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of the late act of parliament for fecuring the beds of tulips. It was a pretty variation of the ehurch of England, and told me with great fatif- prospect, when any one of these fine ladies rose fađion, that he believed it already, began to take up and did honour to herself and friend at a difeffect, for that a rigid difsenter who chanced to tance, by curtefying; and gave opportunity to dine at his house on Chriftmas day, had been that friend sto ihew her charms to the fame adobserved to eat very plentifully of his plumb- vantage in returning the falutation. Here that porridge.
action is as proper and graceful, as it is at charch After having dispatched all our country mat
unbecoming and impertinent. By the way, y ters, Sir Roger made several inquiries concerning must take the liberty to obferve that I did not fee the club, and particularly of wis old antagonist any one who is ufually fo full of civilities at Sir Andrew Freeport. He asked me with a kind church, offer at any fuch indecorum during any of smile, whether Sir Andrew had not taken the part of the action of the play. Such beautiful advantage of his abfence, to vent among them prospects gladden our minds, and when confiderfome of his republican doctrines; but soon after ed in general, give innocent and pleafing ideas. gathering up his countenance into a more than He that dwells upon any one object of beauty, ordinary serioufness, tell me truly, says he, do may fix his imagination to his difquiet; but the not you think Sir Andrew had a hand in the contemplation of a whole affembly together, is a pope's proceffion ?--but without giving me time defense against the incroachment of desire: at to anfwer him, Well, well, fays he, I know you least to me, who havetaken pains to look at beauty áre a wary man, and do not care to talk of public abstracted from the consideration of its being the matters,
object of desire; at power, only as it sits upon anoThe knight then asked me, if I had seen prince ther, without any hopes of partaking any share of Eugenio, and made me promise to get him a stand it; at wifdom and capacity, without any pretenin some convenient place where he might have a
fions to rival or envy its acquisitions : I say to me, full sight of that extraordinary man, whofe pre
who am really free from forming any hopes by fence does so much honour to the British nation. beholding the persons of beautiful women, or He dwelt very long on the praises of this great warming myself into ambition from the succeries general, and I found that, since I was with him of other men, this world is not only a mere scene, in the country, he had drawn many observations but a very pleasant one. Did mankind but know together out of his reading in Baker's chronicle, the freedom which there is in keeping thus aloof and other authors, who always lie in his hall from the world, I should have more imitators, window, which very much redound to the ho than the powerfullest man in the nation has fola nour of this prince.
lowers. To be no man's rival in love, or comHaving passed away the greatest part of the petitor in business, is a character which if it does morning in hearing the knight's reflexions, which not recommend you as it ought to benevolence were partly private, and partly political, he asked among those whom you live with, yet has it me if I would smoke a pipe with him over a dish certainly this effect, that you do not stand la of coffee at Squire's. As I love the old man, I much in need of their approbation, as you would fake delight in complying with every thing that if you aimed at it more, in setting your heart on as agreeable to him, and accordingly waited on
the same things which the generality dote on. him to the coffee - House, where his venerable By this means, and with this ealy philosophy, I figure drew upon us the eyes of the whole room,
am never less at a play than when I am at the He had no fooner seated himself at the upper end theatre; but indeed I am seldom so well pleased of the high table, but he called for a clean pipe, with altion as in that place; for most men fola paper of cobacco, a dish of coffee, a wax can low nature no longer than while they are in their dle, and the supplement, with such an air of night-gowns, and all the busy part of the day are chearfulnefs and good-humour, that all the boys in characters which they neither become nor alt in the coffee-room, who seemed to take pleasure in with pleasure to themselves or their beholders. in serving him, were at once employed on his But to return to my ladies : I was very well several errands, infomuch that nobody else could pleased to see so great a crowd of them assembled come at a dish of tea, until the knight had got all
at a play, wherein the heroine, as the phrase is, his conveniencies about him.
is so just a picture of the vanity of the sex in tormenting their admirers. The lady who pines
for the man whom the treats with so much imNo
pertinence and inconstancy, is drawn with much 270. WEDNESDAY, JAN. G.
art and humour. Her resolutions to be extremely Discit enim citiùs, meminitque libentius illud, civil, but her vanity arising just at the instant Quod quis deridet, quàm quod probat
that the refolved to express herself kindly, are. Hor. Ep. 1. lib. 2. ver. 262. described as by one who had studied the sex, For what's derided by the cens'ring crowd,
But when my admiration is fixed upon this ex
eellent character, and two or three others in the Is thought no more than what is just and good.
play, I must confefs I was moved with the ut
most indignation at the trivial, fenfeless, and unDO not know that I have been in greater de natural representation of the chaplain. It is porn
light for these many years, than in beholding able there may be a pedant in holy orders, and the boxes at the play the last time the Scornful we have feen one or two of them in the world ; Lady was acted. So great an affembly of ladies but fuch a driyeller as Sir Roger, fo bereft of alí placed in gradual rows in all the ornaments of manner of pride, which is the characteristic of a jewels, filks, and colours, gave fo lively and pedant, is what one would not believe could gay an impreffion to the heart, that it thought come into the head of the fame man who drew the feason of the year was vanified; and I did the rest of the play. The meeting between not think it an ill expression of a young fellow Welford and him fhiews a wretch without any vida Itood near me, that called the boxes ahore notion of the dignity of his function; and it is
out of all common sense that he should give an form the hints of it into plans of my own inaccount of himself “ as one sent four or five vention; sometimes I take the liberty to change "miles in a morning on foot for eggs.” It is the language or thought into my own way of not to be denied, but this part and that of the speaking and thinking, and always, if it can be maid, whom he makes love to, are excellently done without prejudice to the fense, omit the well performed; but a thing which is blameable many compliments and applauses which are in itself, grows still more fo by the success in the usually bestowed upon me. execution of it. It is fo mean a thing to gratify
Besides the two advantages above-mentioned a loose age with a scandalous representation of which I receive from the letters that are sent me, what is reputable among men, not to say what is they give me an opportunity of lengthening out sacred, that no beauty, no excellence in an au
my paper by the skilful management of the subthor ought to atone for it; nay, such excellence scribing part at the end of them, which perhaps is an aggravation of his guilt, and an argument does not a little conduce to the ease, both of that he errs against the conviction of his own myself and reader. understanding and conscience. Wit should be
Some will have it that I often write to myself, tried by this rule, and an audience should rise and am the only pun&tual correspondent I have. against such a scene as throws down the reputa- the letters I communicate to the public stuffed
This objection would indeed be material, were tion of any thing which the consideration of religion or decency should preserve from contempt. with my own commendations; and if inftead of But all this evil arises from this one corruption endeavouring to divert or inftruet my readers, I of mind, that makes men resent offences against admired in them the beauty of my own perfor. their virtue, less than those against their under.' mances. But I Mall leave these wife conjecturers standing. An author shall write as if he thought to their own imaginations, and produce the three there was not one man of honour or woman of following letters for the entertainment of the chastity in the house, and come off with applause: day, for an insult upon all the ten commandments with the little critics, is not so bad as the breach
OSIR, of an unity of time and place, Half wits do not
WAS last Thursday in an assembly of ladies, apprehend the miseries that must necessarily fow
where there were thirteen different coloured from degeneracy of manners; nor do they know
· hoods. Your Speftator of that day lying upon that order is the fupport of society. Sir Roger · which did with a very clear voice, until I
the table, they ordered me to read it to them, and his mistress are monsters of the poet's own forming; the sentiments in both of them are
came to the Greek verse at the end of it. I such as do not arise in fools of their education.
' must confess I was a little startled at its popWe all know that a silly scholar, instead of being
ping upon me so unexpectedly. However, I below every one he meets with, is apt to be
' covered my confufion as well as I could, and exalted above the rank of such as really are his su
' after having muttered two or three hard words periors : his arrogance is always founded upon
to myself, laughed heartily, and cried, a very particular notions of distinction in his own head,
good jeft, 'faith. The ladies defired me to exaccompanied with a pedantie fcorn of all fortune
• plain it to them; but I begged their pardon for and pre-eminence, when compared with his
• that, and told them, that if it had been proper knowledge and learning. This very one charac
• for them to hear, they might be sure the author ter of Sir Roger, as silly as it really is, has done
• would not have wrapped it up in Greek. I more towards the disparagement of holy orders,
( then let drop several expressions, as if there was and consequently of virtue ittelf, than all the
something in it that was not fit to be spoken wit that author or any other could make up for
' before a company of ladies. Upon which the in the conduct of the longest life after it. I do
• matron of the assembly, who was drelied in a not pretend, in saying this, to give myself airs of
cherry-coloured hood, commended the discremore virtue than my neighbours, but affert it thoughts into Greek, which was likely to cor
« tion of the writer for having thrown his filthy from the principles by which mankind must al..
rupt but few of his readers. At the same time ways be governed. Sallies of imagination are to be overlooked, when they are committed out of
the declared herself very well pleased, that he warmth in the recommendation of what is praise fashioned hoods ; for to tell you truly, says the,
had not given a decisive opinion upon the newworthy; but a deliberate advancing of vice, with all the wit in the world, is as ill an action as any
"I was afraid he would have made us ashamed
to thew our heads. Now, Sir, you must know, that comes before the magiftrate, and ought to be received as such by the people.
“ fince this unlucky accident happened to me T
' in a company of ladies, among whom I passed
for a most ingenious man, I have consulted one
( who is well versed in the Greek language, and N° 271. THURSDAY, JAN. 10. 'he affures me upon his word, that your late
• quotation means no more than “that manners Mille trabens varios adverfo fole colores,
" and not dress are the ornaments of a woman.”
Virg. /£n. 4. 710, " If this comes to the knowledge of my female Drawing a thousand colours from the light. . admirers, I shall be very hard put to it to bring
' myself off handsomely. In the mean while, Receive a double advantage from the letters
"I give you this account, that you may take care of my correspondents, firħ, as they shew me
hereafter not to betray any of your well-wishers
o into the like inconveniencies. It is in the which of my papers are most acceptable to them; and in the next place as they furnish me with
• number of these that I beg leave to subscribe materials for new ipeculations. Sometimes in
myself, deed I do not make use of the letter iself, but
- Mr. Spectator,
my passion I Mall let you understand as well OUR readers are so well pleased with as a disordered mind will admit. That curled
pick-thank Mrs. Jane! alas, I am railing at that there appeared a sensible joy in every cof one to you by her name as familiarly as if you * fee-house, upon hearing the old knight was were acquainted with her as well as myself;
come to town. I am now with a knot of his but I will tell you all, as fast as the alternate admirers, who make it their joint request to ' interruptions of love and anger will give me
you, that you would give us public notice of leave. There is a most agreeable young wo• the window or balcony where the knight in man in the world whom I am passionately in • tends to make his appearance. He has already love with, and from whom I have for some
given great satisfaction to several who have seen 'space of time received as great mark of • him at Squire's coffee-house. If you think fit favour as were fit for her to give, or me to
to place your mort face at Sir Roger's left ' desire. The successful progress of the affair • elbow, we shall take the hint, and gratefully of all others the most essential towards a man's acknowledge so great a favour. I am, ' happiness, gave a new life and spirit not only Sir, your most devoted humble servant, to my behaviour and discourse, but also a cer
• C. D. 'tain grace to all my actions in the commerce “SIR,
of life in all things though never so remote
from love. You know the predominant pafevery thing that is curious in nature, fion spreads itself through all a man's trans! I will wait on you, if you please, in the dusk actions, and exalts or depresses him according
of the evening, with my show upon my back, to the nature of such passion. But alas! I
which I carry about with me in a box, as only ' have not yet begun my story, and what is ? consisting of a man, a woman, and an horse. ' making sentences and observations, when a • The two first are married, in which state the man is pleading for his life? To be in then ; « little cavalier has so well acquitted himself, this lady has corresponded with me under the o that his lady is with child. The big-bellied "names of love, she my Belinda, 1 her Clean? woman, and her husband, with their whim thes. Though I am thus well got into the • sical palfry, are so very light, that when they account of my affair, I cannot keep in the ! are put together into a scale, an ordinary " thread of it so much as to give you the cha. ! man may weigh down the whole family. racter of Mrs. Jane, whom I will not hide • The little man is a bully in his nature; but
(under a borrowed name; but let you know when he grows choleric I confine him to his " that this creature has been since I knew her • box until his wrath is over, by which means very handsome, (though I will not allow her 'I have hitherto prevented him from doing even what she has been for the future) and during mischief. His horse is likewise very vicious,
the time of her bloom and beauty, was so 6 for which reason I am forced to tie him close great a tyrant to her lovers, so over-valued to his manger with a packthread.
The wo « herself, and under-rated all her pretenders, man is a coquette. She truts as much as it that they have deserted her to a man; and ! is possible for a lady of two foot high, and
< she knows no comfort but that common one I would ruin me in silks, were not the quan 'to all in her condition, the pleasure of in
tity that goes to a large pin-cushion fufficient 'terrupting the amours of others. It is im. o to make her a gown and petticoat. She told me . posible but you must have seen several of these " the other day, that she heard the ladies wore I volunteers in malice, who pass their whole ? coloured hoods, and ordered me to get her
time in the most laborious way of life, in get. (one of the finest blue. I am forced to comply (ting intelligence, running from place to place ! with her demands whilst she is in her present with new whispers, without reaping any other
condition, being very willing to have more of ( benefit but the hopes of making others as unthe same breed. I do not know what she (happy as themselves. Mrs. Jane happened to may produce me, but provided it be a show be at a place where I, with many others well
I Mall be very well satisfied. Such novelties ' acquainted with my passion for Belinda, paffed • should not, I think, be concealed from the 'a Christmas-evening. There was among the • British Spectator; for which reason I hope you • rest a young lady, so free in mirth, so amiable will excuse this presumption in
in a just reserve that accompanied it; I wrong Your most dutiful, most obedient,
her to call it a reserve, but there appeared in ( and most humble servant,
cher a mirth or chearfulness which was not a L
"Ś. T.' ' forbearance of more immoderate joy, but the
'y natural appearance of all which could flow
from a mind possessed of an habit of innocenco N° 272. FRIDAY, JANUARY 11.
• and purity. I must have utterly forgot Belin
da, to have taken no notice of one who was Longa eft injurie, longe
• growing up to the same womanly virtues which AmbagesVirg. Æn. 1. ver. 345.
' shine to perfection in her, had I not distin
"guished one who seemed to promise to the Great is the injury, and long the tale.
world the same life and conduct with my "Mr. Spectator,
« faithful and lovely Belinda. When the comHỂ occalion of this letter is of so great pany broke up, the fine young thing permitted
' me to take care of her home. Mrs. Jane law • such, that I know you will but think it just ' my particular regard to her, and was informed ! to insert it, in preference of all other matters • of my' attending her to her father's house.
that can present themselves to your considera "She came early to Belinda the next morning, • tion. I need not, after I have said this, tell rand, asked her if Mrs. Such-a-one had been
you that I am in love. The circumstances of with her ? No. If Mr. Such-s-one's lady?
Timportatice, and the circumstances or it
No. Nor your cousin Such-a-one? No. Lord, • fays Mrs. Jane, what is the friendship of wo- No 273. SATURDAY, JANUARY 12. men ? -Nay, they may well laugh at it.
-Notandi funt tibi mores. * And did no one tell you any thing of the belia,
Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 156. viour of your lover Mr. What-d'ye-call laft
night? But perhaps it is nothing to you that Note well the manners. he is to be inarried to young Mrs. on
Tuesday next? Belinda was here ready to die let us in the next place consider the actors. • with rage and jealousy. Then Mrs. Jane goes This is Aristotle's method of considering, first
on: I have a young kinsman who is clerk to a the fable, and secondly the manners; or, as we
great conveyancer, who shall thew you the generally call them in English, the fable and the rough draught of the marriage-settlement. characters. • The world says, her father gives him two
Homer has excelled all the heroic poets that • thousand pounds more than he could have ever wrote in the multitude and variety of his
with you. I went innocently to wait on Be- characters : every god that is admitted into his ' linda as usual, but was not admitted ; I writ poem, acts a part which would liave been suit
to her, and my letter was sent back unopened. able to no other deity. His princes are as much • Poor Betty her maid, who is on my side, has distinguished by their manners, as by their doa • been here just now blubbering, and told me minions; and even those among them, whose & the whole matter. She says she did not think characters seem wholly made up of courage, dif"I could be so base; and that she is now so fer from one another as to the particular kinds
odious to her mistress for having so often spoke of courage in which they excel. In short, there " well of me, that the dare not mention me is scarce a speech or action in the Iliad, which
more. All our hopes are placed in having the reader may not afcribe to the person that
these circumstances fairly represented in the speaks or acts, without seeing his name at the • Spectator, which Betty says she dare not but head of it.
bring up as soon as it is brought in; and has Homer does not only outshine all other poets * promised when you have broke the ice to own in the variety, but also in the novelty of his cha
this was laid between us : and when I can racters. He has introduced among his Grecian come to an hearing, the young lady will sup- princes a person who had lived thrice the age of
port what we say by her teftimony, that I ne man, and conversed with Theseus, Hercules, Po.. (ver faw her but that once in my whole life. lyphemus, and the first race of heroes. His prin* Dear Sir, do not omit this true relation, nor cipal actor is the son of a goddess, not to men
think it too particular; for there are crowds tion the offspring of other deities, who have like< of forlorn coquettes who intermingle them- wife a place in lris poem, and the vencrable Tro• felves with other ladies, and contract familia. jan prince, who was the father of so many kings
rities out of malice, and with no other design and heroes. There is in these feveral characters « but to blast the hopes of lovers, the expecta- of Homer, à certain dignity as well as novelty, * tion of parents, and the benevolence of kin- which adapts them in a more peculiar manner « dred. I doubt not but I shall be,
to the nature of an heroic poem. Though at the • Sir, your moft obliged humble servant,
fame time, to give them the greater variety, he
has described a vulcan, that is a buffoon among s Cleanthes. his gods, and a Therfites among his mortals.
Virgil falls infinitely short of Homer in the
characters of his poem, both as to their variety SIR,
Will's Coffee-house, Jan. 10. and novelty. Æneas is indeed a perfect chaHE other day entering a room adorned racter, but as for Achates, though he is stiled
with the fair fex, I offered, after the usual the hero's friend, he does nothing in the whole manner, to each of them a kiss; but one, more poem which may deserve that title. Gyas, ** scornful than the rest, turned her cheek. I did Mnestheus, Sergestus and Cloanthus, are all of • not think it proper to take any notice of it until them men of the same stamp and character. I had asked your advice.
-Fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloantbum." • Your humble servant,
There are indeed several natural incidents in the part of Afcanius; as that of Dido cannot be
fufficiently admired. I do not fee any thing new The correspondent is defired to say which or particular in Turnus. Pallas and Evander chcek the offender turned to him,
are remote copies of Hector and Priam, as Lau. sus and Mezentius are almost parallels to Pallas
and Evander. The characters of Nisus and EuADVERTISEMENT.
ryalus are beautiful, but common.
We must From the parish-vestry, January On
not forget the parts of Sinon, Camilla, and some
few others, which are fine improvements on the e All ladies who come to church in the new.
Greek poet. In short, there is neither that va. & fashioned hoodi, are desired to be there before riety nor novelty in the persons of the Æneid, « divine service begins, left they divert the at which we meet with in those of the Iliad. “ tention of the congregation,
If we look into the characters of Milton, we T
" Ralph." shall find that he has introduced all the variety
his fable was capable of receiving. The whole fpecies of mankind was in two persons at the time to which the subject of his poem is confined. We have, howevcr, four diftinct charac
ters in these two persons. We see man and wo. There is another circumstance in the principal man in the highest innocence and perfection, actors of the Iliad and Æneid, which gives a peand in the most abject state of guilt and infirmity. culiar beauty to those two poems, and was there. The two last characters are, indeed, very com- fore contrived with very great judgment, I mean mon and obvious, but the two first are not only the authors having chosen, for their heroes, permore magnificent, but more new than any cha- sons who were so nearly related to the people for racters either in Virgil or Homer, or indeed in whom they wrote. Achilles was a Greek, and the whole circle of nature.
Æncas the remote founder of Rome. By this Milton was fo sensible of this defect in the mcans their countrymen, whom they principally subject of his poem, and of the few characters proposed to themselves for their readers, were it would afford him, that he has brought into it particularly attentive to all the parts of their two actors of a shadowy and fictitious nature, ftory, and sympathized with their heroes in all in the persons of Sin and Death, by which means their adventures. A Roman could not but rehe has wrought into the body of his fable a very joice in the escapes, successes and victories of beautiful and well-invented allegory. But not- Æneas, and be grieved at any defeats, misforwithstanding the fineness of this allegory may tunes or disappointments that befel him; as a atone for it in some measure, I cannot think Greek must have had the same regard for Achil. that persons of such a chimerical existence are les. And it is plain that each of those poems proper actors in an epic poem ; because there is have lost this great advantage, among those readnot that measure of probability annexed to them, ers to whom their heroes are as strangers, or inwhich is requisite in writings of this kind, as I different persons. fhall few more at large hereafter.
Milton's poem is admirable this respect, Virgil has, indeed, admitted Fame as an ac since it is impossible for any of its readers, whattress in the Æneid, but the part Me' acts is very ever nation, country or people he may belong to, fhort, and none of the most admired circum- not to be related to the persons who are the stances in that divine work. We find in principal actors in it; but what is still infinitely mock-heroic poems, particularly in the Dispen- more to its advantage, the principal actors in this fary and the Lutrin, several allegorical persons poem are not only our progenitors, but our reof this nature, which are very beautiful in those presentatives. We have an actual interest in compositions, and may perhaps be used as an every thing they do, and no less than our utargument, that the authors of them were of opi- most happiness is concerned, and lies at stake in nion, such characters might have a place in an
all their behaviour. epic work. For my own part I Mould be glad I Thall subjoin as a corollary to the foregoing the reader would think so, for the sake of the remark, an admirable observation out of Aripoem I am now examining; and muft further stotle, which hath becn very much misrepresented add that if such empty unsubstantial beings may in the quotations of some modern critics. “ If be ever made use of on this occasion, never were a man of perfect and consummate virtue falls any more nicely imagined, and employed in more “ into a misfortune, it raises our pity, but not proper actions, than those of which I am now our terror, because we do not fear that it may speaking.
~ be our own cafe, who do not resemble the Another principal actor in this poem is the “ suffering person." But as, that great philogreat enemy of mankind. The part of Ulysses sopher adds, “ If we see a man of virtue mixt in Homer's Odyssey is very much admired by" with infirmities, fall into any misfortune, it Aristotle, as perplexing that fable with very « does not only raise our pity but our terror; agreeable plots and intricacies, not only by the “ because we are afraid that the like misfortune many adventures in his voyage, and the subtilty may happen to ourselves, who resemble the of his behaviour, but by the various conceal " character of the suffering person." ments and discoveries of his person in several I mall take another opportunity to observe, parts of that poem. But the crafty being I have that a person of an absolute and consummate now mentioned, makes a much longer voyage virtue inould never be introduced in tragedy, than Ulyffes, puts in practice many more wiles and shall only remark in this place, that the and stratagems, and hides himself under a greater foregoing observation of Aristotle, though it variety of shapes and appearances, all of which may be true in other occasions, does not hold in are severally detected, to the great delight and this; because in the present case, though the surprise of the reader.
persons who fall into inisfortune are of the most We may likewise observe with how much art perfect and consummate virtue, it is not to be the poet has varied several characters of the per- considered as what may posibly be, but what fons that speak in his infernal assembly. On the actually is our own case; since we are embarked contrary, how has he represented the whole God- with them on the same bottom, and must be head exerting itself towards man in its full be- partakers of their happiness or misery. nevolence under the three-fold distinction of a In this, and some other very few. instances, Creator, a Redeemer, and a Comforter ! Aristotle's, rules for epic poetry, which he had
Nor must we omit the person of Raphael, who, drawn from his reflexions upon Homer, cannot amidst his tenderness and friendtip for man, be supposed to quadrate exa&tly with the heroic thews such a dignity and condescension in all his poems which have been made since his time; since fpeesh and behaviour, ac are suitable to a supe- it is plain his rules would still have been more rior nature. The angels are indeed as much di- perfect, could he have perused the Æneid which versified in Milton, and distinguished by their was made some hundred years after his death. proper parts, as the gods are in Homer or Virgil. In my next, I Mall go through other parts of The reader will find nothing ascribed to Uriel, Milton's poem; and hope that what I Mall there Gabriel, Michael, or Raphael, which is not in advance, as well as winat I have already written, a particular manner suitable to their respective will not only serve as a comment upon Milton, characters,
but upon Aristotle.