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Index Expurgatorius, or catalogue of lar results be fairly expected to appear prohibited books, was published at in Indostan, through the medium of Madrid under the sanction of the In- Education, of a Free Press, and the quisition. It consisted of 900 pages preachings of Missionaries and natire closely printed. The framers of the Reformers ? Index condemned, either wholly or in Be it asserted that Pagan Christipart, not only works on religion, but anity has no resemblance to the superthose relating to polite literature and stition that now prevails in Indostan. science. of all translations of the I contend, on the contrary, that all Bible, whether printed or in manu- superstitions resemble each other in script, they forbade the use. On the their origin and influence. They are works of reputed heretics, and on all all founded in error, and promote dethey might in future compose, was spotism. Whereas the prominent feapassed the same unqualified censure. tures of most religions resemble each Some of Erasmus's writings, however, other as being founded in reason-in these gloomy persecutors allowed to the belief of God, and the inculcation be published, with the words “ Erasmi of virtue, which is the essence of liRoterodami, auctoris damnati,” in- berty. The Hindoo religion, in its scribed in the title-page, annexing the uncorrupted state, approaches to a following note : Opera omnia Erasmi, system of pure theism. The most caute legenda, tam multa enim insunt learned Brahmins are Unitarians, accorrectione digna, ut vix omnia expur. cording to the doctrine of Kreeshna; gari possuit." Here, then, was a sys- but they so far comply with the pretematic attempt to perpetuate igno- judices of the vulgar as outwardly to rance and superstition, to corrupt the perform all the ceremonies prescribed sources of truth, and to disseminate by the Vieds. The great bulk of the error and falsehood. Should it be Hindoos, on the contrary, are supk asked, Why now declaim against the into gross superstition, and, instead of Inquisition: It may be answered, limiting their belief“ to one unknown, Because its frightful decrees substan- true Being, the Creator, Preserver tially exist in every country where the and Destroyer of the universe," they Press is still under any restrictions have enlisted Three Hundred and not essential to the maintenance of Thirty Millions of Gods into their ser. civil liberty; and because twelve mil. vice. Mahomedanism is a compound lions of my fellow-subjects in the Ma- of Judaism and Christianity, joined to dras Presidency are actually under a the belief of certain absurd tales and Censor of Heretical Pravity. This pretensions added by Mahomet. The officer has lately prevented the print- Wahaubees have overrun Arabia, Sying in Tamul of the Prayer-Book of ria, and Persia, for the purpose of rethe Unitariansma sect of all others storing the simple Unitarianism of the the most likely to introduce Christi- Koran. We are, in fact, obliged to anity in the East. In like manner, the Mahomedans for the destruction Censor Wood might suppress the reli- of Idolatry and Paganism in many gious works of the Roman Catholics, parts of the world. Their great crime the Methodists, Presbyterians, or other is that of endeavouring to enforce bects ditfering with that infallible judge their creed by the sword. Mahmoud of orthodoxy.

vowed to convert by force of arms the The Reformation vindicated politi- whole Hindoo race to Mahomedancal as well as religious rights, because ism. In twenty years he invaded Init destroyed superstition, which is the dostan twelve times, and spared neither root of despotism. Á militia of age nor sex.

Tippoo boasts that he 600,000 highly-disciplined priests, threw down 8000 idol temples. He backed by myriads of bigots, were subdued Coorg, and drove 70,000 of - baffled by a monk and the asserters of its inhabitants like cattle to Seringa

The Press enabled the first patam, forced them to profess MahoReformers to give a wide circulation medanism, and then sent them back to to their thoughts; which, but for such serve as slaves under his Zemindars. an advantage, had been confined to This was not a course calculated to the place where their principles had reform or to convert the Hindoos, been first inculcated. May not simi- who, for upwards of three thousand


years, had preserved their religi- of liberty. Nor have the exertions of on.

unassuming Missionaries, unaided by The numerous followers of Confu- a Free Press, been more successful cius have, no less than the Hindoos, than those of the intolerant Mahomedeviated from the pure worship of the dans and Portuguese. They have, founders of their faith. The religion however, done no wrong, and much professed by literary persons and men good, by their charities, by diffusing of rank in China, consists in a deep, education, and by the example of their inward veneration of God. “Live,” virtuous lives. Yet Abbé Dubois, who says Confucius, “as, dying, you would sacrificed more than thirty years of his have lived; and do unto your neigh- life to promote the conversion of the bour as you would be should do unto Hindoos, has declared the measure you.” “This sect,” says Lord Kaimes, hopeless; and that he never knew a “have neither priests nor temples, single instance of a Hindoo becoming and their religion is perhaps the most a genuine convert to Christianity. refined system ever practised by men. It is not to be denied, but proudly It has been objected to as not fitted asserted, that a Free Press must at for the human race.” Thus we per- length produce in Asia one of the ceive that the doctrines of the Hindoo, greatest revolutions that ever appeared the Mahomedan, and the Confucian in the world. The government of the religions, all assimilate in the belief of Hindoos is a theocracy. Their manone, and only one, God; and that all ners, customs, and mode of thinking of them, in the progress of ignorance, their castes, their laws, their dedegenerate into gross and cruel super- spotism-all rest upon this superstistition, accompanied by despotism. tion, which cannot long prevail if exThe only means of reforming them, posed to collision with a Free Press. and restoring among them a pure wor. This engine must destroy bigotry, and ship, is by the light of reason. In tear up despotism by the roots. It further confirmation of this argument, may be said, that such a revolution is a noble author has observed, “that dangerons. If so, it follows that the as unity in the Deity was not esta- conversion of the Hindoos to Christiblished in the countries where the anity would be equally dangerous ; Christian religion was first promul- for by no arts could it be effected gated, Christianity could not fail to without a total subversion of the preprevail over Paganism ; for improve. sent state of society. I deny, howment in the mental faculties leads by ever, that a free discussion, regulated sure steps, though slow, to one God." by wholesome laws, is dangerous.

The superstitious and intolerant Por- During the administration of Warren tuguese were sure to fail in their work Hastings, the Press was free to licenof conversion. When Vasco de Gama tiousness. Now this was a period of arrived at Cochin, he found the Syrian extreme difficulty and hazard. EnChristians established there under a gland was at war with America and King. The Portuguese immediately with all Europe. Bengal was threatclaimed the churches as belonging to ened by Boemsha; Benares was in rethe Pope. The Syrian Christians re- volt; Oude convulsed, and the Seiss plied, “We never heard of the Pope, were plundering the Doab; Madras, and have for 1300 years had Bishops exhausted by famine, was invaded by appointed by the Patriarch of Antioch.” Hyder; and Bombay was engaged in The Portuguese Archbishop held a a contest with Scindia and Holkar. synod near Cochin, at which 150 Sy- Hastings was constantly outvoted by rian clergy appeared. His Holiness his Council; and there was not a ruaccused them of having married wives, pee in the Treasury. The Supreme of rejecting purgatory, the invocation Court was appointed as a check to of saints, and the worship of images. misrule and oppression, and it set itThese heresies he commanded them to self in opposition to the Governor. abjure under pain of suspension ; while Not a judge was on speaking terms the Inquisition at Goa decreed that all with the Governor - General or his their sacred books should be burned. Council. Writers were sure of proFrom these persecutors the Syrian tection while they transgressed not the Christians fled to the forests on the law of libel. The Press was even so mountains—every where the asylum honest and indiscreet as to attack with

its poignant satire the Governor-gene- siderable time, I have not been able ral and “Lord Poolbundee," the sooner to resume the task of making Chief-Justice. In short, British In- extracts. I now send you, as prodia was threatened with ruin; the mised in my last, (Vol. XVII. 147,) Press was free, and it was saved. the Resolutions of the “ Provinciall

In farther proof of the passive and Synod at Preston" entire, with a few tolerant spirit of the Hindoos, and the extracts from the 31st and 32nd safety of discusion, I shall mention a Meetings of the Classis. W.J. reinarkable event that occurred some years since at Isbra, in the immediate

“ By the Provinciall Synod assembled vicinity of Calcutta. While Jugger. contiuueinge unto Feb. the 70, Anno su

at Preston, Novembre 140, 1648, and naut's temple was there passing over a human victim in the presence of a


“The Synod propoundinge to hear and hundred thousand zcalots, Christian resolve such difficult questions as the de. Missionaries were preaching to them legates should bringe in from their sereunmolested, and distributing printed rall Classis for resolution, resolveth as papers expressly designed to expose followese. their cruel superstition. As another

“1. That the discipline of the Church instance, I shall notice the work of is to bee extended in the exercise of it to Bruja Mahema, entitled “Strictures all persons professiuge Christian religion on Hindoo Polytheism,” which has

within our locall bounds, respectively, long been in wide circulation without that are not excommunicate, and the reproducing the least alarm.. Had this bee endeavoured by all Christians, espe.

coverie of excommunicate persons is to book, which contains a satirical, argu- cially by the Church officers. mentative, and masterly exposure of « 2. That the Ministers and ruleinge the absurdities of the present Hindoo Elders are to laboure accordinge to theire superstition, been submitted to a Cen- places, to bringe all theire people to the sor, it would have been suppressed, or knowledge of the Christian faith and rehave been published under the sanc- ligion. tion of Government. If suppressed,

“3. That Catachiseinge by way of there would have been an end to free question and answere is a Minister's

dutie. inquiry; if allowed, it would have gone forth with the mark of public province are required to hould a course of

“4. That all Ministers within this authority, and might have excited

publicke Catachiseinge. strong jealousies. We are not to ima “ 5. That the Minister in everie place gine that the discussion of religious is to endeavoure dilligently to bringe in subjects is a novelty in Indostan. The all to be catachized by him, either pubnatives are exceedingly fond of discus- lickely or privately, and the assemblie's sion, and have been writing on the Catachismes are recommended to this nature of the Divine essence and the doctrines of their faith for twenty

6. That there is not onely one way centuries.

warranted or prescribed by the word of - I shall now close this Letter by ex.

God for the Eldershippes satisfieing thempressing an anxious hope that a Free selves of the sufficiencie in point of know. Press may be established at Goa; that theire congregations, respectively, that

ledge of persons that are Members of from it may diverge a flood of light; they may be admitted to the Lord's Supand that your liberties may be immor.

per. tal.

7. That it is not lawfull for the ElI have the honour,

dershipps to tye themselves to one way, Gentlemen,

as aforesaid (suppose it bee exanimation To subscribe myself,

before them) when that one attaines not Your most devoted Servant,

the end, and another probably may doe LEICESTER STANHOPE. it.

«8. The choice of the manner of the

Eldershipp's satisfaction concerneinge a Account of the Establishment of Pres. person's sufficiencie in pointe of koow. byterianism in Manchester.

ledge for the Lord's Supper, is left to the No. IV.

Eldershippe. Provided that noe Minister Sir, Nov. 23, 1822.

or other person or other persons of the

Eldershippe take upon them to admitte THROUGH a want of opportunity of anie person to that Ordinance, unlesse


sufficiency, and do consent to the said and if they persist to bee admonished, admission.

and if they persist to bee suspended, un“9. A congregationall Eldershippe lesse the reasons of the partie desertinge may trye and censure one of theire El. bee satisfactorie to the Eldershippe. ders.

“ 22. A new electiou of Elders may “ 10. A private Member of a Congre- bee made in a place where there is an gation may not refuse to be tryed before Eldershippe constituted, in case that the Eldershippe upon pretence they are a either anie of those chosen dye, or departie against him.

part the congregation, or lay downe theire “11. The Eldershippe is to observe office, or the number already chosen bee whether or noe the Communicants come incompentent to the congregation. constantly to the Lord's Supper.

“ 23. A Classis may take a view of, “ 12. It is left to the discretion of the and make enquirie into, the carriage of Eldershippe to use such meanes as they the severall Church officers within its shall judge expedieot to discover that lymitts, and may desire some able memconstancie, provided that noe meanes bebers of a neighboure Classis to be preused that hath beene found offensive. sent with, and afford theire counsell to

“ 13. A Minister and twoe Elders may them therein. soffice to constitute a congregationali “ 24. A dependent in anie cause is not Eldershippe.

to appeale from anie inferioure to a supe“ 14. Such as preach within our rioure Presbiterie before a censure past bounds beinge unordayud, and disclaime in the Presbiterie appealed from, save Classicall power, are first to bee dealt that a defendent may bee heard by the with by conferrence to refrain them, superiour Presbiterie complaineinge of an sonie beinge designed to conferre with unjust delay or neglect of hearinge in the them by the Classis, if they refuse to ap- inferioare. pear before 'the Classis,

“ 25. Anie scandall whatever contain15. Delinquents in the late warres ed under the rules of the Ordinance of not to be received to the Lord's Supper Parliament of August 29., 1648, page 41 without giveing satisfaction to the Elder- and 42, ought to be proceeded against shippe of their repentance.

unto the censure of admonition, suspen16 Ministers or Elders neglectinge to sion or excommunication as the case deobserve the Meetings of the severall Pres. serves. biteries, are first to bee admonished by “ 26. Anie Minister or person that the Presbiters which they soe neglecte. shall make anie marriage without publi

“17. A Minister removeinge out of cation of the purpose of the said marriage one Classis into another shall bringe tes- before accordinge to the directorie, or timonialls both from the Congregation shall baptize anie child privately, shall and Classicall Presbiteries from which, be censured by the Classis. And the Elto the Congregation and Classis untó dershippe shall be dilligent in enquireinge which hee removes, before hee bee ap- after, and bringinge to censure all such proved or admitted by them.

offenders. “ 18. A Minister officiateing in any of 27. Where there is a Congregation our assemblies for anie continuance with- destitute of a Ministrie, or of au Elderout applyinge himself to the Classis for shippe, by reason whereof the Lord's approbation, is to bee admonished, and Supper is not constantly administered, further proceeded against upon his per- any member thereof may repaire to the sistencie.

Eldershippe of anie ueighbouringe congre. “ 19. If a Minister shall administer gation, and approveing himself to the the Lord's Supper to anie congregation said Eldershippe, may be admitted to promiscuously, (that is, without sever communicate in theire congregation. inge the ignorant and scandelouse,) so “ 28. A scandalouse fault committed farre as lyes in him, hee is after admoni- above a yeare sivce, and still remaininge tion to be suspended.

publickly scandalouse in any person, is to “20. The question whether the chil. come within the compass of the Elderdren of anie parents lyinge under the im- shippe's cognizance. putation of ignorance or scandall, yet 6* 29. One ordained Minister by a Bi. not beinge cast out of the Church, may shoppe since the abolition of Episcopacie bee denyed baptisme. Resolved in the by the Parliament, may not bee admitted negative.

as a Minister to a place, without satisfac“21. If anie Ministers or Elders that tion given for his acceptinge of the said have taken up the government desert the ordination. same in pot executeinge theire dutie in “ 30. None are to bee approved by it, they are first to bee conferred with by anie Classis to a place of officiateing in the Eldershippe to which they belonge, preachinge, that refuse to be ordayved

according to the Presbiteriall way, or re- the 20th of February, and this Commitnounce theire former ordination, or are tee shall at thuire partinge appointe a ordaynd by non-officers.

new Meetinge, for which each Classis “ 31. An account to bee required of, shall appointe a Minister and an Elder, and given by, the delegate uuto this sy- and after this manner continue Meeteings node of the state of the severall Classis, from tyme to tyme, while there shall be how manie Congregationall Eldershippes occasion. are in each Classis, how theire Classicall “43. This Synod concludinge, appointMeetings are observed, both for tyme eth the next Provinciall Assemblie to bee and number. And the severall Classis the next Tuesday in May next, at Presare required to take an account of, at the ton Church, and the second Classe is to Congregationall Eldershippes in theire appoint who shall preach at the openinge lymitts, how theire Meeteings are ob- thereof. served, whether the congregations have

“ EDWARD GEE, the Lord's Supper constantly, and how

“ Scribe.” the government is put in execution ; and

The 31st Meetinge at Manchester, whether the monetly [monthly) fasts bee constantly observed.

April 10th, 1649, 32. Ordinary omission of duties of « 4. The Sermon heereafter for the religion, as prayer and such like jointly Classis, is to begin at tenn a clock, and to bee performed by the fatnilie, is scan to continue till eleven, and notice thereof dalouse in the governoure thereof. to be given to the Minister that is to

“ 33. The Eldershippes are to take preach to observe the order. notice of scandalouse gamsters.

5. George Peake of Carrington, in “34. A voluntarie entertaininge of Cheshire, aged about 54 years deposed, Papists as servants or Tablers [I am not saith, that his daughter Élizabeth was quite sure that the last word is rightly married to Richard Smith of Flixton, deciphered) is scandalouse.

about September, 1648, without his con“ 35. The Ruleing Elders in a congre- sent; and that shee tould him shee was gation may acte in a Classis without a married in the night tyme, by Mr. Birch, Minister of the same congregation.

scholemaster at Prestwich. “ 36. A Minister comeinge to a Clas

“8. Mr. Warden and Mr. Angier to sis for approbation, beinge of evil report, speake to the Elders electe for Salford, is not to bee approred of by them, until to move them to stand to theire eleche bee cleared thereof before them.

tion. “ 37. If a minister give way to one to “ 12. Delegates for the Provinciall preach in his place that hath been to his Meetinge at Preston the first of May knowledge denyed approbation by that next. Classis, he shall bee the first time admo

“ Mr. HOLLINWORTH, nished by the Classis.


Ministers. “38. If a person sent for to give testi

Mr. HOLLAND, monie to a cause dependinge before an Mr. HYDE, Eldershippe, and appeareinge refuseth to Mr. SERGEANT, take oath, or make answeare to the exa Mr. JOHNSON, mination, hee is to bee admonished by


Mr. SMITH, them, and persistinge, to bee further cen SAMUEL TAYLOR, sured.

ROBERT LEES, “ 39. Sittinge and drinkinge unnecessarilie in an alebouse or taverne on the

The 32th Meetinge at Manchester, Lord's-Day shall be censurable.

May 8th, 1649. ~ 40. An exhortation to the severall “2. Mr. Dury returned in his si quis, Churches in this Province made and pub or instrument, with a certificate sublished by this Synod is ordered to be scribed by several of the inhabitants of published in everie Eldershippe and Con- Gorton, testifieinge that the instrument gregation in this Province.

hath beene published in the Church of "41. If any difference bee in a con. Gorton, and afterwards affixt on the gregation about Ticketts given to com church doore accordinge to order. And municants, if the Eldershippe cannot end nothinge at all obiected against his proit, they are to have recourse to the ceedinge to ordination. Classis, and if they determive it not, to “ 3. Whereas the Churchwardens of the Provinciall Assemblie.

the parish of Prestwich did in the name “ 42. A Committee is appointed to of manie of the Parishioners aforesaid, consult and resolve such difficulties as expresse theire willingnes to have Mr. may occurre, and concerne our publicke Isaac Allen for theire Pastor; and whereacteinge in our offices, which shall'meete as another partie of the said inhabitants

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