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They are poetically good when one may discover the virtue or vice, the good or evi inclinations, of everyone who speaks or acts. They are poetically bad when persons are made to speak or act out of character, inconsistently, or unequally. Thus the manners of Satan and Uriel are equally good, poetically considered, because they equally demonstrate the piety of the one and the impiety of the other. 11. 165. old Ocean smiles." So Lucretius (Lib. I. v. 8):

“tibi rident æquora ponti.” The metaphor is frequent with the poets. Thus lIesiod. (Theog. v. 40) :

“γελα δε τε δωματα πατρος Ζηνος εριγδουπoιο, θεάν όπι λειριοεσα η

Σκιδναμενη. .' (Ridet verò domus patris Jovis tonantis, deorum suavi voce dispersa.) And Theognis (Gnom. init.) :

“ εγελασσε δε γαια πελώρη,

Γηθησεν δε βαθυς ποντος αλος πολιης. . (Risit terra magna, letalus etiam est prosundus pontus cani maris). Callimachus (1/ymn, in Dian. v. 43):

“Χαιρε δε Καιρατος ποταμος μεγα, χαιρε δε Τηθυς.” (Latabatur Cæratus fluvius maxime, lætabatur et Tethys). And Apollonius (Arg. L. II. v. 162):

περι δε σφιν ίαινετο νηνεμος άκτη

Μελπομενοις.' (Ipsis vero canentibus littus tranquillum lætabatur). They also express the curling of the top of the wave, especially where it falls upon the beach, by the word gedws. And thus Oppian :

“ μαλα παντες 'ολλεες εγγυς έπονται

κυματος ακροτατοιο γελως θι χερσον αμειβει.” (Omnes admoclum densi pone sequuntur fluctus extremi risus ubi terram attingit). In the same sense Eschylus (Promeih, v. 89):

ποντιων τε κυματων

'Ανηριθμον γελασμα.” (marinorum fluctuum crispatio innumerabilis). This serves to explain a passage in Strabo which is generally misunderstood by the translators. That geographer, speakiing of the outlets of the river Cyrus, in Albania, [says] (Lib. xi. p. 501): "els στοματα δωδεκα φασι μεμερισθαι τας εκβολας, τα μεν τυφλα, τα δε παντελως επιγελώντα : (Ferunt hunc duodecim ostiis exire, partim cæcis, partim late fluctibus patentibus). This seems to be the proper meaning of the Greek, and not “Auctum refringentibus," as it is commonly translated, which carries no meaning at all. It is in this sense too that Apollonius expresses the breaking of the waves upon the shore (Arg. Lib. 11. v. 572) :

Λευκη καγχαζοντος ανεπτυε κυματος άχνη.” (Albam ferventis expuit unde spumam). By a similar licence as those above mentioned we find Theocritus saying (Idyll, ii. 38) : oirê mer movtos, and Callimachus (in A pollin. v. 18) củonuel KAI TOVTOS. (Bona verba dicit pontus, seu silet).

IV. 785. “Half wheeling to the shield, half to the spear.” The ancients generally used these words of command to soldiers, instead of what we now call right and left. Thus the author of the little dictionary of military terms generally printed at the end of Suidas' Lexicon : κλισις επι δορυ εστι η επι τα δεξια κλισις επ' ασπιδα έστι η επ' đplotepa Khlois (Aciei in hastam inclinatio est ea quæ fit in dextrum latus ; in clypeum inclinatio est ea quæ ht in sinistrum latus). Thus, too, Elian (Tact. p. m. 326) :

XI. 713.

“Declinatio est motio militum singulorum cum vel in hastam, hoc est dextrorsum, sese convertunt, vel in scutum, hoc est sinistrorsum." And below : “Duplicata declinatio partem versus eandem ora militis in hostilem a tergo conatum transfert ; quæ res immutatio dicitur, et vel in hastam vel in scutum fieri solita est."

The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar.” Homer, Il. X. v. 8, has an expression of the same kind ·

πτολεμοιο μεγα στομα πευκεδανoιο.” Mr. Pope has translated this verse in our poet's phrase :-

- Or bids the brazen throat of war to roar." Eustathius observes that the vast jatus of war, as it is in the original, is very proper to give us the idea of the mischiefs of war under the emblem of an insatiable monster. Cic. pro Archia : E totius belli ore et faucibus. XII. 646-649.

The world was all before them, where to choose

Their place of rest, and Providence their guide:
They hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow',

Through Eden took their soilary way.' Mr. Addison thinks these two last verses supernumerary and useless here, as beginning a new subject and therefore extraneous. Bentley, who saw the error, has amended it in such a manner that it had better remained as it was than to be changed in the manner he has done it. I imagine the last four verses would read more connectedly is one might be allowed to transpose them in this manner :

1. They hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow,

Through Eden took their solitary way:
The world was all before them, where to choose

Their place of rest, and Providence their guide. This manner of reading the verses (though not warranted by any edition) is at least preferable either to Addison's scheme, who is for rejecting them altogether, or to that of Dr. Bentley, who mangles them by his horrid alterations so that they are no longer discernible to be the production of our great poet. We still retain all the words of the text, and only place them so as to close the subject with propriety and grace. Neither would I have alventured to offer the alteration, but that I have the example of that learned critick Grævius before me, who has taken the same liberty with a passage or Hesiod. It is in Epr., V. 207. All the editions read it thus :

« Δειπνον δ', αικ' εθελω, ποιησομαι, ήε μεθησω.
'Αφρων δ' ός κ' εθελοι προς κρείσσονας αντιφεριζειν."
Νικης τε στερεται, προς τ' αίσχεσιν αλγεα πασχει.

1 Ως έφατ' ώκυπετης ρηξ, τανυσιπτερος όρνις.Aristarchus rejected the two last verses, because (said he) it is absurd to introduce beasts repeating moral sentences. Grævius has evaded the difficulty by changing the order of the verses as follows :

Δειπνον δ', αικέθελω, ποιησομαι, ήε μεθησω.
"Ως έφατ' ώκυπετης ρηξ, τανυσιπτερος όρνις.

'Αφρων δ' ός κ' εθελοι,” &c. Heinsius has explained another passage of the same poet very successfully by a similar transposition : Epy., V. 374. Thus it is commonly read :

Μουνογενης δε παις σωζοι πατρωιον οίκον
φερθεμεν ως γαρ πλουτος αεξεται εν μεγαροισι.

Γηραιος δε θανοις, έτερον παιδ' εγκαταλειπων :
which is scarce to le made sense of. Heinsius inverts it as follows:-

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Μουνογενης δε παις σωζοι πατρωιον οίκον
Γηραιος δε θανοις, έτερον παιδ' εγκαταλειπων
Φερβεμεν ως γαρ πλουτος αεξεται εν μεγαροισι.
(L'nicus vero filius domum paternam servet,
Senex vero priusquam moriaris alium relinques

Crescentem. Sic enim divitiæ in ædibus crescunt.) He rightly interprets depßeuer “growing up,” not “ feeding,” as the common versions have it. -Since writing the above I observe that Peck (Mem. 201) mentions this transposition, which he approves uf. I am glad to find him of my opinion.

These are not uninteresting; and, though they have been selected precisely on that account, others as interesting may be found. On the whole, though Callander's Commentary is past date, and its publication now is utterly out of the question, one would not regret if some literary antiquarian, investigating the state of scholarship in Scotland in the last century, and thinking it worth while to pay some little attention to Callander, should include his Milton commentary rather specially in a survey of his writings. He did his best, and worse men have had more credit. During his last years, it is said, he lived in complete retirement, the victim of a deep religious melancholy.


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