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hope, whether they be such as we may reason

« and horses. I shall then begin to enjoy myably expect from them what they propofe in « self, and make a noise in the world. I will their fruition, and whether they are such as we “ not, however, stop there, but still continue are pretty sure of attaining, in case our life ex my

traffic until I have got together a hundred tend itself so far. If we hope for things which « thousand drachmas. When I have thus made are at too great a distance from us, it is possible “ myself master of, a hundred thousand drachthat we may be intercepted by death in our pro mas, I Thall naturally set myself on the foot of gress towards them. If we hope for things of “ a prince, and will demand the grand Vifier's which we have not thoroughly considered the “ daughter in marriage, after having represented value, our disappointment will be greater than “ to that minister the information which I have our pleasure in the fruition of them. If we « received of the beauty, wit, discretion, and other hope for what we are not likely to poffess, we high qualities which his daughter possesses. I act and think in vain, and make life a greater « will let him know at the same time, that it is dream and shadow than it really is.

my intention to make him a present of a chouMany of the miseries and misfortunes of life “ fand pieces of gold on our marriage night. proceed from our want of confideration, in one or “ As soon as I have married the grand Visier's all of these particulars. They are the rocks on “ daughter, I will buy her ten black eunuchs, which the languine tribe of lovers daily split,“ the youngest and best that can be got for moand on which the bankrupt, the politician, the ney. I must afterwards make my father-in-law alchymist, and projector, are cast away in every a visit with a grand train and equipage. And age. Men of warm imaginations and towering « when I am placed at his right hand, which he thoughts are apt to overlook the goods of fortune « will do of course, if it be only to honour his which are near them, for something that glitters “ daughter, I will give him the thousand pieces in the fight at a distance; to neglect solid and " of gold which I promised him, and afterwards substantial happiness, for what is showy and fu « to his great surprize, will preient him another perficial ; and to contemn that good that lies within " purfe of the same value, with some short speech, their reach, for that which they are not capable « as,” « Sir, you see I am a man of my word : I of attaining. Hope calculates its schemes for a always give more than I promise.' long and durable life; presses forward to imagi " When I have brought the Princess to my nary points of bliss, and grasps at impossibilities ; “ house, I shall take particular care to breed her and consequently very often infrares men into « in a due respect to me, before I give the reins beggary, ruin, and diłhonour.

to love and dalliance. To this end I Thall conWhat I have here said, may serve as a moral “ fine her to her own apartment, make her a short to an Arabian fable, which I find translated into 6 visit and talk but little to her. Her women French by Monsieur Galland. The fable has in “ will represent to me, that she is inconsolable by it such a wild, but natural simplicity, that I " reason of my unkindnefs, and beg me with question not but my reader will be as much plea “ tears to caress her, and let her fit down by fed with it as I have been, and that he will con

but I shall still remain inesorable, and fider himself, if he reflects on the several amuse “ will turn my back upon her all the first night. ments of hope which have fometimes passed in 6 Her mother will then come, and bring her. his mind, as a near relation to the Persian glais- “ daughter to me, as I am feated upon my fofa.

“ The daughter, with tears in her eyes, will Alnaschar, says the fable, was a very idle fel “ Aling herself at my feet, and beg of ino to low, that never would fet his hand to any busi receive her into my favour : then will I, to ness during his father's life. When his father « imprint in her a thorough 'veneration for my died, he left him to the value of an hundred “ person, draw up my legs, and spurn her from drachmas in Persian money. Alnafchar, in order “ me with my foot, in such a manner that the to inake the best of it, laid it out in glasses, bot « Thall fall down several paces from the sofa.” tles, and the finest earthen warc. These he piled Alnaschar was entirely swallowed up in this up in a large open basket, and having made choice chimerical vision, and could not forbear acting of a very little shop, placed the basket at his feet, with his foot what he had in his thoughts : fo and leaned his back upon the wall, in expectation that unluckily ftriking his basket of brittle ware, of customers. As he sat in this posture with his which was the foundation of all his grandeur, he eyes upon the basket, he fell into a most amusing kicked his glasses to a great distance from him train of thought, and was overheard by one of his into the street, and broke them into ten thousand neighbours, as he talked to himself in the follow- pieces. ing manner: This basket,” says he, “ coit me at the wholesale merchant's an hundred drach

mas, which is all I have in the world. I shall N° 536. FRIDAY, Nov. 14. “ quickly make two hundred of it, by selling it in retail. These two hundred drachmas will 0! veræ Phrygiæ, neque enim Pbryges ! little while rise to four - hundred,


No 9. ver. 617 which of course will amount in time to four O! less than women, in the thapes of men ! «6 thousand, Four thousand drachmas cannot

Dryden. fail of making weight

As soon as S I was the other day standing book« will lay alide my trade of a glass-man, and eighteen years of age, ftept out of her coach, and “ turu jeweller. I shall then deal in diamonds, brushing by me, beckoned the man of the flop çó pearls, and all sorts of rich stones. When to the farther end of his counter, where ine « have got together as much wealth as I can well whispered something to him, with an attentive “ dafire, I will make a purchase of the finet look, and at the same time presented him with « houfe I can find, with lands, llaves, eunuchs, a letter : after which, pressing the end of her


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fan upon his hand, the delivered the remaining several fine fringes that only stay for more part of her meffage, and withdrew. I observed, hands.' in the midst of her discourse, that the flushed, and caft an eye upon me over her shoulder, having I shall, in the next place, present my reader been informed by my bookseller, that I was the with the description of a set of men who are comman with the short face whom the had so often mon enough in the world, though I do not reread of.

Upon her passing by me, the pretty member that I have yet taken notice of them, as blooming creature smiled in my face, and drop- they are drawn in the following letter. ped me a curtesy. She scarce gave me time to return her salute, before the quitted the shop with

136 Mr. Spectator, an easy skuttle, and stepped again into her coach,



have lately, to so good purgiving the foot man directions to drive where they were bid. Upon her departure, my book- be hoped you will discourage every practice that Teller gave me a letter, superscribed, " To the in

rather proceeds from a regard to interest, than “ genious Spectator,” which the young lady had ,

to happiness. Now you cannot but observe, detired him to deliver into my own hands, and that most of our fine young ladies readily fall to tell me, that the speedy publication of it would ' in with the direction of the graver fort, to renot only oblige herself, but a whole tea-table

"tain in their service, by some small encouof my friends. I opened it therefore, with a

ragement, as great a number as they can of resolution to publish it, whatever it Thould con

supernumerary and insignificant fellows, which tain, and am sure, if any of my inale readers

! they use like whitflers, and .commonly call will be so severely critical as not to like it, they á Shoeing-horns. These are never designed to know would have been as well pleased with it as myself, the length of the foot, but only, when a good had they seen the face of the pretty fcribe.

• offer comes, to whet and spur him up to the

point. Nay, it is the opinion of that grave (Mr. Spectator, London, Nov. 1712. • lady, Madam Matchwell, that it is absolutely OU are always ready to receive any use

? convenient for every prudent family to have ful hint or proposal, and such, I believe,

several of these implements about the house, you will think one that may put you in a way to clap on as occasion serves, and that every • to employ the most idle part of the kingdom ;

fpark, ought to produce a certificate of his ( I mean that part of mankind who are known

being a thoeing-horn, before he be admitted as < by the name of womens-men, or beaus, &c. a thoe. A certain lady, whom I could name, « Mr. Spectator, you are sensible these pretty

• if it was necessary, has at present more shoe« gentlemen are not made for any manly em

ing-horns of all sizes, countries, and colours, ployments, and for want of business are often

« in her service, than ever he had new hoes in " as much in the vapours as the ladies. Now

6 her life. I have known a woman make use what I propose is this, fince knotting is again of a thoeing-horn for several years, and finding « in fashion, which has been found a very pretty • him untuccessful in that function, convert him o amusement, that you will recommend it to

at length into a shoe. I am miltaken if your these gentlemen as something that may make

friend Mr. William Honeycomb was not a cast-off them useful to the ladies they admire. And

1hoeing horn before his late marriage. As for since it is not inconsistent with any game, or ' myself, I must frankly declare to you, that I o other diversion, for it may be done in the play, ? have been an errant thoeing-horn for above

house, in their coaches, at the tea-table, and, 5 these twenty years. I ferved my first mistress < in thort, in all places where they come for the

in that capacity above five of the number, be"fake of the ladies (except at chureh, be pleased - fore she was shod. 'I confess, though she had

to forbid it there, to prevent iniftakes) it will « many who made their application to her, I al• be easily complied with. It is besides an employment that allows, as we see by the fair « and it was not until a month before her mar

ways thought myself the best thoe in her shop, sex, of many graces, which will make the beaus

rriage that I discovered what I was. This had more readily come into it; it thews á white

like to have broke my heart, and raised such " hand, and a diamond ring, to great advantage ; ' fufpicions in me, that I told the next I made • it Icaves the eyes at full liberty to be employed love to, upon receiving some unkind usage from

as before, a's also the thoughts, and the tongue. her, that I began to look upon myself as no • In short, it seems in every respect fo proper, (more than her thoeing-horn. Upon which, my " that it is needless to urge it farther, by speak. I dear, who was a coquette in her nature, told ring of the satisfaction these male kaotters will me, I was hypochondriacal, and that I might find, when they see their work mixed up in a

as well look upon myself to be an egg or a • fringe, and worn by the fair lady for whom Š

pipkin. But in a very short time after the gave and with whoin it was done. Truly, Mr.

• me to know that I was not mistaken in myself. « Spectator, I cannot bue be pleased I have hit " It would be tedious to reco

nt to you the life upon something that these gentlemen are ca of an unfortunate fhoeing-horn, or I might en pable of ; for it is fad fo confiderable a part of tertain you with a very long and melancholy

the kingdom (I mean for numbers) should be relation of my sufferings. Upon the whole, I i of no manner of use

I shall not trouble you think, Sir, it would very well become a man in • farther at this time, but only to say, that I yoxr pot, to determine in what cases a woman

an always your reader, and generally your « inay be allowed, with honour, to make use of a ( admirer',

« C. B.'

shoeing-horn, as also to declare whether a maid "P.S. The sconer these fine gentlemen are set

1' on this fide five and twenty, or a widow who

" has vor been three years in that state, may " to work the better; there being at this time

be granted such a --privilege, with other diff




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culties which will naturally occur to you upón both fides seem to be of equal ftrength. But as that subjekt.

I began with confidering this point as it relates " I am, Sir,

to action, I shall here bórrow an admirable rewith the most profound veherations ! fection from Monsieur Paschal, which I think

• fets it in its proper light.

« It is of dangerbus conséquence,” says hey « to present to man how near he is to the level

" of beasts, without shewing him at the same N° 537 SATURDAY, Nov. 15.

« time his greatness. It is likewise dangerous Το μεν γαρ γένος εσμέν.

ARAT. to let him see his greatness, without his means

is nefs. It is more dangerous yer to leave him For we are his offspring: Acts xvii. 28.

" ignorant of either ; but very beneficial tha: he

« fhould be made sensible of both.” Whatever To the SPECTATOR.

• išperfections we may have in our nature, it is ISIR,

• the business of religion and virtue to rectify T has been usual to remind persons of rank; : them, as far as is consistent with our present

on great occalions in life, of their race and ftate. In the mean time, it is no small enquality, and to what expectations they were couragement to generous minds to consider that born ; that; by considering what is worthy of we thall put them all off with our mortality.

them, they may be withdrawn from mean pur. • That sublime manner of falutation with which + suits; and encouraged to laudable undertakings. o the Jews approached their Kings, • This is turning nobility into a principle of virtue, and making it productive of merit, as it is

« O Kiħġ; live for ever!" o understood to hiave been originally at teward 5 of it.

• inay be addressed to the lowest and most defpifco It is for the like reason; I imagine, that you « mortal among us; under all the infirmities and have in soine of your speculations asserted to distresses with which we see him furrounded. your readers the dignity of human nature. But • And whoever believes the immortality of the you cannot be insensible that this is a contro • souls. will not need a better argument for the verted doctrine; there are authors who consider • dignity of his nature, nor a stronger incitement human nature in a very different view, and to actions suitable to it. books of maximis have been written to thew I am naturally led by this reflection to a the falsity of all human virtues. The reflec . subject I have already touched upon in a formes

tions which are made on this fubject usually · letter, and cannot without pleasure call to mind I take some tincture from the tempers and cha- the thoughts of Cicero to this purpose, in the • racters of those that make them. Politicians close of his book concerning old age: Every

can resolve the most thining actions among men 6 one who is acquainted with his writings, will into artifice and design ; others, who are soured remember, that the elder Cato is inèroduced by discontent, repuliess or ill usage; are apt to • in that discourse as the speakers and Scipio mistake their spleen for philosophy men of and Lelius as his auditors. This venerable per-,

profligate lives; and such as find themselves in o ton is represented tooking forward, as it were, * capable of rising to any distinction among from the verge of extreme old age into a future

their fellow-creatures, are for pulling down all ftate, and rising into a contemplation on the un. appearances of merit, which seem to upbraid perishable part of his nature, and its existence them and satirists describe nothing but de-after death. I thall collect part of his discourse. formity. From all these hands we have such And as you have formerly offered some argu

draughts of mankind as are represented in those 'ments for the soul's immortality, agreeable both o burlesque pi&tures, which the Italians call Ca- ' to reason and the Christian doétrine, I believe

ricaturas ; where the art consists in preserving, your readers will not be displeased to see how ramidiť distorted proportions; and aggravated the same great truth thines in the pomp of the • features, some distinguishing likeness of the .. Roman eloquence. • person ; but in such a manner as to transforin “ This,” says Cato, " is my firtni persuasion,

The most agreeable beauty into the most odious " that since the human soul exerts itself with so menfter.

“ great activity, since it has such a remembrance « It is very disingenuous to level the best of « of the past, such a concern for the future, ( mankind with the worst; and for the faults of a fince it is enriched with so many arts, scienparticulars to degrade the whole species. Such

ces, and discoveries, it is impossible but the methods tend not only to remove a man's good“ being which contains all there must be imopinion of others, but to destroy that reverence

« mortal. • for himself, which is a great guard of innocence, " The elder Cyrus, just before his death, is and a spring of virtue.

“ represented by Xenophon speaking after this It is true indeed, that there are surprizing 6 manner.” I mixtures of beauty and deformity, of wisdom " Think not, my dearest children, that then

and folly, virtue and vice, in the human make;: “ I depart from you, I shall be no more, but « such a disparity is found among numbers of “ remeinber, that my soul, even while I lived o the same kind, and every individual, in some « among you, was invisible to you ; yet by my • inftances; or at some times, is so unequal to " actions you were sensible it existed in chis • himself, that man seems to be the most wavera „¢'body. Believe it therefore existing still, tho • ing and inconstant being in the whole crear as it be still unseen. How quickly would the

tion. - so that the question in morality, con o honours of illuftrious meh perish after death,

cerning the dignity of our nature, may at first “ if their souls performed nothing to preserve • light appear like fome difficult questions in nas " their fame? For my own part, I never could tural philosophy, in which the arguments va " think that the foul, while in # mortal body's

I lives

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“ lives, but when departed from it, dies; or three other very fine ones among thoig-whicli are " that its consciousness is lost, when it is dif not lettered at the end, will foon publish a nobie “ charged out of an unconscious habitation. But poemn, intitled, An Ode to the Creator of the “ when it is freed from all corporeal alliance, World, occasioned by the fragments of Orpheus. “ then it truly exitts. Farther, tince the human frame is broken by death, rell us what becomes **s of its parts? It is vilible whither the materials " of other beings are tranllafed, namely, to the “ fource from wlience they had their birth. The N° 538, MONDAY, November 17, “ soul alone, neither present nor departed, is the

-Ultra object of our eyes.”

Finem tendere opx's.

Hor, Sat, 1. 1. 2. ver, I. “ Thus Cyrus. But to proceed. No one thall “ perfuade me, Scipio, that your worthy father, To launch beyond all bounds.

your grandfathers Paulus and Atricanuis, of “ Africanus his father or uncle, or many other URPRIZE is so much the life of stories, that « excellent men whom I need not name, per“ formed to many aétions to be remembered by please by telling them. Smooth delivery, a

potterity, without being lentible that futurity elegant choice of words, and a sweet arrange“ was their right. And if I may be allowed an

ment, are all beautifying graces, but not the “ old man's privilege, to fpeak of mytelt, do you particulars in this point of conversation which « think I would have endured the fatigue of to either long command the attention, or strike “ many wearifome days and nights, both at home with the violence of a sudden passion, or occa“ and abroad, if I imagined that the same boun- fion the burst of laughter which accompanies ““ dary which is fet to my life must terminate humour. I have fometimes fancied that the “ my glory? Were it not more desirable to have mind is in this case like a traveller who fees a

worn out my days in eale and tranquillity, a fine feat in haste; he acknowledges the delight« free from labour and without ennulation. But fuinels of a walk fet with regularity, but would “ I know not how, my soul has always raited be uneasy if he were obliged to pass it over, when « itselt, and looked forward on futurity, in this the first view had let him into all its beauties * view and expectation, that when it shall de- from one end to the other.

part out of life, it shall then live for ever; However, a knowledge of the success which « and if this were not true, that the mind is iin- ftories will have when they are attended with a “ mortal, the souls of the most worthy would turn of surprize, as it has happily made the cha

not, above all others, have the firongest impulie racters of fome, so has it also been the ruin of " to glory.

characters of others. There is a fet of men wlio " What besides this is the cause that the wifest outrage truth, instead of affecting us with a manmen die with the greatest equanimity, the ig- ner in ceiling it; who overleap tlie line of pro.

norant with the greatest concern? Does it not bab lity, that they may be feen to move out of “ feem, that thote minds which have the most the common road, and endeavour only to '

make " extentive views, foresee they are removing to a their hearers ftare by impofing upon them with “ happier condition, which those of a narrow a kind of nonsense againti the philosophy of na* fight do not perceive? I, for my part, am trani. ture, or such a heap of wonders told upon their “ ported with the hope of seeing your ancellors; own knowledge, as it is not likely one man * whom I have honoured and loved, and am ear should ever have met with. ko

weitly desirous of meeting not only those es I have been led to this observation by a com“ cellent persons whom I have known, but those pany into which I fell accidentally. The suba too of whom I have heard and read, and of ject of antipathies was a proper field wherein « whom I myself have written : .nor would I fuch false surprizers might expatiate, and there “ be detained from so pleating a journey. O hapo were those present who appeared very fond to

py day, when I shall escape from this croud, new it in its full extent of traditional history. “ this heap of pollution, and be admitted to that Some of them, in a learned manner, offered to - divine afsembly of exalted spirits! When I our confideration the miraculous powers which " thall go not only to those great perfons I have the effluviums of cheese have over bodies whore “ named, but to my Cato, my son, than whom pores are disposed to receive them in a noxious

a better man was never born, and whole funeral manner; otliers give an account of such who “ rites I myself performed, whereas he ought could indeed bear the sight of cheese, but not the “ rather to have attended mine. Yet has not taste; for which they brought a reason from the “ his soul deserted me, but leeming to caft back milk of their nurses. Others again discourfed,

a look on me, is gone before to thote ha- without endeavouring at reasons, concerning an “ bitations to which it was sensible I thould fol. unconquerable aversion which some stomachs “ low him. And though I might appear to have' have against a joint of meat when it is whole, “ borne my loss with courage, I was not unaf- and the eager inclination they have for it, when, “ fected with it, but I comforted myself in the by its being cut up, the shape which had affected « affurance that it would not be long before we them is altered. From hence they paired to eels, " thould meet again, and be divorced no more.” then to parsnips, and so from one avertion to ano.

“ I am, Sir, &c.'' ther, until we had worked up ourselves to fuch a

pitch of complaisance, that when the dinner was 1 question not but my reader will be very much to come in, we enquired the name of every dinh, pleased to hear that the gentleman who has obli and loped it would be no cifence to any in comged the world with the foregoing letter, and who pany, before it was admitted. When we had, was the author of the 210th fpeculation on the lat down, this civility among us turned the disi minortality of the soul, the 375th on virtue in couríe from eatables to other forts of a versions į dittress, the 525th on conjugal love, and two or' and the eternal čat, which plagues every conver5

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fation of this nature, began then to ingross the The other method which the world has taken Subject. One had sweated at the light of it, ano for correcting this practice of-false surprize, is to" ther had fmelled it out as it lay concealed in a overshoot such talkers in their own bow, or to very diftant cupboard; and he who crowned the raise the story with further degrees of impoffibiwhole fet of these stories, reckoned up the number lity, and set up for a voucher to them in such a of times in which it had occafioned him to swoon manner as muít let them see they stand detected. away. At laft, says he, that you may all be Thus I have heard a discourse was once managed satisfied of my invincible averfion to a cat, 1 upon the effects of fear. One of the company. lhall give an unaliverable inttance: as I was had given an account how it had turned his going through a Itreet of London, where I had friend's hair grey in a night, while the terrors of never been until then, I felt a general damp and a fhipwreck encompassed him. Another taking. faintness'all over me, which I could not tell the hint from hence, began, upon his own know-, how to account for, until I chanced to cart my ledge, to enlarge his instances of the like nature cyes upwards, and found that I was patling un to such a number, that it was not probable he der a fign-poit on which the picture of a cat was could ever have met with them: and as he fill hung.

grounded these upon different causes for the sake The extravagance of this turn in the way of of variety, it might seem at last, from his Mare surprize, gave a Itop to the talk we had been of the conversation, almost impossible that any carrying on: some were filent because they one who can feel the passion of fear should all doubted, and others because they were con- his life escape fo common an effect of it. By this quered in their own way; so that the gentle time fome of the company grew negligent, or deman had an opportunity to press the belief of it firous to contradict him: but one rebuked theupon us, and let us see that he was rather expos- rest with an appearance of severity, and with ing himself than ridiculing others.

the known old story in his head, assured them I must freely own that I did not all this while they need not scruple to believe that the fear of disbelieve every thing that was said ; but yet I any thing can make a man's hair grey since he thought some in the company had been endea- knew one whose periwig had fuffered fo by it, vouring who hould pitch the bar farthest; that. Thus lie stopped the talk, and made them easy. it had for some time been a measuring cast, and 'Thus is the fame method taken to bring us to at last my friend of the cat and fign-post had name, which we fondly take to increase our thrown beyond them all.

character. It is indeed a kind of mimicry, by I then considered the manner in which this which another puts on our air of conversation story had been received, and the possibility that to Thew us to ourselves: he seems to look ridiit might have passed for a jest upon others; if culous before you, that you may remember how he had not laboured against himfelf, From near a resemblance you bear to him, or that you hence, thought I, there are two ways which may know that he will not lie under the imputa. the 'we:l-bred world generally takes to correct tion of believing you. Then it is that you are such a practice, when they do not think fit to ftruck dumb immediately with a conscientious contradict it natiy.

fame for what you have been saying. Then it The hrst of these is a general filence, which I is that you are inwardly grieved at the senti.. would not advise any one to interpret in his own ments which you cannot but" perceive others behalf. It is often the effect of prudence in entertain concerning you. In short, you are avoiding a quarrel, when they see another drive against yourself; the laugh of the company runs fo fast that there is no stopping him without be- against you; the censuring world is obliged to ing run against; and but very feldom the effect you for that triumph which you have allowed of weakness in believing suddenly. The genera- them at your own expence; and truth which you lity of mankind are not so grofly ignorant, as have injured has a near way of being revenged on some overbearing spirits would persuade them- you, when by the bare repetition of your story felves; and if the authority of a character or “ you become a frequent diverfion for the public. caution against danger make us suppress our opinions, yet neither of these are of force enough

Mr, Spe&tator, to supprefs our thoughts of them, If a man who has endeavoured to amuse his company with

THE other day, walking in Pancras church improbabilities could but look into their minds, he would find that they imagine he lightly

you mention epitaphs, and am of opinion this esteems of their sense when he thinks to impose

• has a thought in it worth being communicated upon them, and that he is less etteenied by them ' to your readers, for his attempt in doing so. His endeavour to

Here innocence and beauty lies, whose breath glory at their expence becomes a ground of quar

" Was snatch'd by early, not untimely death. rel, and the scorn and indiffcrence with which

" Hence did the go, just as she did begin they entertain it begins the immediate punish

6: Sorrow to know, before she knew to sin. ment; and indeed, (if we thould even go no far

“ Death, that does sin and forrow thus prevent, ther) filence, or a negligent indifference has a

• Is the next blessing to a life well spent." deeper way of wounding than opposition, because opposition proceeds from an anger that has a fort

• I am, Sir, of generous sentiment for the adversary mingling

• Your servant, along with it, while it thews that there is some esteem in'your mind for him; in short, that you think him worth while to contest with : but file ence, or a negligent indifference, proceeds from anger, mixed with a scorn that thews another he is thought by you too contemptible to be regarded.

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