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how unfit these are to give us a right notion of from those weak stirrings and tendencies of the each other's perfections, may appear from several will which have not yeť formed themselves into considerations. There are many virtues, which in regular purposes and designs, to the last intire fitheir own nature are incapable of any outward re- nishing and consummation of a good habit. He prelentation : many filent perfections in the soul beholds the first imperfect rudiments of a virtue in of a good man, which are great ornaments to hu- the soul, and keeps a watchful eye over it in all its man nature, but not able to discover themselves to progress, until it has received every grace it is ca. the knowledge of others; they are transacted in pable of, and appears in its full beauzy and perfecprivate, without noise or show, and are only visi- tion. Thus we see that none but the supreme Beble to the great searcher of hearts. What actions ing can esteem us according to our proper nierits, can express the intire purity of thought which re- fince all others must judge of us from our outward fines and sanctities a virtuous man? That fecret actions, which can never give them a just estimate reit and contentedness of mind, which gives him a of us, since there are many reitections of a man perfect enjoyment of his present condition ? that which are not capable of appearing in actions ; in ward pleasure and complacency which he feels in many which, allowing no natural incapacity of doing good ? that delight and fatistaction which he shewing themselves, want an opportunity of doing takes in the prosperity and happiness of another? it; or, should they all meet with an opportunity thete and the like virtues are the hidden beauties of appearing by actions, yet those actions may
be of a foul, the secret graces which cannot be dif- misinterpreted, and applied to wrong principles covered by a mortal eye, but make the foul lovely or though they plainly discovered the principles and precious in his fight, from whom no secreis are from whence they proceeded, they could never concealed. Again, there are many virtues which hew the degree, strength, and perfection of those want an opportuni:y of exercing and shewing them- principles. selves in actions. Every virtue requires time and And as the supreme Being is the only proper place, a proper object and a fit conjuncture of cir- judge of our perfections, fo is he the only fit recumilances, for the due exercise of it. A state of warder of them. This is a confideration that comes poverty obscures all the virtues of liberality and home to our interest, as the other adapts itself to munificence. The patience and fortitude of a our ambition. And what could the most aspiring, martyr «s confessor lie concealed in the Huurishing or the most selfish man desire more, were he to times of Christianity. Some virtues are only seen form the notion of a being to whom he would rein affliction, and tome in prosperity; fome in a commend himself, than such a knowledge as can private, and others in a public capacity. But the discover the least appearance of perfection in him, great Sovereign of the world beholds every perfec- and such a goodness as will proportion a reward to tion in its ofcurity, and not only sees what we it. do, but what we would do. He views our beha Let the ambitious man therefore turn all his viour in every concurrence of affairs, and sees us defire of fame this way; and that he may propose engaged in ail the possibilities of action. He dir to himself a fame worthy of his ambition, let hin covers the martyr and confefior without the trial conlider that if he employs his abilities to the best of flames ard tortures, and will hereafter intitle advantage, the time will come when the supreme many to the reward of actions, which they had Governor of the world, the great Judge of mannever the opportunity of performing. Another kind, who sees every degree of perfection in others, reason why men cannot form a right judgment of and pofleffes all pollible perfection in himself, shall us is, because the same actions may be aimed at proclaim his worth before men and angels, and different ends, and arise from quite contrary prin- pronounce to him in the presence of the whole ciples. Actions are of so mixt a nature and to creation chat best and most lignificant of applauses, full of circumttances, that as men pry into them “ Well done, thou gond and falthful fervant, enmore or less, or observe some parts more than « ter thou into thy Master's joy."
с others, they take different hints, and put contrary interpretations on them ; so that the same action's may represent a man as hypocritical and designing No 258. WEDNESDAY, DECEM. 26. to one, which make him appear a saint or hero to
Divide & impera. another. He therefore who looks upon the soul
Divide and rule. through its outward actions, often sees it through a deceitful medium, which is apt to discolour and LEASURE and recreation of one kind or pervert the object; so that on this account also, other are absolutely necessary to relieve our He is the only proper judge of our perfections, who minds and bodies from too constant attention does not guess at the fincerity of our intentions and labour : where therefore public diversions from the goodness of our actions, but weighs the are tolerated, it behoves perfonis of distinction, goodness of our actions by the fincerity of our in- with their power and example, to preside over tentions.
them in such a manner as to check any thing that But further; it is impossible for outward ac tends to the corruption of manners, or which is tions to represent the perfections of the soul, be too mean or trivial for the entermainment of reacause they can never shew the ftrength of those fonable creatures. As to the diversions of this principles from whence they proceed. They are kind in this town, we owe them to the arts of not adequate expreflions of our virtues, and can poetry and music; my own private opinion, with only thew us what habits are in the soul, without relation to such recreations, I have heretofore discovering the degree and pertection of such ha- given with all the frankness imaginable; what bits. They are at best but weak resemblances of concerns those arts at present the reader shall our intentions, faint and inperfect copies that may have from my correspondents. The first of the acquaint us with the general design, but can never letters with which I acquit myself for this day, exp'efs the beauty and life of the original. But is written by one who proposes to improve our the great Judge or all the earth knows every dif- entertainments of dramatic poetry, and the other feroni itaie and degree of human improvement, comes from three persons, who, as soon as
named, will be thought capable of advancing the lives; and in contempt of the practice of perpresent state of muiic.
fons of condition, have the infolence to owo
no tradesman a farthing at the end of the week. Mr. Spectator.
Sir, all I propose is the public good; for 110 AM considerably obliged to you for your one can imagine I shall cver get a private thil
ling by it: therefore I hope you will recomthe 18th instant, and am in no small hopes of • mend this matter in one of your this week's
being settled in the post of comptroller of the papers, and desire when my house opens you • cries. Of all the objections I have hearkened will accept the liberty of it for the trouble ' after in public coffee-houses, there is but one you have received from, • chat seems to carry any weight with it, viz.
• Sir, Your humble servant, • That such a post would come too near the na
"Ralph Crotchet ture of a monopoly. Now, Sir, because I
P. S. I have assurances that the trunk-maker
E whose names are subscribed, think
Now there being but one dramatic theatre li • fpeculations on the mistakes which the town icensed for the delight and profit of this exten run into with regard to their pleasure of this ' five metropolis, I do humbly propose, for the • kind; and believing your method of judging o convenience of such of its inhabitants as are is, that you consider music only valuable, as it
too distant from Covent-Garden, that another ris agreeable to, and heightens the purpose of « Theatre of Ease may be erected in some spacious poetry, we consent that that is not only tle
part of the city; and that the direction thereof true way of relishing that pleasure, but alfo
may be made a franchise in fee to me, and iny • that without it a composure of music is the ( heirs for ever. And that the town may have ' same thing as a poem, where all the rules of
no jealousy of my ever coming to an union • poetical numbers are observed, though the • with the set of actors now in being, I do fur words have no sense or meaning; to say it
ther propose to constitute for my deputy my « shorter, mere musical sounds are in our art ng
near kinsman and adventurer, Kit Crotchet, other than nonsense verses are in poetry. Mu' whose long experience and improvements in ' fic therefore is to aggravate what is intended « those affairs need no recommendation. It was ' by poetry; it must always have some passion • obvious to every spectator what a quite differ or sentiment to express, or else violias, voices, • ent foot the stage was upon during his govern ( or any other organs of sound, afford an enter.
ment; and had he not been bolted out of his taiņınent very little above the rattles of chil. trap-door, his garrison might have held out for dren. It was from this opinion of the matte:, ever,
he having by long pains and perseverance that when Mr. Clayton had finished his studies arrived at the art of making his army fight with in Italy, and brought over the opera of Arsinöe, out pay or provisions. I must confess it with a that Mr. Haym and Mr. Dieupart, who had
melancholy amazement, I see so wonderful a the honour to be well known and received • genius laid aside, and the late Naves of the among the nobility and gentry, were zealouny
Itage now become its masters, dunces that will 'inclined to affift, by their solicitations, in in• be sure to suppress all theatrical entertainments (troducing so elegant an entertainment as the 6 and activities that they are not able themselves • Italian music grafted upon English poetry. For to shine in?
' this end Mr. Dieupart and Mr. Haym, accord• Every man that goes to a play is not obligeding to their several opportunities, promoted the to have either wit or understanding; and I in introduction of Arsinöe, and did it to the best • fist upon it, that all who go there should see advantage so great a novelty would allow. It r something which may improve them in a way ' is not proper to trouble you with particulars of 6 of which they are capable. In short, Sir, I the just complaints we all of us have to make;
would have something done as well as said on but so it is, that without regard to our obliging - the stage. A man may have an active body, pains, we are all equally set aside in the present
though he has not a quick conception; for the opera. Our application therefore to you is « imitation therefore of such as are, as I may so only to insert this letter in your papers, that the • speak, corporeal wits or nimble fellows, I town may know we have all three joined toge
would fain ask any of the present mismanagers, 'ther to make entertainments of mufic for the "why should not rope-dancers, vaulters, tum ' future at Mr. Clayton's house in York-buildoblers, ladder-walkers, and poiture-masters ap ings. What we promise ourselves, is, to make
pear again on our stage? After such a repre a subscription of two guineas, for eight times; sentation, a five-bar gate would be leaped with " and that the entertainment, with the names of
a better grace next time any of the audience the authors of the poetry, may be printed, to " went a hunting. Sir, these things cry aloud ! be sold in the house, with an account of the fe• for reformation, and fall properly under the 6 veral authors of the vocal as well as the inftrus province of Spectator General; but how indeed ( mental music for each night; the money to be
Thould it be otherwise, while fellows, that for ' paid at the receipt of the tickets, at Mr. Charles • twenty years together were never paid but as Lillie's. It will, we hope, Sir, be easily al• their maiter was in the humour, now presume • lowed, that we are capable undertaking to pay others more than ever they had in their exhibit by our joint force and different qualifi
*cations all that can be done in music: but leit Others you shall find so obsequious, and so very
you ihould think se dry a thing as an account of courteous, as there is no escaping their favours of * out proposal should be a matter unworthy your this kind. Of this fort may be a man who is in
paper, which generally contains something of the fifth or fixth degree of favour with a minister; * public uíe; give us leave to say, that favouring this good creature is resolved to fhew the world,
our design is no less than reviving an art, which that great honours cannot at all change his man
runs to ruin by the utmost barbarism under an ners; he is the same civil person he ever was ; he + affectation of knowledge. We aim at establish- will veinture his neck to bow out of a coach in
ing fome settled notions of what is music, as re- full speed, at once, to shew he is full of business's ' covering from neglect and want very many fami- and yet is not so taken up as to forget his old < lies, who depend upon it, at making all foreign- friend. With a man who is not so well formed • ers who pretend to succeed in England to learn for courtship and elegant behaviour, such a gen(the language of it as we ourselves have done, and tleman as this feldom finds his account in the re
not be so insoient as to expect a whole nation, turn of his compliments, but he will still go on, ra refined and learned nation, should submit to for he is in his own way; and must not omit; « learn theirs. In a word, Mr. Spectator, with all let the neglect fall on your fide, or where it will,
de ference and humility, we hope to behave our his business is still to be well-bred to the end. I ( felves in this undertaking in such a manner, that think I have read, in one of our English comedies, « all Englisli men who have any ikill in music may a description of a fellow that affected knowing « be furthered in it for their profit or diversion by every body, and for want of judgment in time and "what new things we fall produce; never pre- place, would bow and smile in the face of a judge « tending to surpass others, or aflcrting that any fitting in the court, would fit in an opposite gal< thing which is a science is not attainable by all lery and smile in the minister's face as he came 6 men of all nations who have proper genius for up into the pulpit, and nod as if he alluded to cit: we say, Sir, what we hope for is not expected some familiarities between them in another place. < will arrive to us by, contemning others, but But now I happen to speak of falutation at church, < through the utmost diligence recommending our I must take notice that several of my correspon6 felves.
dents have importuned me to consider that sub« We are. Sir,
ject, and settle the point of decorum in that parti6 Your most humble servants, cular,
« Thomas Clayton. I do not pretend to be the best courtier in the
• Nicolino Haym. world, but I have often on public occasions thought T
• Charles Dieupart.' it a very great abfurdity in the company (during
the royal presence) to exchange falutations from
all parts of the room, when certainly common N° 259. THURSDAY, DECEMBÉR 27. fenfe should suggest that all regards at that time
should be engaged, and cannot be diverted to any Quod de et benefium eft, & quod bones um eft decet.
other object, without disrespect to the sovereign. TULL.
But as to the complaint of my correspondents, it What is becoming is honourable, and what is how is not to be imagined what offence some of them nourable is becoming,
take at the custom of faluting in places of worship. "HERE are some things which cannot come I have a very angry letter from a lady, who tells
under certain rules, but which one would me of one of her acquaintance, who, out of mere think could not need them. Of this kind are out- pride and a pretenee to be rude, takes upon her to ward civilities and falutations. There one would return no civilities done to her in time of divine imagine right be regulated by every man's con- service, and is the most religious woman for no mon sense, without the help of an initructor; but other reason but to appear a woman of the best that which we call common sense suffers under that quality in the church. This absurd custom had word; for it sometimes implies no more than that better be abolished than retained, if it were but to faculty which is common to all men, but sometimes prevent evils of no higher a nature than this is; fignifies right reaton, and what all men Mould but I am informed of ohjections much more confia consent to. In this latter acceptation of the derable: a dissenter of rank and distinction was phrase, it is no great wonder people err so much lately prevailed upon by a friend of his to come to against it, since it is not every one who is poiseffed of one of the greateít congregations of the church of it, and there are fewer, who, againl common England about town: after the service was over, rules and fashions, dare obey its dictates.
he declared he was very well satisfied with the litfalutations, which I was about to talk of, I ob tle çeremony which was used towards God Al. ferve, as I (troll about town, there are great enor-mighty; but at the same time he feared he should mities committed with regard to this particular. not be able to go through those required towards You shall fometimes fee a man begin the offer of one another: as to this point he was in a state of a salutation, and observe a forbidding air, or escap- de pair, and feared he was not well-bred enough ing eye, in the person he is going to falute, and to be a convert. There have been many scandals stop short in the poie of his neck. This in the of this kind given to our protestant diflenters from person who believed he could do it with a good the outward pomp and respect we take to ourselves grace, and was refused the opportunity, is justly in our religious assemblies. A quaker who came resented with a coldness the whole ensuing season. one day into a church, fixed his eye upon an old Your great beauties, people in much favour, or by lady with a carpet larger than that from the pula any means or for any purpose over-fiattered, are apt pit before her, expecting when she would hold to practise this, which one may call the preventing forth. An anabaptist who designs to come over aspect, and throw their attention another way, leit himself, and all his family, within a few months, is they thould cesar a bow or a courtesy upon a per- sensible they want breeding enough for our congrefun who might not appear to deferve that dignity. gations, and has fert his two eldest daughters to
learn to dance, that they may not misbehave them- men's doing foolishly what it is folly to do at all. selves at church; it is worth confidering whether, 6 Dear Sir, this my present state of mind : I hate in regard to aukward people with scrupulous con
· those I should laugh at, and envy those I coniciences, a good christian of the best air in the "temn. The time of youth and vigorous man. world ought not rather to deny herself the oppor • hood, passed the way in which I have disposed of tunity of thewing so many graces, than keep a • it, is attended with these consequences; but to bashful profelyte without the pale of the church. o those who live and pass away life as they ought,
T ( all parts of it are equally pleasant; only the me
mory of good and worthy actions is a feast which
' must give a quicker relish to the soul than ever No 260. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 28. • it could possibly taste in the highest enjoyments
oor jollities of youth. As for me, if I fit down Singula de nobis anni prædantur euntes.
• in my great chair and begin to ponder, the vagaHor. Ep. 2. 1 2. ver. 55. (ries of a child are not more ridiculous than the Years following years steal something ev'ry day, < circumstances which are heaped up in my meAt last they steal us from ourselves away.
mory; fine gowns, country-dances, ends of tunes,
POPÈ. .. interrupted conversations, and midnight quarrels, • Mr. Spectator,
are what must necessarily compose my soliloquy. Am now in the fixty-fifth year of my age, and
• I beg of you to print this, that some ladies of having been the greater part of my days a man i my acquaintance, and my years, may be persuaof pleasure, the decay of my faculties is a stag
• ded to wear warm night-caps this cold season : 6 nation of my life. But how is it, Sir, that my ' and that my old friend Jack Tawdry may buy
appetites are increased upon me with the loss of him a cane, and not creep with the air of a strut. power to gratify them? I write this, like a cri- ' I must add to all this, that if it were not for one minal, to warn people to enter upon what refor
pleasure, which I thought a very mean one until mation they please to make in themselves in of very late years, I should have no one great “their youth, and not expect they shall be capable • satisfaction left; but if I live, to the oth of
of it from a fond opinion some have often in • March, 1714, and all my securities are good, I their mouths, that if we do not leave our desires shall be worth fifty thousand pounds. I am, they will leave us. It is far otherwise; I am
“SIR, now as vain in my dress, and as flippant if I fee
• Your most humble ferránt, a pretty woman, as when in my youth I stood
• Jack Afterday. upon a bench in the pit to survey the whole cir.
"Mr. Spectator, cle of beauties. The folly is so extravagant with OÙ will infinitely oblige a distressed lover, me, and I went on with so little check of my de
if you will insert in your very next paper, fires, or resignation of them, that I can assure "the following letter to my mistress. You must
you, I very often, merely to entertain my own I know, I am not a person apt to defpair, but the • thoughts, fit with my spectacles on, writing • has got an odd humour of fiopping short unac< love-letters to the beauties that have been long « countably, and, as the herself
told a confident of since in their graves. This is to warm my heart 6 her's, she has cold fits. These fits shall lait her with the faint memory of delights which were ! a month or fix weeks together; and as she falls
once agreeable to me! but how much happier 6 into them without provocation, so it is to be hoa I would my life have been now, if I could have ! ped she will return from them without the merit « looked back on any worthy action done for my of new services. But life and love will not ad. • country? if I had laid out that which I profused ó mit of such intervals, therefore pray let her ba « in luxury and wantonness, in acts of generosity • admonished as follows.
or charity? I have lived a bachelor to this day; • and instead of a numerous offspring, with which, ! Madam, • in the regular ways of life, I might poffibly have Love you, and I honour you; therefore pray I delighted myself, I have only to amuse myself 5 do not tell me of waiting 'till decencies, 'cill < with the repetition of old stories and intrigues • forms, 'till humours are confulted and gratified. 6 which no one will believe I ever was concerned • If you have that happy constitution as to be incin. I do not know whether you have ever o dolent for ten weeks together, you should confi. ! treated of it or not; but you cannot fall on a • der that all that while I burn with impatiences 6 better subject, than that of the art of growing and fevers.; but still you fay it will be time • old. In such a lecture you must propose, that.. enough, though I and you too grow older while
no one sets his heart upon what is transient; the r we are yet talking. . Which do you think the • beauty grows wrinkled while we are yet gazing ! more reasonable, that you should alter a state of « at her. The witty man finks into an humourist « indifference for happiness, and that to oblige me, o imperceptibly, for want of reflecting that all ! or I live in torment, and that to lay no manner o things around him are in a flux, and continually of obligation upon you ? While I indulge your • changing: thus he is in the space of ten or "fifteen insensibility I am doing nothing; If you favour
years surrounded by a new set of people, whose ? my passion, you are beltowing bright desires, gay • manners are as natural to them as his delights, hopes, generous cares, noble resolutions, and " method of thinking, and mode of living, were • transporting raptures upon, • formerly to him and his friends. But the
6 Madam, 5 mischiet is, he looks upon the same kind of errors
• Your most devoted humble servanto? which he himself was guilty of with an eye of
scorn, and with that sort of ill-will which men "Mr. Spectator,
ERE is a gentlewoman lodges in the fame
house with me, that I never did any in • mind is fretted with vexatious pasions for young jury to in my whole life; and the is always raido
• ing at me to those me knows will tell me of it. state agreeable, but often determine our happiness • Do not you think that she is in love with me?
to all eternity. Where the choice is left to • Or would you have me break my mind yet or friends, the chief point under consideration is an 6 not?
cftate : where the parties choose for themselves, « Your servant,
their thoughts turn most upon the person. They
T. B.' have both their reasons. The first would procure « Mr. Spectatos,
many conveniences and pleasures of life to the party An a footman in a great family, and am in whole interests they espouse; and at the same time
love with the house-maid. We were all at may hope that the wealth of their friend will turn hot cockles last night in the hall these holidays;
to their own credit and advantage. The others are « when I lay down and was blinded, she pulled off preparing for themselves a perpetual feast. A good • her shoe, and hit me with the heel such a rap, perfon does not only raise, but continue love, and
as almost broke my head to pieces. Pray, Sir, breeds a secret pleasure and complacency in the beI was this love or fpite?''
1 holder, when the first heats of desire are extin
guished. It puts the wife or husband in counte
nance both among friends and strangers, and geneNo 261. SATURDAY, DECEMBER 29. race of children.
rally fills the family with a healthy and beautiful Γάμος γαρ ανθρώποισιν ευκλαίον κακόν. .
I should prefer a woman that is agreeable in my
own eye, and not deformed in that of the world, to Frag. vet. Poet.
a celebrated beauty. If you marry one remarkaWedlock's an ill, men eagerly embrace.
bly beautiful, you must have a violent paflion for Y father, whom I mentioned in my first her, or you have not the proper taste of her charms;
speculation, and whom I must always name and if you have such a pasiion for her, it is odds with honour and gratitude, has very frequently but it would be imbittered with fears and jeatalked to me upon the subject of marriage. I was loufies. in my younger years enga ed, partly by his advice, Good-nature and evenness of temper will give and partly by my own inclinations, in the courtship you an easy companion for life; virtue and good of a person who had a great deal of beauty, and did sense, an agreeable friend; love and constancy, a not at my first approaches seem to have any avere good wife or husband. Where we meet one person fion to me; but as my natural taciturnity hindered with all these accomplishments, we find an hundred me from fnewing myself to the best advantage, without any one of them. The world, notwiththe by degrees began to look upon me as a very ftanding, is more intent on trains and equipages, Lilly fellow, and being resolved to regard merit and all the showy parts of life; we love rather to more than any thing else in the persons who made dazzle the multitude, than consult our proper intheir applications to her, she married a captain of terefts; and, as I have elsewhere observed, it is dragoons who happened to be beating up for re one of the moft unaccountable passions of human cruits in those parts.
nature, that we are at greater pains to appear easy 'This unlucky accident has given me an averfion and happy to others, than really to make ourselves to pretty fellows ever since, and discouraged ine so. Of all disparities, that in humour makes the froin trying my fortune with the fair sex. The mos unhappy marriages, yet fearce enters into our obfervations which I made in this conjuncture, and thoughts at the contracting of them. Several that the repeated advices which I received at that time are in this respect unequally yoked, and uneasy for from the good old man above-mentioned, have life, with a person of a particular character, might produced the following essay upon Love and Mar- have been pleased and happy with a person of a conTiage.
trary one, notwithstanding they are both perhaps The pleasantest part of a man's life ja generally equally virtuous and laudable in their kind. that which paties in courtship, provided his patsion Before marriage we cannot be too inquisitive and be fincere, and the party beloved kind with discre- discerning in the faults of the person beloved, nor tion. Love, defire, hope, all the pleasing motions after it too dim-fighted and superficial. However of the foul rise in the pursuit.
perfect and accomplished the perfon appears to you It is easier for an artful man who is not in love, at a distance, you will find many blemishes and imto periaade his mistress he has a passion for her, perfections in her humour, upon a more intimate and to succeed in his pursuits, than for one who acquaintance, which you never discovered, or perloves with the greatest violence. True love has haps suspected. Here therefore discretion and goodten thousand griefs, impatiences, and resentments, nature are to thew their strength; the first will that render a man unamiable in the eyes of the per- hinder your thoughts from dwelling on what is dif. son whose affection he folicits ; belides, that it agreeable, the other will raise in you all the tenfinks his figure, gives him fears, apprehensions and derness of compassion and humanity, and by degrees pournefs of spirit, and often makes him appear ri- foften those very imperfections into beauties. diculous where he has a mind to recommend him. Marriage enlarges the fcene of our happiness and felf.
mireries. A marriage of love is pleasant; a marThose marriages generally abound most with love riage of interest easy; and a marriage, where both and conitancy, that are preceded by a long court. meet, happy. A happy marriage has in it all the · thip. The passion Mould strike root, and gather pleasures of friendship, all the enjoyments of sense trength before marriage be grafted on it. A long and reason, and indeed, all the sweets of life. course of hopes and expectations fixes the idea in Nothing is a greater mark of a degenerate and viour minds, and habituates us to a fondness of the cious aye, than the common ridicule which passes
on this state of life. It is, indeed, only happy in There is nothing of so great importance to us, those who can look down with scorn or neglect on as the good qualities of one to whom we join our the impieties of the times, and tread the paths of felves for life; they do not only make our preferrt life together in a constant uniform course of vir