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*4 tended good offices to thy friends, thy intended " that is not affected by you. I cannot say in. Es fervices to thy country, are already performed, • doed that you have put impertinence to filence, 44 as to thy concern in them, in his right before or vanity out of countenance; but methinks * whom the paít, present, and future appear at you have bid as fair for it, as any man that ever * one view, White others with thy talents were ' appeared upon a public stage; and offer an inse tormented wira ambition, with vain-glory, • fallible cure of vice and folly, for the price of « with envy, with emulation, how well didit penny. And since it is usual for those who "s thou turn thy mind to its own improvement in I receive benefit by such famous operators, to

thengs out of the power of fortune, in probity, publish an advertisement, that others may reap

in intecrity, in the practice and study of jur the fame advantage, I think myfelf obliged to 4a, tice, how'lilent 'thy pasage, how private thy declare to all the world, that having for a long ** journey, how glorious thy end ! many have I ' time been {plenetic, ill. natured, froward, fufk.known more famous, some more knowing, picious and unfociable, by the application of & not one to innocent."

R your medicines, taken only with half an ounce

" of right Virginia tobacco, for fix fucceffive morniogs, I am become open, obliging, off

'cious, frank, and hofpitable. I am, N 134. FRIDAY, AUGUST 3.


Your humble servant,
-Opiferque per orten

July 5, 1711; * and great admirer,
Ovid. Met I. 1. v. 521,

George Trusty. And am the great physician call'd below.

The careful father and humble petitioner here. DRYDEN. after mentioned, who are under difficulties about


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packets trave been left for me, which were proper advertisements relating to the profeffors not forvarded to me, because I was expected in that behalf, with their places of abode and me every day in town. The author of the following thods of teachiąg. better, dated from Tower-hill, having fometimes boon entertained with some learned gentlemen in

July the sth, 1711. blush doublets, who havevended their ivares from your Spectator of June the 7th, you trana face in that place, has pleatantly enough ad scribe a letter sent to you from a new sort of dreied to me, as no leis a sage in morality, than muster-maíter, who teaches ladies the whole those are in physic, To comply with his kind in * exercise of the fan; I have a daughter just come clipticz to make my cures famous, I shall give to town, who though she has always held a fan you his'teftimonial of my great abilities at large ! in her hand at proper times, yet the knows no in his own words.

more how to use it according to true discipline,

& than an aukward school-boy does to make use SIR.

6 of his new-sword : I have sent for her on pur. OUR saying the other day there is fome pote to learn the exercise, the being already


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thcle minds which can be pleased, and be bar are necessary for a young lady to understand; -ren of bounty to those who please them, makes my request is, that you will fpeak to your corme in pain that I am not a man of power. If • respondent on my behalf, and in your next paI were, you should soon fee how much I ap per let me know what he expects, either by the

prove your fpeculations. In the mean time I ' month, or the quarter, for teaching; and where beg leave to fupply that inability with the • he keeps his place of rendezvous. I have a fon

empty tribute of an honest mind, by telling too, whom I would fain have taught to gallant

you plainly I love and thank you for your daily • fans, and frould be glad to know what the gen• refreshments. I constantly perufe' your paper <tleman will have for teaching them both, I find. *as I ficke my morning's pipe, though, I can ins fans for practice at my ewn expence. This

not forbear reading the motto before I fill and «inforniation will in the highest manner oblige, * light, and really it gives a grateful relith to

Sir, your most humble servant, every whiff; ' each paragraph'is freighted either

William Wifeacres * with useful'or delightful notions, and I never & 'fail of being highly diverted or improved. The ? As soon as my son is perfear in this art, which ''variety of your subjects surprizes me as much I hope will be in a year's time, for the boy is as a box of picnres did formerly, in which there pretty apt, I design he shall learn to ride the was only one face, tlrat by pulling fome pieces great horse, although he is not yet above twenty of ifinglafs over it, was changed into a grave years old, if his mother, whose darling he is; senator or a Merry-Andrew, a patched lady or 6 will venture him.' a nun, a beau or a black-a-moor, à prude or a coquette, a country 'squire or a conjurer, with

"To the Spectator, many other different representations, very en

* The humble petition of Benjamin Easy, Gente ' tertaining, as you are, though still the fame at 6 the bottom. This was a childisi amusement « Sheweth, ( when I was carried away with outward ap HAT it was your petitioner's misfortune ta

pearance, but you make a deeper impreflici, walk to hackney church laft Sunday, where • and affect the fecret springs of the mind; you to his great amazemeni he met with a foldier of ' charm the fancy, fiorh the pasfions, and inser your own training: the įfuris a fan, recovers a fibly lead the reader to that (weetness of tem san, and goes thro' the whicle excercise of it to

you so weil describe; you rouse gene ( admiration. This well-managed orficer of • rofity with that fuirit, and inculcate humanity yours has, to iny knowledge, been the ruin of * with ti a. cafe, that he must be miferably stupid above five young gentlemen besides myself, and

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Atill goes on laying waste wherefoever she formable to the genius of our tongue. This was
comes, whereby the whole village is in great may find in a multitude of words, aš liberty,
sanger. Our humble request is therefore, that conspiracy, theatre, orator, &c.
this bold Amazon be ordered immediately to The same natural averfion to loquacity has ok
lay down her arms, or that you would inue late years made a very confiderable alteration in
forth an order, that we who have been thus our language, by closing in one syllable the tor-
injured may meet at the place of general ren mination of our præterperfect tense, as in these
dezvous, and there be taught to manage our

words, drown'd, walkd, arriv'd, for drowned, 6. Inuff boxes in fach manner as we may be an walked, arrived, which has very much disfigured equal match for her.

the tongue, and turned a tenth part of our • And your petitioner shall ever pray, &c.' {mootheit words into so many clusters of conR

sonants. This is the more remarkable, becaule

the want of vowels in our language has beca N135, SATURDAY, AUGUST 4.

the general complaint of our politest authors,

who nevertheless are the men that have made Eft brevitate opus, ut currat sententia

these retrenchments, and consequently very Hox. Sat. 10. l. I. V. 9.

much increased our former scarcity,

This reflection on the words that end in edo Express your seniments with brevity,

I have heard in conversation from one of the Have fomewhere read of an eminent perfon, greatest genius's this age has produced. I think

who used in his private offices of devotion we may add to the foregoing observation, the to give thanks to Heaven that he was born a change which has happened in our language, by Frenchman : for my own part, I look upon it as

the abbreviation of several words that are tera peculiar blessing that I was born an English- minated in ech, by substituting an s in the roona

Among many other reasons, I think my of the laft fyllable, as in drowns, walks, arrives, self very happy in my country, as the language and innumerable other words, which in the proof it is wonderfully adapted to a man who is nunciation of our forefathers were drowneth, sparing of his words, and an enemy to loqua- walketh, arriveth. This has wonderfully mula city.

tiplied a letter which was before too frequens in As I have frequently reflected on my good the English tongue, and addea to that hifing in fortune in this particular, I shall communicate our language which is taken so much notice of to the public my fpeculations upon the English by foreigners; but at the fame time humours tongue, not doubting but they will be accept our taciturnity, and eases us of many supera able to all my curious readers.

Auous syllables. The Englun delight in filence more than any I might here observe, that' the fame single let. other European nation, if the remarks which ter on many occasions does the office of a whole are made on us by foreigners are true, Our word, and represents the his or her of our forediscourse is not kept up in conversation, but fathers. There is no doubt but the ear of a falls into more pauses and intervals than in our foreigner, which is the best judge in this case, neighbouring countries; as it is observed, that would very much disapprove of such innovations, the matter of our writings is thrown much which indeed we do ourselves in some measure closer together, and lies in a narrower compafs by reiaining the old termination in writing, and than is usual in the works of foreign authors: in all the folemn offices of our religion. for, to favour our natural taciturnity, when we As in the instances I have given we have epiare obliged to utter our thoughts, we do it in' tomized many of our particular words to the the shortest way we are able, and give as quick detriment of our tongue, so on other occasions a birth to our conceptions as poffible.

we have drawn two words into one, which has This humour Mews itself in several remarks likewise very much untuned our language, and that we may make upon the English language.' clogged it with consonants, as mayn’t, can't, As first of all by its abounding in monofyllabies, than't, won't, and the like, för may not, can which gives us an opportunity of delivering our not, shall not, will not, &c. thoughts in few sounds. This indeed takes off It is perhaps this humour of speaking no more from the elegance of our tongue, but at the same than we needs must, which has fo miserably curtime exprefles our ideas in the readiest manner, tailcd some of our words, that in familiar wriand consequently answers the first design of tings and conversations they often lose a!l but. speech better than the multitude of syllables, their first syllables, as in mob. rep. por, incog.. which make the words of other languages more and the like; and as all ridiculous words make tunable and sonorous. The founds of our their first entry into a language by familiar English words are commonly like those of string' phrases, I dare not answer for these that they music, short and trantient, which rise and perith will not in time be looked upon as a part of our, upon a single touch; those of other languages tongue. We see some of our poets have been lo are like the notes of wind instruments, sweet indiscreet as to imitate Hudibras's doggiel ex. and swelling, and lengthened out into variety pressions in their serious compofitions, by throx, of modulation.

ing out the ligns of our substantivesy

, which are In the next place we may observé, that where effential to the English language. Nay, this the words are not monosyllables, we often make' humour of shortening our language had once them so, as much as lies in our power, by our run so far, that some of our celebrate a authors, rapidity of pronunciation; as it generally hap- among whom we may reckon Sir Roger L'Epens in most of our long words which are de- strange in particular, began to prune t'air words rived from the Latin, where we contract the of all superfiuous letters, as they ter ined thein, length of the syllables that gives them a grave in order to adjust the spelling to the pronunciam and folemn air in their own language, to make tion; which would have confounded all our etj., them more proper for dispatchi, and more coni' mologies, and have quite destroyed our congue.

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We may here likewise observe that our proper

account of a kinfman of mine, a young mere names, when familiarized in English, generally • chant who was bred at Moscow, that had too. dwindle to monosyllables, whereas in other mo o much mettle to attend books of entries and dern languages they receive a softer turn on this accounts, when there was so active a scene in occasion, by the addition of a new syllable: the country where he resided, and followed the Nick in Italian is Nicolini, Jack in French Ja-. • Czar as a volunteer: this warm youth, born not; and so of the rest.

at the instant the thing was fpoke of, was the There is another particular in our language man who unhorsed the Swedish general, he which is a great instance of our frugality of was the occasion that the Muscovites kept their words, and that is the suppressing of several par

fire in fo foidier-like a manner, and brought ticles which must be produced in other tongues. up those troops which were covered from the to make a sentence intelligible: this often per enemy at the beginning of the day; belides this, plexes the best writers, when they find the re he had at laft the good fortune to be the man latives whom, which, or they, at their mercy ( who took Count Piper. With all this fire I whether they may have admission or not; and knew my cousin to be the civilest creature in will never be decided until we have something the world. He never made any impertinent like an academy, that by the best authorities. ' show of his valour, and then he had an exand rules drawn from the analogy of languages

' cellent genius for the world in every other Ihall settle all controversies between grammar

' kind. I had letters from him, here I felt in and idiom.

my pockets, that exactly fpoke the Czar's cha." I have only considered our language as it shews :racter, which I knew perfe&ly well; and I the genius and natural temper of the English, could not forbear concluding, that I lay with which is modest, thoughtful and fincere, and ' his imperial majesty twice or thrice a week all which perhaps may recommend the people,

the while he lodged at Deptford. What is though it has spoiled the tongue. We might.

(worse than all this, it is impossible to speak to perhaps carry the same thought into other lan-. ' me, but you give me some occasion of coming guages, and deduce a great part of what is pe out with one lye or other, that has neither wit, culiar to them from the genius of the people

humour, prospect, or interest, or any other who speak them. It is certain, the lighit talka

« motive that I can think of in nature. The tive humour of the French has not a little in other day, when one was commending an emifected their tongue, which might be thewn by nent and learned divine, what occafion in the many instances; as the genius of the Italians, world had I to say, methinks he would look which is fo much addicted to music and ceremo

more venerable if he were not so fair a man? ny, has moulded all their words and pltrases to " I remember the company smiled. I have seen those particular uses. The stateliness and grav. " the gentleman since, and he is coal-black. I ity of the Spaniards thews itself to perfection in have intimations every day in my life that noc' the solemnity of their language, and the blunt body believes me, yet I am never the better. honeft humour of the German sounds better in 'I was saying something the other day to an the roughness of the High-Dutch, than it would r old friend at Will's coffee-house, and he made in a politer tongue.

с ( no manner of answer; but told me, that an

( acquaintance of Tully the orator having two

or three times together said to him, without No 136. MONDAY, AUGUST 6.

receiving any answer, that upon his honour he

was but that very month forty years of age; -Partbis mendacior

ç Tully answered, Surely you think me the most Hor. Ep. 1. 1. 2. V. 112. ' incredulous man in the world, if I do not bea A greater liar Parthia never bred.

Olieve what you have told me every day this ten

years. The mischief of it is, I find myself

wonderfully inclined to have been present at low, I thall print the following letter.

every occurrence that is spoken of before me:

• this has led me into' many inconveniencies, • Mr. SpeEtator,

but indeed they have been the fewer, because Shall without any manner of preface or "I am no ill-natured man, and never speak

apology acquaint you, that I am, and ever ' things to any man's disadvantage. I never « have been from my youth upward, one of the directly defame, but I do what is as bad in the • greatest liars this island has produced. I o consequence, for I have often made a man say • have read all the moralists upon the subject, such and such a lively expression, who was

but could never find any effect their discourses • born a mere elder brother. Whe! one has said « had upon me, but to add to my misfortune by ! in my hearing, such a one is no wiser than he

new thoughts and ideas, and making me more • Thould be, I immediately inave replied, now " ready in my language, and capable of fome. " 'faith, I cannot see that, he said a very good

times mixing seeming truths with my impro ( thing to my lord such a one, upon such an • babilities. With this strong passion towards occafion, and the like. Such an honest dolt • falfhood in this kind, there does not live an e as this has been watched in every expression • honefter man or a fincerer friend ; but my • he uttered, upon my recommendation of him, o imagination runs away with me, and what. " and consequently been subject to the more ri.

ever is started I have such a scene of adven. <dicule. I once endeavoured to cure myself of "tures appears in an instant before me, that I this impertinent quality, and resolved to hold

cannot help uttering them, though, to my im my tongue for seven days together; I did so,

mediate confusion, I cannot but know I am - but then I had so many winks and unnecessary • liable to be detected by the first man I mett. distortions of my face upon what any body

* Upon occasion of the mention of the batile • elfe faid, that I found I only forbore the exs of Pultowa, I could not forbear giving an prelfion, and that I fill lyed in my heart to

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every man I met with. You are to know one world, left what happened between him and a thing, which I believe you will say is a pity, great beauty should ever be known. Yet again considering the ufe I Mould have made of it, I "he comforts himself. “ Hang the jade her wonever travelled in my life; but I do not know man. If money can keep the slut trusty I will whether I could have spoken of any foreign“ do it, though I mortgage every acre: Anthony country with more familiarity than I do at pre « and Cleopatra for that: all for love and the sent, in company who are strangers to me. I “ world well lost." have cursed the inns in Germany; commended " Then, Sir, there is my little merchant, honest

the brothels in Venice; the freedom in conver Indigo of the 'Change, there is my man for loss *. fation in France; and though I never was out ' and gain; there is tare and tret, there is lying

of this dear town, and fift miles about it, all round the globe; he has such a prodigious have been three nights together doeged by bra intelligence he knows all the French are doing,

voes for an intrigue with a cardinal's mistress wor what we intend or ooght to intend, and has 6 at Rome.

cit from such hands. But alas, whither am I • It were endless to give you particulars of this running! while I complain, while I remonstrate • kind, but I can assure you, Mr. Spectator, there to you, even all this is a lye, and there is not

are about twenty or thirty of us in this town one such perfon of quality, lover, soldier, 'or 'I mean by this town the cities of London merchant as I have now described in the whole S and Westminster; I say there are in town a ( world, that I know of. But I will catch my< sufficient number of us to make a society among "self once in my life, and in spite of nature speak

ourselves; and fince we cannot be believed any one truth, to wit, that I am longer, I beg of you to print this my letter, M

" Your humble servant, &c." " that we may meet together, and be under such regulation as there may be no occasion for he

occafion for he. N° 137. TUESDAY, August 7. " lief or confidence among us. If you think fit;

we might be called The Historians, for liar is At hæc etiam servis semper libera fuerunt, timerent, become a very harsh word. And that a mem gauderent, dolerent, fuo potius quàm alterius erbia ber of the society may not hereafter be ill re trio.

Tull. Epift. ceived by the rest of the world, I desire you'Even llaves were always at liberty to fear, re6 would explain a little this fort of men, and not joice, and grieve, at their own rather than ano

let us historians be ranked, as we are in the ther's pleasure. imaginations of ordinary people, among com

T is no small concern to me, that I find so mon liars, make-bates, impostors, and incendi. 'aries. For your instruction herein, you are to "know that an historian in conversation is only a whom they depend upon will not allow them to

whose portion it is to live in servitude, that those person of fo pregnant a fancy, that he cannot be contented with ordinary occurrences. I of. There are, as these unhappy correspondents

be even as happy as their condition will admit • know a man of quality of our order, who is of inform me, masters who are offended at a chear"the wrong side of forty-three, and has been of ful countenance, and think a servant is broke • that age, according to Tully's jest, for some loose from them, if he does not preserve the uto

years fince, whose vein is upon the romantic; most awe in their presence. There is one who « Give him the least occasion, and he will tell fays, if he looks fatisfied, his master asks him

you something so very particular that happened what makes him so pert this morning; if a little

in such a year, and in fuch company, where by four, hark ye, firrah, are not you paid your wa' the by was present such a one, who was after' wards made such a thing. Out of all these cire ges? The poor creatures live in the mett extreme

cumstances, in the best language in the world, mifery together : the master knows not how to « dents an account that thews a person of the he knows but little satisfaction in the midst of a he will join together with such probable inci- preserve respect, nor the servant how to give it.

Ît seems this person is of so sullen a nature, that deepest penetration, the honcstest mind, and withal Something so humble when he speaks plentiful fortune, and secretly frets to see any apof himself, that you would admire. Dear Sir, hundredth part of his income, who is unhappy

pearance of content, in one that lives upon the why should this be lying! There is nothing so in the poffeffion of the whole. Uneasy perfons, - instructive. He has withal the graveft aspect; who cannot poffefs their own minds, vent their I something fo very venerable and great ? Anos other of these historians is a young man whom spleen upon all who depend upon them; which,

I think, is expressed in a lively manner in the we would take in, though he extremely wants parts; as people send children, before they can

following letters. learn any thing, to school to keep them out of


August 2, 1711. harm's way. He tells things which have no. Have read your Spectator of the third of the « thing at all in them, and can neither please nor last month, and with I had the happiness of

displease, but merely take up your time to no ? being preferred to serve so good a master as Sir s manner of purpose, no manner of delight; Roger. The character of my master is the very 6 but he is good-natured, and does it because he reverse of that good and gentle knight's. All loves to be saying something to you, and enter his directions are given, and his mind revealed

" by way of contraries : as wlien any thing is to I could name you a soldier that hath done be remembered, with a peculiar cast of face he • very great things without faughter; he is . cries, " Be sure to forget now.” s prodigiously dull and now of head, but what ( make haste back, “ Do not come these two s he can fay is for ever false, so that we must have “ hours; be sure to call by the way upon some him.

“ of your companions.” Then another excelGive me leave to tell you of one more who is lent way of his is, if he sets me any thing to a lover ; he is the most affifted creature in the ( do, which he knows must necessarily take up




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half a day, he calls ten times in a quarter of an These are great calamities; but I met the other

hour to know whether I have done yet. This day in the five fields towards Chelsea, a plea' is his manner :- and the same perverseness runs fanter tyrant than either of the above represent

through all his actions, according as the cir- ed. A fat fellow was passing on in his open cumitances vary. Besides all this, he is fo fuf- waistcoat; a boy of fourteen in a livery, carrying picious, that he submits himself to the drudg- after him his cloke, upper coat, hat, wig; and ery of a spy. He is as unhappy himself as he sword. The poor lad was ready to fink with the makes his servants : he is constantly watching weight, and could not keep up with his master, us, and we differ no more in pleasure and li- who turned back every half furlong, and wonberty than as a gaoler and a prisoner. He lays dered what made the lazy young dog lag betraps for faults, and no fooner makes a disco. hind.

very, but falls into such language, as I am more There is something very unaccountable, that . alhamed of for coming from him, than for be- people cannot put themselves in the condition of 'ing directed to me. This, Sir, is a mort sketch the persons below them, when they consider the *

of a master I have served upwards of nine commands they give. But there is nothing more

years; and though I have never wronged him, common, than to see a fellow, who, if he were ' I confess my despair of pleasing him has very reduced to it, would not be hired by any man • much abated my endeavour to do it. If you living, lament that he is troubled with the most • will give me leave to fteal a sentence out of my worthlef dogs in'nature.

master's Clarendon, I shall tell you my case in It would, perliaps, be running too far out of a word, “Being used worse than I deserved, I

common life to urge, that he who is not master “ cared less to deserve well than I had done." of himself and his own paflions cannot be a pro

per master of another. Equanimity in a man's 'Sir, Your humble servant, own words and actions, will eally diffuse itself

Ralph Valet.*' through his whole family. Pamphilio has the

happiest houthold of any man I know, and that Dear Mr. Spesier,

proceeds from the humane regard he has to them Am the next thing to a lady's woman, and in their private persons, as well as in respect that

am under both my lady and her woman. I they are his servants. If there be any occasion, am so used by them both, that I should be very wherein they may in themselves be supposed to • glad to see them in the Speéter. My lady her- be unfit to attend their master's concerns, by rea« felf is of no mind in the world, and for that rea.. son of any attention to their own, he is so good as "fon her woman is of twenty minds in a mo. to place himself in their condition. I thought it

ment. My lady is one that never knows what very becoming in hin, when at dinner the others to do with hersell; nie pulls on and puts off day he made an apology for want of more attenevery thing me wears twenty times before the dants. He faid, “ One of my footmen is gone

reiolves upon it for that day. I stand at one “ to the wedding of his lifter, and the other I do end of the room, and reach things to her wo not expect to wait, because his father died but man. Wicn my lady asks for a thing, I hear “ two days ago.”

T 6 and have half brought it, when the woman

mcets nie in the middle of the room to receive • it, and at that intant fe fays No fhe will not No 138. WEDNESDAY, August S. 6 have it. Thon I go back, and her woman

comes up to her, and by this time she will have Utitur in re non dubiâ teftibus non neceffariis. • that and two or three things more in an infant:

TULL. the woman and I run to each other; I am

loaded and delivering the tliings to her, when He uses unnecessary proofs in an indisputable « my lady says she wants none of all these things,

point. < and we are the dullest creatures in the world, NE meets now and ther with persons who * and she the unliappiest woman living, for the are extremely learned and knotty in ex• shall not be droiled in any time. Thus we pounding clear cales. Tully tells us of an au• stand not knowing what to do, when our good thor that spent some pages to prove that generals

lady with all the patience in the world tells us could not perform the great enterprises which

as plain as she can speak, that the will have have made them so illustrious, if they had noc « temper because we have no manner of under had men. He asserted also, it feems, that a mi• standing; and begins again to dress, and see if nister at home, no more than a commander • we can find out of ourselves what we are to abroad, could do any thing without other men • do. When she is dressed the goes to dinner, and were his instruments and allistants. On this oc

after he has difiked every thing there, the calls casion he produces the example of Themistocles,

for her coach, thien commands it in again, and Pericles, Cyrus, and Alexander himself, whom he ķ then she will not go out at all, and then will go denies to have been capable of effecting what they

too, and orders the chariot. Now, good Mr. did, except they had been followed by others. It Spekter, I detire you would in the behalf of all is pleasant enough to fee such perfons contend who serve froward ladies, give out in your pa- without opponents, and triumph without victory. per, that nothing can be done without allow The au chor abovementioned by the orator is ing time for it, and that one cannot be back placed for ever in a very ridiculous light, and

again with what one was sent for, if one is we meet every day in conversation such as de. ( called back before one can go a step for that serve the same kind of renown, for troubling (they want. And if you please, let them know those with whom they converse with the like o that all mistrefies are as like as all servants, certainties. The perions that I have always

I am your loving friend, thought to deserve the highest admiration in

Patience Giddyi' this kind are your ordinary story-icilers, who

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