoseph Cornish.)
torian, to the everlasting infamy and October 30, 1777.
disgrace of Britain ; and almost tempt.
us to imitate the example of the parent Dear Sir,
of Hannibal, and swear the rising geneoffering by Mr. Austin of writ But as Christians, though we abhor ing to you, in compliance with the their deeds, we wish them reformation request of your papa, as well as my and repentance. We most sincerely own inclinations, I embrace it. There wish for peace upon honourable terms. have been but few opportunities of Heaven is our witness that we do not conveyance either to or from you, and rejoice in the effusion of blood, or the uncertainty whether a letter would the carnage of the human species; but reach you has been the occasion that having forced us to draw the sword, little else has been wrote than the we are determined never to sheath it place of one's abode and their state of the slaves of Britons; and whether it health.
is credited or not, it is a truth for But whether this meets with the which we have great reason to be fate of some others or not, I am de- thankful, that we are at this day in a termined to congratulate you upon much better situation to continue the our present situation. When
you left war for six years to come, than we your native land, it was in a state little were to contend for six months in the able to defend itself, to all human commencement of it. We have deappearance, against the force which fended ourselves hitherto against a had invaded it: but Providence has force which would have shaken any remarkably smiled upon our virtuous kingdom in Europe, without becomexertions in defence of our injured ing tributary to any power whatever, and oppressed land, and has opened and trust we shall continue to, with resources for us beyond our most san- the blessing of Heaven. guine expectations; so that we have Providence has permitted for wise been able not only to repel, but con- ends, that every one of the United quer the regular troops of Britain, States should feel the cruel depredathe mercenaries of Germany, the sa tions of the enemy; that each one vages of the Wilderness, and the still should be able to sympathize with the more cruel parricides of America, with other, and this, so far from weakening, one of the most celebrated British has served to strengthen our bond of generals, Burgoyne, at their head. union; it is a thirteen-fold cord, which I have the
pleasure to inform you, all the efforts of our enemies have not Sir, that the British arms have sub- been able to break. The particulars of mitted to American fortitude, courage the capture of General Burgoyne and and bravery, and have received terms, his whole army I leave to be transmitthough humiliating to them, the most ted to you by other hands. I wish I generous ever granted to an enemy. may be able to congratulate you upon a Their deserts they never can receive similar account from the Southward; in this world, nor we inflict, but must but whether I am or not, as the events submit them to that Being who will of war are uncertain, you may rely equally distribute both rewards and upon it that the invincible Ainerican punishments, and who hath assured us spirit is as far from being conquered that he will espouse the cause of the as it was the day the cruel mandates widow, the fatherless and the op were issued against her. Our cause, pressed.
Sir, is, I trust, the cause of truth and Cruel have been the depredations of justice, and will finally prevail, thougla
the combined force of earth and hell nister;" and it will no doubt surprise rise against them.
him to learn that this very mode is To this cause I have sacrificed much objected to op two grounds ; first, beof my own personal happiness, by giv- cause it is contended that the chapel ing up to the councils of America may be virtually wrested from the one of my nearest connexions, and trustees by the election of a minister living for more than three years in a not to their taste, either in consestate of widowhood. I hope before quence of dissension in the congregalong you will be able to return to tion, or of stratagem among rivai your native land with a heart truly sects, who, it is imagined, may insidiAmerican; as such, no one will rejoice ously cause such a number of their more to see you than your affectionate own people to subscribe, in order to friend and former correspondent, obtain the right of voting, as would
A. A. outnumber the congregation : and, If you can write to me with safety, secondly, because it is thought expea letter would be very acceptable.
dient to prevent the minister from having that permanent occupation of
the pulpit which has seemed in some Liverpool,
cases to place him out of the reach of SIR,
October 14, 1822. responsibility or removal. Y attempt to introduce to the To what extent the founders of the nature and operation of the Deeds I have referred, have been iufluenced of Trust by which our several places by these considerations, it is not in of worship are held, (pp. 410, 411,) my power to say. I understand that seems to be thought a work of supe. in one case they have been brought rerogation by your Bristol correspon- into full operation, and that it has dent, G. P. H. (pp. 527, 528). I been the work of much study and hope, however, I shall not offend that correspondence so to frame a Trust gentleman, when I state that his re- 'Deed as to guard the property in the marks have tended strongly to confirin building against every possible conmy previous conviction of the neces- tingency of this nature. sity of an ample inquiry into the sub Chapels have been erected in many ject ; for, notwithstanding the com- places at the cost of one or more placency and confidence with which individuals, who, “taking no thought he has written, it is evident that his for the morrow,” have assigned them information is extremely circumscri- to Trustees in the usual form which bed.
G. P. H. describes ; but in other G. P. H. seems to imagine that all places the parties subscribing have Chapel Trust Deeds are of the same been either unable or unwilling to give tenor ; and that some one which he their money; and have therefore rehas happened to meet with is the iden- ceived in exchange a certain proportical model of the rest. Hence it is tion of the building. G. P. H. can that he really cannot understand surely understand why such persons what I aim at, or mean to express;” do not choose to play the part of what and hence the “ confusion” of which he terms legal mutes ;” why it he complains. It shall be my present would not answer their purpose to business, as far as I am able to dispel convey the chapel in trust for the this confusion, and to enter into a officiating minister; and why the rebrief detail, with a view to elucidate straints have been ordained on the submy former letter, which I hoped was cribing congregation, against which I already sufficiently intelligible. think it right to protest.
G. P. H. may be very correct in Let me not be supposed to comrepresenting that, “ by the usual mode plain that persons who contribute to of settling trust property of this de- the building of places of worship do scription, the premises are conveyed not give their money; or that they to Trustees, so as to vest the legal are careful to secure to themselves estate in them, upon trust for such that share of the property which they person for the time being, as the consent to receive as an equivalent. major part of the subscribing congre- On the contrary, I am anxious to acgation shall elect to the office of mi- knowledge (in order to prevent future
misapprehension) that I see in this. Trustees to do their duty, or to keep nothing to censure, or which may within it.” not be commendable. But I do com But I must set G. P. H. right as to plain that any body of Dissenters, the form in which the Trust Deeds of and more especially of Unitarian Dis- Dissenting Chapels have been drawn senters, should arrogate a power which up. In some places Trustees have is justly odious : I do complain that the sole right of appointment, as to in guarding their own pecuniary rights, the Minister, without the congrega: they seek to violate the personal rights tion. In others, they are compelled of others—to exact in the name of to induct him--him who has a majosecurity the forfeiture of that indepena rity of subscribers, or renters of pews dence of mind which money cannot (in most cases the amount is fixed, a purchase, and which must cease to lower sum not giving the right to exist in those who cease to withstand vote). In other places, the constitusuch unreasonable pretensions. tion is, – that the election shall be
I.* B. determined by the majority of the
communicants; and in others, in the
way which your correspondent has Harrowgate,
stated. Thus the forins are varied ;Sir, October 14, 1822.
but whatever be the forms according COUR
in your Repository for Septem- drawn up, the pastor has all the rights ber last, p. 527, is perfectly correct which follow in G. P. H.'s statement; in what he asserts respecting Trustees and whenever those rights have been of Chapels and Estates, or endow- invaded and the tyranny resisted, the ments connected with them.
minister has obtained redress in law, pretty well acquainted with the Trust as in the cases of Godwin, Meanley Deeds of many Dissenting, Chapels, and others, as well as those referred and I have seen none which give to Trustees or others the power of re-.
to in the Reports; and should similar moving, as well as appointing the Society for protecting the Civil Rights
cases again occur, the support of the minister, or any controlling, power of Dissenters would not be wanting, over the Meeting-House or its pro- or that of ceeds, or the pulpit and congregation,
A BARRISTER. or the minister ;'as if they were (according to J. B., pp. 410, 411) the
Edinburgh, real • and ostensible occupants." Sir,
October 11, 1822 is, ex ae PO H. Hays, tie strongly,
yet TFnitariane worship Y a present justly," that of legal mutes, passively projected or in actual progress, that to subserve and support the equitable the manner in which they are, or are purposes of the Trust, and which to be, invested, appears to ine to be a they are bound to do; and have no discretion to exercise therein."
subject deserving of discussion in The minister is the real and legal your pages. The contributors to sueh occupant; and if the place be freehold, particular in informing themselves as (as many of the old establishments are,) the minister is the freeholder, which is essential to render their be
to a matter, the right arrangement of and is entitled to all the rights apper- nevolent intentions available for the taining to freehold property the same as the clergy of the Church.
objects which they contemplate. With This has been proved and admitted the proposed Unitarian Chapel here,
a view to satisfy the contributors to on a variety of occasions in our courts. and to excite a little attention to the
In point of fact—he is the sole nature of such Trusts, as a subject of landlord for the time being—the renters of pews are tenants ; and, as G. general interest and importanee, i P. H. has said,
trouble you with the following rea mandamus
may at marks. any time be obtained to compel the
In making such investments it is a
principle of the greatest importance, * This initial was incorrectly printed that the Trustees and the body far J., p. 411. ED.
whose benefit the trust is held, should
be completely identified, - that the Attempt to illustrate Jude, ver. 9. former should have no separate inte
Lerter II. rests from the latter, but should at all SIR, times be ready to give effect to the NOW proceed, as I proposed, to bere a difficulty occurs at the outset, ninth' verse of the Epistle of Jude, for in Scotland, and I believe in En- “Yet Michael the Archangel, when gland also, an unchartered society can. contending with the Devil he disputed not legally hold such property in the about the body of Moses, durst not name of its office-bearers, who are an bring against him a railing accusation, elected body, and liable to perpetual but said, The Lord rebuke thee.” changes, but must have its property The main object of Jude in this Episinvested in persons permanently ap- tle was to warn the Christians' to pointed. It is proposed that our cha. whom it was written, against certain pel shall be invested in eleven such evil men and seducers who had privily persons, and in the survivor or survi- crept in among them, whom he styles yors of their number; and in order to ungodly men, who turned the grace connect them with the society at large, of God into lasciviousness, denying and so to avoid the difliculty above the only sovereign God and our Lord stater, these eleven persons have sign- Jesus Christ. He then goes on, in a ed a declaration, that they accept their variety of instances, to draw a compaoffice solely for the benefit of the rison between their crimes and those rest, that they will give effect at all of some of the most notorious sinners times to the decisions of their fellow. who, under the former dispensation, members, regarding the trust which were the objects of the Divine displeathey have received from them, and sure and the subjects of the severest that they will be ready, when required judgments, and predicts that the like by them, to convey the property by a judgments and condemnation awaited future Trust Deed to any persons them, and would speedily be executed whom the congregation may choose upon them. Both Peter and Jude to appoint.
describe the characters of these men Having heard of many unpleasant very much at large. We shall only disputes, and even litigations, which refer to that part of the description have occurred both in England and in which is immediately connected with Scotland between the trustees of cha- and introduces our present subject. pels and the congregations assembling Jude, referring to the crimes of the in them, we are very desirous that no people of Sodom and Gomorralı, such unpleasant and ruinous disputes (which he had just mentioned,) says, should occur among us, and we hope ver. 8, " These filthy dreamers defile that the above arrangement will effec- the flesh, despise dominion, and speak tually prevent them.
evil of (blaspheme) dignities," with There is another subject intimately which he contrasts the conduct of connected with the former, viz. the Michael the Archangel, who, when method of acquiring the rights of a contending with the Devil, durst not member in a Christian congregation. bring against him a railing, a blasIt is obvious that to confer these upon pheming accusation. Peter also deall who may be accustomed to assem- scribes them, second Epistle ii. 10, ble for public worship with that con as those“ who walk after the flesh gregation, would be attended with very in the lusi of uncleanness, and despise prejudicial consequences ; while, on governinent, as presumptuous, selfthe other hand, it is necessary to avoid willed, and not afraid to speak evil of all such modes of admission as would (to blaspheme) dignities ;" he then involve the well-founded objections contrasts with their conduct that of which have been so often made to the angels, who, though greater in subscriptions to articles of faith. At power and might, he says, ver. 11, some future period I may trouble you bring not railing (blaspheming) acwith a communication on this subject. cusation against them before the EDINBURGENSIS. Lord.”
In considering the subject, we have
then to inquire, VOL. XVII.
In these pas.
1. What is intended by the parties the men of Jabesh Gilead; Joab sent engaged in this contest, -Michael the an angel to inform David of the death Archangel and the Devil.
of Uriab, chap. xi. 19; see also vers. 2. What is meant by the body of 22, 23, 25. The prophet Haggai is Moses, the subject of the contest. called an angel, ch. i. 13; it is applied
1. Then, we are to inquire what is to a priest, Mal. ii. 7. The prophet's intended by the persons engaged in name, Malachi, is my angel. this contest, -Michael the Archangel The term is applied to the elements, and the Devil
. One of these is Mis to storms, to pestilenee, and to every chael, but who is Michael, and what agent in pature which God is pleased is he? Is he a celestial or a terres. to make use of to accomplish his own trial or a symbolical being? We are purposes. The plagues which God told that he is the Archangel; but seni among the Egyptians are said to this, in itself, furnishes no answer to be evil angels, Ps. lxxviii. 49. The the above questions, because neither winds and the lightning are God's of the terins, angel or archangel, is a angels. And of these angels, mesname of nature but of ofbce. In or- sengers, the Seripture saith, (Ps. cir. der, therefore, to understand the sub 4,) "Who maketh the winds his ject, we must inquire into the meaning messengers, and the flames of lightof these terms, and endeavour to trace ning his ministers." * out their application.
sages the term angel is a personiThe term angel, alayhos, is a Greek fication of that to which it is applied. word, from the verb afyerde, to tell In prophecy, angels are probably or deliver a message, formed into a nothing more than symbolical or tynoun by the masculine termination os. pical characters; for we know that The English translation rejects the none of the prophecies relate to the Greek termination, and retains angel affairs and transactions of celestial only; but still the word is Greek, and and infernal spirits in the upper or requires to be explained. Its literal lower world, but to the affairs of the meaning is, one sent or employed ling inhabitants of this world, to the conanother, a messenger, & legate, an vulsions of nations, to the rise and agent, a minister, a seriant ; it is a rela- fall of kingdoms and empires, and the tive term, implying one who is sent or various revolutions to which they are commissioned by another. The word subject, and to the accomplishment of angels, therefore, does not necessarily the purposes of God respecting the mean (as it is generally supposed to children of men. Angels, then, who mean) a species of incorporeal celestial are represented in these scenes as beings superior to mankind, of different agents employed for the accomplishdegrees of dignity, power and perfec ment of those great events which are tion, but simply messengers or agents. the subject of prophecy, are not spirie In the Scriptures it has a variety of tual but human beings; for the fact applications. It is applied to John is, that the prophecies which have the Baptist, Matt. xi. 10:“ Behold, I been fulfilled have been accomplished send my angel, messenger.” It is by human agency. Thus in the Reveapplied to the two disciples of John, lation of John, angels sounding trumwho were sent by hirn with a message pets represent those agents or nes to Jesus, Luke vii. 24: “When the sengers who gave the alarms of wars; angels, the messengers of John, were and the first of these is supposed, by departed.” When Jesus steadfastly the best commentators, to predict set his face to go to Jerusalem we are the hostile invasions of Italy by the Lold, chap. ix. 52, he “sent angels, Goths and Huus: the second, by the messengers, before his face: and they emblem of a great mountain cast into went, and entered into a village of the the sea, the naval invasion of Italy by Samaritans, to make ready for him." the Vandals, under the command of It is said of Rahah, the harlot, that Genserie, whom Gibbon calls the tyshe received the angels, the spies, and rant of the sea. I shall only notice sent thein out another way, James in two other of the trumpets, the fifth 25. We have the same application of the term angel in the Old Testament. 2 Sam. ii, 5, David sent angels unto
* Imp. Version.