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• Mr. Spectator,
and sunshine. When I beftir myself with any abroad, except the fometimes takes me with fpirit in my family, it is high sea in his house; ' her in her coach to take the air, if it may be and when I sit still without doing any thing, his called so, when we drive, as we generally do, affairs forfooth are wind-bound. When I ask
( with the glasses up.
I have over-heard my serhim whether it rains, he makes answer, it is no vants làment my condition, but they dare not matter, so that it be fair weather within doors. • bring me messages without her knowledge, beIn short, Sir, I cannot speak my mind freely to 'cause tkey doubt my resolution to stand by him,
but I either sweil or rage, or do some them. In the midst of this insipid way of life, thing that is not fit for a civil woman to hear. ! an old acquaintance of mine, Tom Meggot, Pray, Mr. Spectator, fince you are fo Mharp upon ' who is a favourite with her, and allowed to viother women, let us know what materials your ' fit me in her company because he sings prettily, wife is made of, if you have one. I suppose you ' has roused me to rebel, and conveyed his intel. would make us a parcel of poor-spirited tame ·ligence to me in the following manner. My infipid creatures : but, Sir, I would have you wife is a great pretender to mulic, and very igto know, we have as good passions in us as norant of it; but far gone in the Italian taste, yourself, and that a woman was never designed Tom goes to Armstrong, the famous fine wri. to be a milk-sop.
ter of music, and desires him to put this senL
(Martha Tempeft.' tence of Tully in the scale of an Italian air, and
! write it out for my spouse from him.
« ille mihi liber cui mulier imperat ? Cui leges FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 2. imponit, præfcribit, jubet, vetat, quod videtur?
" Qui nihil imperanti negare, nihil recufare au-Eripe turpi
“ det? Pofcit? dandum eft. Vocat?, venicnColla jugo, liber, liber sum, dic age
” dum. Ejicit ? abeundum. Minitatur ? exti. Hor. Sat. 7, 1, 2. ver. 92. “ miscendum. Does he live like a Gentleman -Loose thy neck from this ignoble chain,
“ who is commanded by a woman? He to whom And boldly say thou'rt free.
“ she gives law, grants and denies what me “ pleases ?. who can neither deny her any thing “ The asks, or refuse to do any thing the com. « mands ?”
“ To be short, my wife was extremely pleased of the happiness Sir Roger de Coverley enjoys, ' with it ; said, the Italian was the only lan! in having such a friend as you to expose in pro guage for music; and admired how wonder
per colours the cruelty and perverseness of his « fully tender the sentiment was, and how pretty
mistress. I have very often withod you visited the accent is of that language, with the rest that ' in our family, and were acquainted with my 5 is said by rote on that occasion. Mr. Meggot
spouse; she would afford you for some months ' is sent for to sing this air, which he performs at least, matter enough for one Spectator a with mighty applause; and my wife is in ecweek. Since we are not so happy as to be of • stacy on the occasion, and glad to find, by my your acquaintance, give me leave to represent being so much pleased, that I was at last come to you our present circumstances as well as I
into the notion of the Italian ; for, said me, it in writing. You are to know then that I
grows upon one when one once comes to know am not of a very different constitution from a little of the language: and pray, Mr. Meggot ' Nathaniel Henroost, whom you have lately re sing again thofe notes, “Nihil imperanti necorded in your speculations; and have a wife
“ gare, nihil recufare.”. You may believe I was . who makes a more tyrannical use of the know, (not a little delighted with my friend Tom's ex
ledge of my easy temper than that lady ever pedient to alarm me, and in obedience to his < pretended to.
We had not been a month mar summons I give all this story thus at large; and • ried, when she found in me a certain pain to "I am resolved, when this appears in the Specta. give offence, and an indolence that made me
• tor, to declare for myself. The manner of the ( bear little inconveniencies 'rather than dispute insurrection I contrive by your means, which < about them. From this observation it foon "Mall be no other than that Tom Meggot, who 6 came to that pass, that if I offered to go abroad, is at our tea-table every morning, Mall read it " she would get between me and the door, kiss to us; and if my dear can take the hint, and
me, and say she could not part with me; and say not one word, but let this be the beginning
then down again I fat. In a day or two after of a new life without farther explanation, it is 6 this first pleasant step towards confining me, The very well; for as soon as the Spectator is read • declared to me, that I was all the world to her, out, I shall without more ado, call for the ' and she thought she ought to be all the world coach, name the hour when I shall be at home, ' to me. If, said she, my dear loves me as much ( if I come at all; if I do not, they may go to
as I love him, he will never be tired of my com dinner. If my spouse only swells and says nopany. This declaration was followed by my " thing, Tom and I go out together, and all is being denied to all my acquaintance; and it well, as I said before, but if the begins to com
very soon came to that pass, that to give an an mand or expoftulate, you mall in my next to • swer at the door before my face, the servants you, receive a full account of her resistance and
would ask her whether I was within or not; submission, for submit the dear thing must to, 6 and Me would answer No with great fondness,
ISIR, ' and tell me I was a good dear. I will not enu.
« Your most obedient humble servant, merate more little circumstances to give you a
« Anthony Freeman. livelier sense of my condition ; but tell you in general, that from such steps as these at first, I P.S. " I hope I need not tell you that I desire now live the life of a prisoner of state; my let " this may be in your very next.'
ters are opened, and I haye not the usc of pen, • ink, and paper, but in her presence, I never go
Monsieur St. Evremond has endeavoured to N° 213. SATURDAY, Nov. 3. palliate the supersti ions of the Roman-catholic
religion with the same kind of apology, where - Mens fibi confcia recii.
he pretends to consider the different spirit of the Virg. Æn. 1. ver. 608. Papists and the Calvinists, as to the great points A good intention.
wherein they disagree. He tells us, that the T is the great art and secret of Christianity, if former are actuated by love, and the other by
I may use that phrafe, to manage our actions fear; and that in their expreilions of duty and to the best advantage, and direct them in such a' devotion towards the Supreme Being, the former manner, that every thing we do may turn to feem particularly careful to do every thing which account at that great day, when ery thing we may possibly please him, and the other to abftain have done will be fet before us.
from every thing which may possibly displease In order to give this confideration its full him. weight, we may cast all our actions under the
But notwithstanding this plausible reason with division of such as are in themselves either good, which both the Jew and the Roman-catholic evil, or indifferent. If we divide our intentions would excuse their respective superstitions, it is after the same manner, and consider them with certain there is something in them very perni, regard to our actions, we may discover the great cious to mankind, 'and destructive to religion ; art and secret of religion which I have here men because the injunction of superfluous ceremonies tioned.
makes such actions duties, as vere before indifA good intention joined to a good action, give ferent; and by that means renders religion more it its proper force and efficacy: joined to an evil burthensome and difficult than it is in its own action, extenuates its malignity, and in some rature, betrays many into fins of omission which cares may take it wholly away; and joined to an they could not otherwise be guilty of, and fixes indifferent action turns it to a virtue, and makes the minds of the vulgar to the shadowy unessen, it moritorious as far as human actions can be tial points, instead of the more weighty and more
important inatters of the law. In the next place, to consider in the same This zealous and active obedience however manner the influence of an evil intention upon takes place in the great point we are recommend. our actions.
An evil intention perverts the best ing; for if, instead of prescribing to ourselves of actions, and makes them in reality, what the indifferent actions as 'duties; we apply a good fathers with a witty kind of zeal have termed intention to all our most indifferent actions, we the virtues of the heathen world, so many thining make our very existence one continued act of fins. It destroys the innocence of an indifferent obedience, we turn our diversions and amuse action, and gives an evil action all posfible black ments to our eternal advantage, and are pleasing ness and horror, or in the emphatical language him, whom we are made to please, in all the cir, of sacred writ, “ makes sin exceeding fintul." cumstances and occurrences of life.
If, in the last place, we consider the nature It is this excellent frame of mind, this holy of an indifferent intention, we mall find that it officiousness, if I may be allowed to call it such, destroys the merit of a good action; abates, but which is recommended to us by the Apostle in never takes away, the malignity of an evil ac that uncommon precept, wherein he directs us tion; and leaves an indifferent action in its na to propose to ourselves the glory of our Creator *tural state of indifference.
in all our most indifferent actions, 'whether we It is therefore of unspeakable advantage to ? eat or drink, or whatsoever we do.' poffefs our minds with an habitual good inten A person therefore who is possessed with such tion, and to aim all our thoughts, words and an habitual good intention, as that which I have actions at some laudable end, whether it be the been here speaking of, enters upon no single cirglory of our Maker, the good of mankind, or the cumstance of life, without considering it as wellbenefit of our own souls.
pleasing to the great author of his beings con This is a sort of thrift or good husbandry in formable to the dictates of reason, suitable to moral life, which does '
not throw away any fin- human 'nature in general, or to that particular gle'action, but makes every one go as far as it Itation in which providence has placed him.
It multiplies the means of salvation, in- He lives in a perpetual sense of the Divine Precreases the number of our virtues, and dimi sence, regards himself as acting, in the whole nishes that of our vices.
course of his existence, under th“ observation and There is something very devout, though not inspection of that Being, who is privy to all his folid, in Acofta's answer to Limborch, who motions, and all his thoughts, who knows his objce?s to him the multiplicity of ceremonies in “ down-fitting and his up-rising, who is about the Jewith religion, as washings, dresses, meats," his path, and about his bed, and spieth out purgations, and the like. The reply which the “ all his ways.” In a word, he remembers that Jew makes upon this occasion, is, to the best the eye of his judge is always upon him, and in of ny remembrance, as follows: "There are not every action he reflects that he is doing what is
duties enoux (says he) in the essential parts commanded or allowed by him who will bereo of the law for à zealous and active obedience. after either reward or punith it. This was the "Time, place, and person are requisite, before character of those holy men of old, who in that
you have an opportunity of putting-a- moral beautiful phrafe of Scripture are said to have virtce into practice. Vie have therefore, says 66 walked with God.” he, enlarged the sphere of our duty, and made When I employ myself upon a paper of mo. many things which are in themselves indiffe- 'rality, I generally consider how I may recomrent, a part of our religion, that we may have mend the particular virtue whicli I treat of, by
more occasions of showing our love to God, the precepts or examples of the ancient hea. cand in all the circumstances of life be doing thens; by that means, if possible, to fame something to please him.'
those who have greater advantages of knowing
their duty, and therefore greater obligations to warding his merit towards him, is as unjust in perform it, into a better course of life: besides his dealings as he who takes up goods of a traderthat many among us are unreasonably disposed to man without intention or ability to pay him. Of give a fairer hearing to a pagan philosopher, than the few of the class which I think fit to consider, to a christian writer.
there are not two in ten who succeed, insomuch. I Mall therefore produce an instance of this that I know a man of good sense who put his son excellent frame of mind in a speech of Socrates, to a blacksınith, though an offer was made him which is quoted by Erasmus. This great philo- of his being received as a page to a man of quafopher on the day of his execution, a little before lity. There are not more cripples come out of the draught of poison was brought to him, en the wars than there are from those great services; tertaining his friends with a discourse on the im- some through discontent lose their speech, some mortality of the soul, has these words :. “When their memories, others their senses or their lives; " ther or ng God will approve of my actions, I and I seldom see a man thoroughly discontented, . “ know not; but this I am sure of, that I have but I conclude he has had the favour of soms
at all times made it my endeavour to please great man. I have known of such as have been “ him, and I have a good hope that this my for twenty years together within a month of a
endeavour will be accepted by hiin.” We good employment, but never arrived at the hapa find in these words of that great man the piness of being pofleffed of any thing. habitual good intention which I would here
There is nothing more ordinary, than that a inculcate, and with which that divine phi- man who is got into a considerable station, shall losopher always acted. I shall only add, that immediately alter his manner of treating all his Erafmus, who was an unbigotted Roman-catho- friends, and from that moment he is to deal with lic, was so much transported with this paisage of you as if he were your fate. You are no longer Socrates, that he could arce forbear looking to be consulted, even in matters which concern upon him as a saint, and defiring him to pray for yourself; but your patron is of
fpecies above him; or as that ingenious and learned writer you, and a free communication with you is not has expressed himself in a much more lively man.. to be expected. This perhaps may be your con
« When reflect on such a speech pro- dition all the while he bears office, and when that, $nounced by such a person, I can scarce forhear is at an end, you are as intimate as ever you « crying out, fancte Socrates, ora pro nobis : 0 were, and he will take it very ill if you keep the “ holy Socrates, pray for us.'
distance he prescribed you towards him in his grandeur. One would think this thould be a be. haviour a man could fall into with the work grace
imaginable; but they who know the world have N° 214. MONDAY, NOVEMBER 5. seen it more than once. I have often, with secret
pity, heard the same man who has professed his -Perierunt tempora longi
abhorrence against all kind of passive behaviour, Servitii
Juv. Sat. 3. ver 124. lose minutes, hours, days, and years in a fruite A long dependence in an hour is lost,
less attendance on one who had no inclination to DRYDEN,
befrier.d him. It is very much to be regretted,
that the great have one particular privilege above I
Did some time ago lay before the world the the rest of the world, of being slow in receiving kind, who suffer by want of punctuality in the fence.. The elevation above the rest of mankind, dealings of persons above them; but their is a set except in very great minds, makes men so giddy, of men who are much more the objects of com that they do not fee after the same manner they passion than even those, and these are the depen. did before: thus they despise their old friends, dents on great men, whom they are pleased to and strive to extend their interests to new pretake under their protection as fuch as are to tenders. By this means it often happens that share in their friendship and favour. These in- when you come to know how you loft such an deed, as well from the homage that is accepted employment, you will find the man who got it from them, as the hopes which are given to them, never dreamed of it; but forsooth, he was to be are become a sort of creditors; and thefe debts, surprised into it, or perhaps solicited to receive it. being debts of honour, ought, according to the Upon such occafions as these a man may perhaps accustomed maxim, to be first discharged. grow out of humour; if you are so, all mankind
When I speak of dependents, I would not be will fall in with the patron, and you are an huunderstood to mean thofe who are worthless in mourist and untractable if you are capable of bethemselves, or who, without any call, will press ing sour at a disappointment: but it is the same into the company of their betters. Nor, when I thing, whether you do or do not refent ill usage, speak of patrons, do I mean those who either you will be used after the same manner; as some have it not in their power, or have no obliga- good mothers will be sure to whip their children tion to assist their friends; but I speak of such until they cry, and then whip them for crying. leagues where there is power and obligation on There are but two ways of doing'any thing the one part, and merit and expectation on the with great people, and those are by making yourother.
self either considerable or agreeable: the former The division of patron and client, may, I be- is not to be attained but by finding a way to live lieve, include a third of our nation; the want of without them, or concealing that you want them; merit and real worth in the client, will strike out the latter is only by falling into their taste and about ninety-nine in an hundred of these; and pleasures: this is of all the employments in the the want of ability in patrons, as many of that world the most fervile, except it happens to be kind. But however, I must beg leave to say, that of your own natural humour. For to be agreehe who will take up another's time and fortune able to another, especially if he be above you, is in his service, though he has no prospect of re- 'not to be poffeffed of such qualities and accom
plishments as should render you agreeable in the art of the statuary only clears away the fu-' yourself, but such as make you agreeable in re. perfluous matter, and removes the rubbin. The spect to him. An imitation of his faults or a figure is in the stone, the sculptor only finds it. compliance, if not fubfervience, to his vices, What fculpture is to a block of marble, educamust be the measures of your conduct.
tion is to an human soul. The philosopher, the When it comes to that, the unnatural state a saint, or the hero, the wife, the good, or the great man lives in, when his patron pleases, is ended; man, very often lie hid and concealed in a pleo. and his guilt and complaisance are objected to beian, which a proper education might have dishim, though the man who rejects him for his vices interred, and have brought to light. I am therewas not only his partner but seducer. Thus the fore much delighted with reading the accounts of client, like a young woman who has given up savage nations, and with contemplating those virthe innocence which made her charming, has not
tues which are wild and uncultivated; to see only lost his time, but also the virtue which could courage exerting itself in fierceness, resolution in render him capable of resenting the injury which obstinacy, wisdom in cunning, patience in sulis done him.
lenness and despair. · It would be endless to recount the tricks of Men's passions operate variously, and appear in turning you off from themselves to persons who
different kinds of actions, according as they are have less power to serve you, the art of being more or less rectified and swayed by reason. When forry for such an unaccountable accident in your one hears of negroes, who upon the death of beliavicur, that such a one, who, perhaps, has their masters, or upon changing their service, never heard of you, opposes your advancement; hang themfelves upon the next tree, as it freand if you have any thing more than ordinary in quently happens in our American plantations, you, you are flattered with a whisper, that it is who can torbear admiring their fidelity, though 'no wonder people are so now in doing for a man
it expresses itself in so dreadful a manner? What of your talents and the like,
might not that savage greatness of foul which After all this treatment, I must still add the appears in these poor wretches on many occapl-asanteft inrolence of all, which I have once or fions, be raised to, were it rightly cultivated ? iwice seen; to wit, that when a filly rogue has And what colour of excuse can there be for the thrown away one part in three of his life in un contempt with which we treat this part of our profitable attendance, it is taken wonderfully ill fpecies? That we should not put them upon the that he withdraws, and is resolved to employ the common foot of humanity, that we mould only rent for himself.
fet an insignificant fine upon the man who murWhen we consider these things, and reflect ders them; nay, that we should, as much as in us upon so many honest natures, which one, who lies, cut them off from the prospects of happiness makes observation of what países, may have seen, in another world as well as in this, and deny them that have miscarried by ruch fort of applications, that which we look upon as the proper means for it is too melancholy a scene to dwell upon; there. attaining it ? fore I mall take another opportunity to discourse Since I am engaged on this subject, I cannot of good patrons, and distinguin such as have done forbear mentioning a story which I have lately their duty to those who have depended upon heard, and which is so well attested, that I have them, and were rot able to act without their fa. no manner of reason to fuspect the truth of it. I vour. Worthy patrons are like Plato's guarvian may call it a kind of wild tragedy that paffed angels, who are always doing good to their wards; about twelve years ago at St. Christopher's, one but negligent patrons are like Epicurus's gods, of our British leeward islands.
The negroes that lie jolling on the clouds, and instead of blers who were the persons concerned in it, were all of ings pour down forms and tempests on the heads
them the Naves of a gentleman who is now in of those that are offering incente to them.
England. т This gentleman among his negroes had a young
woman, who was looked upon as a moft extra
ordinary beauty by those of her own complexion. No 215. TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 6.
He had at the same time two young fellows who -- Irgenuas didiciffe fideliter artes
were likewise negroes, and Naves, remarkable for Emol.it mores, nec finit efle feros.
the comeliness of their persons, and for the friendOvid. Ep. 9. 1. 2. de Ponto, v, 47. ship which they bore to one anothe“. It unfor
tunately happened that both of them fell in love Ingenuous arts, where they an entrance find,
with the female negroe above-mentioned, who Soften the manners, and subdue the mind.
would have been very glad to have taken either Confider an human soul without education of them for her husband, provided they could J
like marble in the quarry, which shews none agree between themselves which should be the of its inherent beauties, until the skill of the po
But they were both so paifionately in love limer fetches out the colours, makes the surface with her, that neither of them cculd think of givThine, and discovers every crnamental cloud, spot, ing her up to his rival; and at the fame time were and vein that runs through the body of it. Edu- so true to one another, that neither of them would cation, after the same manner, when it works think of gaining her without his friend's consent. upon a noble mind, draws out to view every la The torments of these two lovers were the diftent virtue and perfection, which without such course of the family to which they belonged, who helps are never able to make their appearance. could not forbear observing the strange complica
my reader will give me leave to change the tion of passions which perplexed the hearts of the allusion so soon upon him, I mall make ufe of the poor negroes, that often dropped expressions of the fame instance to illustrate the force of education, uneasiness they underwent, and how impollible which Aristotle has brought to explain his doc- it was for either of them ever to be happy. tiine of substantial forms, when he tells us that After a long struggle between love and friend. a statue lies hid in a bivki of marble; and that ship, truth and jealousy, they one day took a
walk together into a wood, carrying their miftress along with them: where, after abundance No 216. WEDNESDAY, NOVEM. 7. of lamentations, they stabbed her to the heart, of Siquidem hercle polis, nil prius, neque fortius; which the immediately died. A nave who was at his work not far from the place where this Arque, ubi pari non poter:s, cum nemo expetet,
Verùm fi incipies, neque perficies naviter, astonishing piece of cruelty was committed, hearing the shrieks of the dying perfon, ran to fee Infectâ pace, ultrò ad eam venies, indicans
amare, what was the occasion of them. He there dif. Perilli: elucet, uti te victum fenferit.
& ferre non polle : acium eft, ilicet, covered the woman lying dead upon the ground, with the two negroes on each side of her, killing If indeed you can keep to your refolution, you
Ter. Eun. A&t. I. Sc. 1. the dead corps, weeping over it, and beating their breasts in the utmost agonies of grief and
will act a noble and a manly part: but it, despair. He immediately ran to the English fa
when you have set about it, your courage fails mily with the news of what he had seen; who you, and you make a voluntary submission, acupon coming to the place saw the woman dead, knowledging the violence of your passion, and
your inability to hold out any longer, all is and the two negroes expiring by her with wounds
over with you; you are undone, and may go they had given themselves. We see in this amazing instance of barbarity,
hang yourself; she will insult over you, when
The finds you her slave. what strange disorders are bred in the minds of those men whose passions are not regulated by
To the Spectator. virtue, and disciplined by reason. Though the action which I have recited is in itself full of
ISIR, guilt and horror, it proceeded from a temper of THIS is to inform you, that Mr. Freeman mind which might have produced very noble
had no sooner taken coach, but his lady fruits, had it been informed and guided by a was taken with a terrible fit of the vapours, fuitable education.
( which it is feared will make her miscarry, if It is therefore an unspeakable blesling to be not endanger her life; therefore, dear Sir, if born in those parts of the world where wisdom you know of any receipt that is good against and knowledge flourish; though it must he con this fashionable reigning distemper, be pleased fessed, there are, even in these parts, several poor to communicate it for the good of the public, uninstructed persons, who are but little above " and you will oblige the inhabitants of those nations of which I have been here speaking; as those who have had the
A. NOEWILL.' advantage of a more liberal education, rise above
Mr, SpeEtator, one another by several different degrees of per "HE uproar was so great as soon as I had fection. For to return to our statue in the block
read the Spectator concerning Mrs. Freeof marble, we see it sometimes only begun to man, that after inany revolutions in her temper, be chipped, sometimes rough-hewn, and but just of raging, swooning, railing, fainting, pityin, Sketched into an human figure; sometimes we herself, and reviling her husband, upon an ac. see the man appearing diftin&tly in all his limbs ccidental coming-in of a neighbouring lad,, and features, sometimes we find the figure (who says the has writ to you also, she had no. wrought up to a great elegancy, but seldom meet "thing left for it but to fall in a fit. I had the with any to which the hand of a Phidias or ( honour to read the paper to her, and have a Praxiteles could not give several nice touches and pretty good command of my countenance and finishings.
temper on such occasions; and soon found my Discourses of morality, and reflexions upon historical name to be Tom Meggot in your human nature, are the best means we can make writings, but concealed myself until I saw how use of to improve our minds, and gain a true ( it affected Mrs. Freeman. She looked freknowledge of ourselves, and consequently to re quently at her husband, as often at me; and cover souls out of the vice, ignorance, and pre • Me did not tremble as the filled tea, until the judice, which naturally cleave to them. I have came to the circumstance of Armstrong's wri. all along profest myself in this paper a promoter (ting out a piece of Tully for an opera tune; of these great ends; and I flatter myself that I do " then the burst out, She was exposed, she was from day to day contribute something to the po deceived, she was wronged and abused. The lishing of men's minds : at least my design is lau. tea-cup was thrown in the fire; and without dable, whatever the execution may be. I muit taking vengeance on her spouse, she said of me, confess I am not a little encouraged in it by many " that I was a pretending coxcomb, a medler that letters which I receive from unknown hands, in c knew not what it was to interpose in so nice an approbation of my endeavours; and must take ( affair as between a man and his wife. To this opportunity of returning my thanks to thofe (which Mr. Freeman, Madam, were I less fond who write them, and excusing myself for not in of you than I am, I should not have taken this ferting several of them in my papers, which I am way of writing to the Spectator, to inform a wosensible would be a very great ornament to them. man whom God and nature has placed under Should I publish the praises which are so well my direction, with what I request of her ; but penned, they would do honour to the persons • fince you are so indiscreet as not to take the who write them, but my publishing of them would chint which I gave you in that paper, I must I fear be a sufficient instance to the world that I • tell you, madam, in so many words, that you did not deserve them,
с " have for a long and tedious space of time acted
a part unsuitable to the sense you ought to
have of the subordination in which you are • placed. And I must acquaint you once for all o that the fellow without, ah Tom! (here the • footman entered and answered, madam) Grrah,