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world. I could calily observe the smooth thin manner; so that since it runs in the blood, I ing Italian leaves; the nimble French arpen • have but small hopes of her recovery. I thould always in motion; the Greek and Latin ever' be glad to have a little of your advice in this

greens, the Spanih myrtle, the English oak, ( matter : I would not willingly trouble you to • the Scotch thistle, the Irish Thambrogue, the contrive how it may be a pleasure to me; if

prickly German, and Dutch holly, the Polish you will but put me in a way that I may bear ' and Ruflian nettle, besides a vast number of it with indifference, I thall rest satisfied. exotics imported from Asia, Africa, and Ame.

Dear SPEC, rica. I saw leveral barren plants, which bore

Your very humble feryant. ' only leaves, without any hopes of flower or y fruit: the leaves of fome were fragrant and "P.S. I must the poor girl the justice to

well-nhaped, and others ill-scented and irre 5 let you know that this match was none of her gular. I wondered at a set of old whimsical own choosing, or 'indeed of mine either; in botanists, who spent their whole lives in the I consideration of which I avoid giving her the contemplation of some withered Ægyptian, • least provocation; and indeed we live better Coptic, Armenian, or Chinese leaves, while others together than usually folks do who hated I made it their business to collect in voluminous one another when they were first joined : to

herbals all the several leaves of some one tree. evade the fin against parents, or at least to ex• The fiowers afford a moft diverting entertain tenuate it, my dear rails at my father and mo

ment, in a wonderful variety of figures, colours, ther, and I curse hers for making the match.' ' and scents; however, most of them withered foon, or at best are but annuals. Some pro

"Mr. Spectator,

LIKE the theme you lately gave out exand employment, and despise all fruit; and tremely, and should be as glad to handle it now and then a few fancisul people spend all ax any man living: but I find myself no better their time in the cultivation of a single tulip, o qualified to write about money than about my or a carnation : but the most agreeable amuse- wife; for, to tell you a secret which I defire ment seems to be the well choosing, mixing, may go no farther, I am master of neither of and binding together these fowers in pleasing

" there subjects. « Your's, ' nosegays to present to ladies. The scent of August 8, 1712.

« PILL GARLICK.' Italian fiowers is observed, like their other per'fumes, to be too strong, and to hurt tlie brain;

• Mr. Spectator. 5 that of the French with glaring gaudy colours, DESIRE you would print this in Italic, so

faint and languid; German and Northern yet

as it may be generally taken notice of. It

Ć • Aowers have little or no smell, or sometimes an is designed only to admonish all persons, who

unpleasant one. The ancients had a secret to o speak either at the bar, pulpit, or any public 'give a lasting beauty, colour, and sweetness, assembly whatsoever, how they discover their

to some of their choice flowers, which fourith ignorance in the use of fimilies. There are

to this day, and which few of the moderns can in the pulpit itself, as well as in other places, " effect. These are becoming enough and agree ' such grofs abuses in this kind, that I give this

able in their season, and do often handsomely warning to all I know. I Thall bring them

adorn an entertainment, but an oyer-fondness • for the future before your spectatorial authoo of them seems to be a disease. It rarely hap (rity. On Sunday laft, one, who shall be name• pens to find a plant vigorous enough, to have, less, reproving several of his congregation for ' like an orange-tree, at once beautiful Mining ' ftanding at prayers, was pleased to say, "One ' leaves, fragrant flowers, and delicious nourish « would think, like the elephant, you had no <ing fruit.

" knees.” Now I myself law an elephant, in "Sir, your's, &c. • Bartholomew-fair, kneel down to take on his

. back the ingenious Mr. William Penkethman. Dear Spec. August 6, 1712. T

"Your most humble servant." Ou have given us, in your Spectator of

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upon the force of custom, and its wonderful

N° 456. WEDNESDAY, Aug. 13. efficacy in making every thing pleasant to us. • I cannot deny but that I received above two pennyworth of instruction from your paper,

De quo libelli in celeberrimis locis proponuntur, buic and in the general was very well pleased ne perire quidem tacitè conceditur, TULL. « with it; but I am without a compliment, fin- The man, whose conduct is publicly arraigned • cerely troubled that I cannot exactly be of your

is not suffered even to be ruined quietly. ( opinion, “ that it makes every thing pleasing * yoked to a young lady, who is in plain Eng. Terva, Mas de cribed in the mifery or a man; lith, for her standing, a very eminent scold. whose effects are in the hands of the law, with • She began to break her mind very freely both great fpirit. The bitterness of being the fcorn ' to me and to her servants about two months and laughter of base minds, the anguish of being • after our nuptials; and though I have been ac insulted by men hardened beyond the fense of ( customed to this humour of hers these three ihame or pity, and the injury of a man's fortune

years, yet I do not know what is the matter being waited, under pretence of justice, are ex• with me, but I am no more delighted with it cellently aggravated in the following speech of « than I was at the very first. I have advised Pierre to Jasper :

with her relations about her, and they all tell me that her mother and her grandmother be. "I pass'd this very moment by thy doors, tore her were both taken much after the same i And found them guarded by a troop of villains :

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The fons of public rapine were destroying. application of that power, and are ever coti-
They told me, by the sentence of the law, strained to go into rigorous measures. They
They had commission to seize all thy fortune: are careful to demonftrate themselves not only
Nay more, Priuli's cruel hand had fignid it. persons injured, but also that to bear it ho long-
Here stood a ruffian with horrid face,

er would be a means to make the offender injure Lording iç o'er a pile of mally plate,

others, before they proceed. Such men clap Tumbled into a heap for public sale.

their hands upon their hearts, and consider what There was another making villainous jests it is to have at their mercy the life of a citizen. At thy undoing : he had ta'en possession, Suchi would have it to say to their own fouls, if Of all thy ancient molt domestic ornaments : poffible, thåt they were merciful when they Rich liangings intermix'd and wrought with could Have destroyed, rather than when it was

in their power to have sparęd á man, they de The very bed, which on thy wedding-night ftroyed. This is a due to the common calamity of Receiv'd thee to the arms of Belvidera,

human life, due in some measure to our very The scene of all thy joys, was violated enemies. They who. fcruple doing the least inBy the coarse hands of filthy dungeon villains; jury, are cautious of exacting the utmost justice. And thrown aniongst the common lumber.” Let any one who is conversant in the variety

of human lifë reflect upon it, and he will find Nothing, indeed can be more unhappy than the mari who wants mercy has a tafte of no ena the condition of bankruptcy. The calamity. joyment of any kind. There is a natural dissewhich happens to us by ill fortune, or by the lith bf every thing which is good in his very na. Injury of others, has in it fome consolations furç, and he is born an enemy to the world. but what arises from our own misheliaviour or. He is ever extremelý patrial to himself in all his error, is the state of the most exquisite forrow. actions, and has no sense of iniquity but from When a man cohfidets not only an ample for: the punishment which Niall attend 'it. The law fune, but even the very necessaries of life, bis of the land is his gospel

, and all his cases of con. pretence to food itself, at the mercy of his cre- science are determined by his attofrey, Such ditors, he canilot but look upon himself in the men know not what it is to gladden the heart of Atate of the dead, with his cafe thus much worse. , a miserable mañthắt riches are the instruments that the laft office is performed by his adverfaries of ferving the putposes of heaven or lieli, accord Instead of his friends. From this hour the cruel, ing to the disposition of the possessor. The wealthy world does not only take poffeffion of his caň torment or gratify all who are in their power, whole fortune, but even of every thing else, and choose to do one or other as they are affected which had no relation to it

. All bis indif- with love or hatred to mankind. As for such ferent actions llave new interpretations put who are insensible of the concerns of bothers, but upon them; and those wliom he has favoured in merely as they affect themselves, these thien are his former life, discharge themselves of their to be valued only for their mortality, and as we obligations to Hilm, by joining in the reproaches hope better things from their heirs. I could not of his enemies. It is almost incredible that it but read with great delight a letter from an em.

hould be fo; but it is too often seen that there nent citizen, who has failed; to one who was
is a pride mixed with the impatience of the cre. intimate with him in his better fortune, and
ditor, and there are who would tacker recover able by his countenance to retrieve his lost con.
their own by the downfal of a prosperous man; dition.
that be discharged to the contmon satisfaction
of themfelves and their creditors. The wretched
man, who was lately master of abundance, is T is in vain to multiply words and make
now under the direction of others, and the wil.
d'ob, ceconomy, good sense, and kill in hainan by the best advocate in the world, the guilt of
life before, by eafon of his present misfortune; being unfortunate. All that a man in my
åre, of no ufe to him in the disposition of any condition can do or say, will be received with
thing. The incapacity of an infant or a lunatic prejudice by the generality of mankind, but I
is defigned for his provision and accommodation ; hope not with you : you have been a great in.
but that of #bankrupt, without any mitigation strument in helping me to get what I have loft,
in respect of the accidents by wlrich it arrived, and I know, for that reason, as well as kind-
is calculated for his úttei ruin, except there bé nels to me, you cannot but be in pain to see
a remainder imple enoggh after the discharge me undone. To jew you I am not a man
of his creditors to bear all the expence of reward incapable of bearing calamity, I will, though
ing those by whole means the effect of all his la.

a poor man, lay aîde the distinction between bour was transferred from tim. This man is us, and talk with the frankness we did when to look on and ste others giving directions upon we were nearer to an equality as all I do Avhat terms and conditions his goods are to be will be received with prejudice, a'l you do

purchased, and all this ufually done not with an will be looked upon with partiality. What I Sair of trustçes to dispose of his effé&s, but defroy. défire of you is, that you, who are courted by eis to divide and tear them to pieces.

all, would smile upon me, who am thanned There is Tomething facre in mifery to great by all. Let that grace and favour wvliich your and good minds: for this reason all wife lawgiv fortune throws upon you, be turned tô make ers have been extremely tender how they let up the coldmess and indifference that is used stoofe even the man who has right on his side, to towards me. All good and generous men will ad with any mixture of resentment against the have an eye of kindness for me for my own defendant Virtuous and modest men, though fakė, and the rest of the world will regard me they be used with some artifice, and have it in • for yours. There is a happy contagion in tłkir power to avenge themselves, are now in the riche, as well as a destructive råe in poverty :

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the rich can make rich without parting with « These are the two chicf qualifications in an

any of their store, and the conversation of the article of news, which recommend it, in a · poor makes men poor, though they borrow more than ordinary manner, to the ears of

nothing of them. How this is to be accounted • the curious. Sickness of persons in high posts, for I know not: but men's estimation follows twilight visits paid and teceived by minisers us according to the company we keep. If you of state, clandestine fourtships and marriages, are what you were to me, you can go a great • secret amours, losses at plays applications for way towards my recovery; if you are not, my • places, with their refpective successes or regood fortune, if ever it returns, will return by puffes, are the mterials in which I chiefly inflower approaches.

dend to deal.' I have two persons, tliat are !) am, SIR,

• each of them the representative of a fpecies, + Your affectionate friend, who are to furnith me with those whifpers and humble servant.' 'which l intend to convey to my sorrespondents.

« The first of there is Peter Hush, descended from This was answered with a condescension that the ancient family of the Hulhes: the other :, did.vot, by long impertinent professions of kind- · is the old Lady Blast, who has a very numerness, intuic his diftress, ßut was as follows. ots tribe of daugifters'in the two great cities of

London and Westminster. Peter Hush has a " Dear Tom,

whispering hole in most of the great' coffeeAM very glad to hear that you have fieart shoufes about town. If you are alone with

• ftim in a wide room; he carries you up into a " I affure you, I do not think your numerous i corner of it, and speaks it in your ear. I have « family at all diminished, in the gifts of nature • feen Peter seat himself in a company of feven or

for which I have ever so much admired them, eight persons, whom he never faw before in

by, what' has so lately happened to you. This life; and after havinig looked about to see " thall not only countenance your affairs with • there was no one that over heard him, has com

my appearance for you, but Thall accommu municated to them in a low voice, and under “date you with a cooliderable Yum at common the fext of fécrecy, the death of a great man in " intereft for three years. You know I could • the cotintry, who was perhaps a fox-hunting “ make more of it; but I'have so great a love ?* the very moment this account was given of " for you, that I can wave opportunities of Clim. if upon your enteting into a coffees « gain to lielp you; for I do not care whether house you fee a circle of heads Bending over " they say of me after I am dead, that I had an the table, and lyitig close by one another, 'it « hundred or fifty thousand pounds more than I is ten to one but my friend Peter is among s! Wanted when I was living

i + them. I have known Peter publishing the T. " Your obliged humble servant;" 'whisper of the day by eight of the clock in the

morning at' Garraway's, by twelve at Will's,

• and before two at the Smyrna. Wlieni Peter had No. -459. THURSDAY, AUGUST 14.

"thus effectually launched a secret, I have been ** very well pleased to leat people whispering it

si to one another at second-Irand, and fpreading semi-Mulia & præclara minantis.

*ft about as their own; for you must know, Hor. Sat. 3. 1. 2.V.9. "Sir, the great incentive to whispering is the S

fciambition wliich'everyone has of being thoughs oeming to promise something wond'rous great,

in the secret, and being looked upon as a man

who has access to greater people than one SHALL this day lay before my reader 4 let

would imagined After having given you this ter, written by the same land with that of

account of Peter Huth,' I proceed to that virtuvlast Friday, .. wbich contained proposals for a

sous lady, the old lady Blatt, wiro is to commů. printed news-paper that hould take in the whole circle of the penny potto, +39

nicate to me the private transactions of the 4*.crimp-table, with all the arcana of the fair

The lady Blaft, you must understand, H E kind reception you gave my last has Tucli a particular malignity in her whisper, project of a news-påper, encourages me to lay every reputation that it breathes upon. She before you two or three more; for, you must " has a particular knack at making private know, Sic, that we look upon you to be the weddings, and laft winter married above Lowndes of the learned world, and cannot five women of qualiey to their footmen. Her think ariy Tclieme practicabte or rational before * whisper can make a# innocent young woman you have approved of it, though all the money 4 big with child, or filf an healthy young fellos web taife

by it is on our own funds, and for "' with distempers that are not to be named. She " our private ule.

can turn a visit into an intrigue, and a diftart • I have often thought that a Newsletter of (falute into an assignation. She can beggar the Whispets, written every post, and fent about wealthy, and degrade the noble. In hort, the the kingdom, after the same manner as that of * 'can whisper men base or foolith, i jealous or Mr. Dyer, Mr. Dawkes, or any other epistolary *6 ill-natured, or, if occasion requires, can tell historian, might be highly gratifying to tlie you tlic Nips of theit great grandmothers, and. public, as well as beneficial to the author. By traduce the memory of tronelt cdachmen that whispers I mean those pieces of news which have been in their graves above cliefe hundred are communicated as fecrets, and which bring years. By these ard the like helps, 1 question

to the hearer; first, as they not but i fhall furnith our a very hanifome are private history,

".news-letter. If you approve my project, I " they have always in them a dash of sçarfdal. • shall begin to whispet by the very next pott,

(Sir,

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sand queftion not but.every one of my customers. The one guards virtue, the other betrays ite
s will be very well pleased with me, when he True modesty is afhamed, to do any thing that,
r.confiders that every piece of news. I send him is repugnant to the rules of right reason: false

is a word in his ear, and lets him into a modefty is ashamed to do any thing that is np.
« secret.

pofite to the humour of the company, True • Having given you a sketch of this project, I modesty avoids, every thing that is criminal, fall, in the next : place, suggest to you.ano false modesty every thing that is unfashionable. ther for a monthly pamphlet, which I finall like. The latter-is only: a general-undetermined inwife fubmit to your spectatorial wildom. I need. ftinct, the former is that inftinct limited and cir-;

not tell you, Sir, that tere are several authors cumscribed by the rules of prudence and religion. s, in France, Germany, and Holland, as well as We may conclude that modesty to be falle, and

in our own country, who publish every month, vicious which engages a man to do any thing what they call, “ An Account of the works of that is ill and indiscreet, or which restrains him

the Learned," in which they give us an ab. from doing any thing that is of a contrary nature. ' ftract of all such books as are printed in any How many men in the common concerns of

part of Europe. Now, Sir, it is my design to life, lend sums of money which they are not

publih every month.“ an Account of the able to fpare, are bound for persons whom they $ Works of the unlearned." Several late pro-, have but little friendthip for, give recommenda. du&tions of my own countrymen, who many tpry characters of men whom they are not ace;

of them make a very eminent figure in the il quainted with, bestow places on those whom literate world encourage me in this undertak- they do not esteem, live in fuch a manner as they •ing,' I may, in this work, possibly make a themselves do not approve, and all this merely, sreview of several pieces which have appeared because they have not the confidence to refill 10' in the foreign accounts : above mentioned, licitation, importunity, and example ? * though they ought not to have been taken no Nor does thiş false modesty expose us only to <tice of in works which bear such a title. I such actions as are indifçreet, but very often to may, likewise, take into congideration such such as are highly criminal. When Xenophanes pieces as appear, from time to time, under the was called timorous, because he would not vena names of those gentlemen who compliment ture his money in a game at dice: "Iconfess,' one another in public assemblies, by the title said he, that I am exceeding timorous, for I of ^ The Learned Gentlemen.”

Our party

• dare not do an ill thing.'. On the contrary, a ( authors will allo afford me a great variety of man of vicious modesty complies with every subjects, not to mention editors, commentators, thing, and is only fearful of doing what may and others, who are often men' of no learning, appear fingular in the company where he is en • or what is as bad, of know knowledge. 1 gaged. He falls in with the torrent, and lets 5. Shall not enlarge upon this hint; but if you himself go to every action or discourse, however

think any thing can be made of it, I shall set a. unjustifiable in itself, so it be in yogue among

bout it with all the pains and application that the present party. This, though one of the most • so useful a work deserves. I am ever, common, is one of the most ridiculous disposia • Molt worthy SIR, &c.' tions in human nature, that men should not be

alhamed of speaking or acting in a diffolute or

irrational manner, but that one who is in theif N° 458. PRIDAY, AUGUST 15,

company hould be alhamed of governing him,

self by the principals of reason and virtue. "Aude Brayable

HES. In the second place we are to consider false Pudor malus

Hor.

modesty, as it reltrains a man from doing what

is good and laudabļe. My reader's own thoughts False modesty.

wiil suggest to him many instances and examples

under this head. - I. hall only dwell upon one was yeiterday, given me of a modest young

We have in England a particular gentleman, who being invited to an entertain. bashfulness in every thing that regards religion. ment, though he was not used to drink, had not A well-bred man is obliged to conceal any ferious the confidence to refuse his glass in his turn, sentiment of this nature, aud very often to apwhen on a sudden he grew fo fuftered thaç he pear a greater libertine than he is, that he may took all the talk of the table into his own hands, keep himself in countenance among the men of abused cyery one of the company, and flung mode. Our excess of modesty makes us shame bottle at the gentleman's head who treated him, faced in all the exercises of piety and devotion. This has given me accalion to refect upon the This buipour prevails upon us daily'; infómuch, ill effects of a vicious modesty, and to remem- that at many well-bred tables, the matter of ber the saying of Brutus, as it is quoted by Ply- the house is so very modeft a man, that he has tarch, that the person has had but an ill.edu. not the confidence to fay grace at his own table :

cation, who has not been taught to deny any custom which is not only practised by all the thing. This false kind of imodesty has, pero nations about us, but was never omitted by the haps, betrayed both sexes into as many vices as heathens themselves.. English gentlemen who the most abandoned impudence, and is the more travel inte Román-catholic countries, are not a inexcusable to reason, because it acts to gratify little furprised to meet with people of the best others rather than itself, and it is punished with quality kneeling in their churches, and engaged a kind of remorse, not only: like other viçions in their private devotions, though it be not at habits when the crime is over, but even at the the hours of public worthip. An officer of the very time that it is committed ;

army, pra map ofrwit and pleasure in those counNothing is more amiable than fue.medelly, tries would be afraid of paffing not only for and nothing is more contempasible than the falię. an irreligious, but an illybred man, fhould he be

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reen to go to bed, or fit down at table without them, and which I fall make the subject of this offering up his devotions on fuch occasions. day's paper. The same fhow of religion appears in all the Notwithstanding this general divifion of chrifforeign reformed churches, and enters so much tian duty into morality and faith, and that they in their ordinary conversation, that an English. have both their peculiar excellencies, the first man iş apt to terin them hypocritical and pro- has the pre-eminence in several refpects. cise.

First, because the greatest part of morality, as This litçle appearance of a religious deport. I have stated the notion of it, is of a fixed eter. ment in our nation, may proceed in some mca - nal nature, and will endure when faith fhall fail, fure from that modesty which is natural to us, and be loft in conviction.' but the great occasion of it is certainly this : Secondly, because a person may be qualified to those fwarms of se{taries that over-ran the nation do greater good to mankind, and become more in the time of the great rebellion, carried their beneficial to the world, by 'morality without hypocrisy fo high, that they had converted our faith, than by faith without morality. whole language into a jargon of enthusiasm; in Thirdly, because morality gives a greater pere fomuch that upon the reitoration men thought section to human-nature, by quieting the mind, they could not 'recede too far from the behaviour moderating the passions, and advancing the hapand practice of those persons, who had made re- piness of every man in his private capacity. ligion a cloke to so many villainies. This led Fourthly, becaufe the rule of morality is much them into the other extreme, every appearance more certain than that of faith, all the civilized of devotion was looked upon as puritanical, and nations of the world agreeing in the great points falling into the hands of the ridiculers who of morality, as much as they differ in those of tourished in that reign, and attacked every thing faith: that was serious, it has ever fince been out of Fifthly, because infidelity is not of ra malige countenance among us. By this means we are nant a nature as immorality; or to put the fame gradually fallen into thát vicious modesty, which reason in another light, because it is generally has in some measure worn out from among us owned, there may be salvation for a virtuous in. the appearance of chriftianity in ordinary life fidel, particularly in the case of invincible and conversation, and which diftinguishes us ignorance, but none for a vicious believer. from all our neighbours.

Sixthly, because faith seems to draw its prinHypocrity cannot indeed be too much defeft.' çipal, if not all' its excellency, from the influed, but at the same time is to be preferred to ince it has upon morality; as we shall fee more open impiety. They are both equally deftruc- at large, if we conqder wherein confits the extive to the person who is possessed with them; cellency of faith, or the belief of revealed relibut in regard to others, hypoerisy is not so per- gion; and this I think is, picious as barefaced irreligion. The due mean First, in explaining, and carrying to greater to'be obferved is to be sincerely virtuous, and at heights several points of morality. the same time to let the world see we are ro. I Secondly, in furnishing new and stronger mo. do not know a more dreadful imenace in the Holy tives to enforce the practice of morality. Writings, than that which is pronounced as Thirdly, in giving us more amiable ideas of gainst those who have this perverted modesty, to the Supreme Being, more endearing notions of be ashamed before men in a particular of luch one another, and a truer state of ourselves, both unspeakable importance.

c in regard to the grandeur and vilenefs of our

Fourthly, by rhewing us the blackness and

deformity of vice, which in the christian system N° 459. SATURDAY, AUGUST 16: is so very great, that he who is poffeffed of all

perfection and the sovereign judge of it, is re. Quicquid dignum füpiente bonoque ef. presented by several of our divines as hating lin mHor. Ep. 4.1, 1.-y, 5. to the same degree that he loves the facred per

son who was made the propitiation of it. What befits the wise and good! CREECH. Fifthly, in being the ordinary and prefcribed

Hrundt

method of making morality effectúal to falvaELIGION may be considered under two ţion.

general heads. The first comprehends I have only touched on these feveral heads, what we are to believe, the other what we are which every one who is conversant in discourses to practise. By thofe things which we are to of this nature will ealily enlarge upon in his own believe, I mean whatever is: revealed to us in thoughts, and draw conclusions from them which the Holy Writings, and which we could not may be useful to him in the conduct of his life have obtained the knowledge of by the light of One I am sure is so obvious, that he cannot miss nature; by the things which we are to practise, it; namely, that a man cannot be perfect in his I mean alt those duties to which we are directed feleme of morality, who does not ftrengthen and by reason or natural feligion. The first of thefe support it with that of the chriftian faith. I Thall diftinguith by the name of faith, the fe Besides this, I shall lay down two or three cond by that of morality.

other' maxims which I think we may deduce If we look into the more serious part of man- from what has beeņi faid. kind, we find many who tay fo great a strefs First, that we should be particularly cautious upon faith, that they neglect: morality; and of making any thing an article of faith, which many who build so much upon morality, that does not contribute to the confirmation or imthey do not pay a due regard to faith. The per- provement of morality: feet man should be defective in neither of thefe Secondly, that no article of faith can be true particulars, as will be very revident to thofe who and authentic which weakens of fubverts the consider the benefits which arise from each.

Diaperon din practical

patures.

R

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