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the English poets have ever done before or after • learning. The eye that cannot bear the lighe him, and made the sublimity of his stile equal ' is not delicate but sore. A good constitution to that of his sentiments,
appears in the soundness and vigour of the I have been the more particular in these ob, parts, not in the squeamishness of the sto. servations on Milton's stile, because it is that 'mach: and a falfe delicacy is affectation, not part of him in which he appears the most fin politeness. What then can be the standard of gular. The remarks I have here made upon
delicacy but truth and virtue ? Virtue, which; the practice of other poets, with my observa as the satirist long since observed, is real hotions out of Aristotle, will perhaps alleviate the nour; whereas the other distinctions among prejudice which some have taken to his poem mankind are merely titular. Judging by that upon this account; though after all, I must con rule in my opinion, and in that of many of fess that I think his stile, though admirable in gene.
your virtuous female readers, you are so far ral, is in some places too much stiffened and from deserving Mr. Courtly's accusation, that obscured by the frequent use of those methods, you seem too gentle, and to allow too many which Aristotle has prescribed for the raising
excuses for an enormous crime, which is the of it.
reproach of the age, and is in all its branchThis redundancy of those several ways of es and degrees expresly forbidden by that relií speech, which Aristotle calls “ foreign lan 'gion we pretend to profess; and whose laws,
guage," and with which Milton has so much in a nation that calls itself Christian, one enriched, and in some places darkened the lan would think should take place of those rules guage of his poem, was the more proper for • which men of corrupt minds, and those of his use, because his poem is written in blank weak understandings, follow.
I know not verse. Rhyme, without any other assistance, any thing more pernicious to good manners, throws the language off from profe, and very
" than the giving fair names to foul actions ; often makes an indifferent phrase pass unre
for this confounds vice and virtue, and takes garded; but where the verse is not built upon
off that natural horror we have to evit. An rhymes, there pomp of sound and energy of
' innocent creature, who would start at tho expression, are indispenfibly necessary to sup:
name of Atrumpet, may think it pretty to be port the stile, and keep it from falling into the ' called a mistress, especially if her seducer has Aatness of profe.
taken care to inform her, that a union of Those who have not a taste for this elevation • hearts is the principal matter in the fight of stile, and are apt to ridicule a poet when he I of heaven, and that the business at church departs from the common forms of expression,
• is a mere idle ceremony. Who knows not would do well to see how Aristotle has treated
" that the difference between obscene and an ancient author called Euclid, for his insipid modest words expressing the same action, mirth upon this occasion,
used . confifts only in the accessary idea, for there is to call these fort of men his profe-critics.
r nothing immodeft in letters and syllables. I should, under this head of the language,
• Fornication and adultery are modeft words ; confider Milton's numbers, in which he has • because they express an evil action as criminal, made use of several elifions, that are not cure
and fo as to excite horror and aversion : where tomary among other English poets, as may be as words representing the pleasure rather than particularly observed in his cutting off the lec o the fin, are for this reason indecent and ditho. ter Y, when it precedes a vowel. This, and neft. Your papers would be chargeable with fome other innovations in the measure of his fomething worse than indelicacy, they would verse, has varied his numbers in such a manner,
• be immoral, did you treat the detestable ans as makes them incapable of satiating the ear,
of uncleanness in the fame manner as you rata and cloying the reader, which the same uni • ly an impertinent felf-love, and an artful form measure would certainly have done, and
glance; as thofe laws would be very unjust, which the perpetual returns of rhyme never
" that thould chastise murder and petty larceny fail to do in long narrative poems. I thall ' with the same punishment. Even delicacy reclose these reflexions upon the language of • quires that the pity thewn to distressed india Paradise Loft, with observing that Milton has gent wickedness, first betrayed into, and then copied after Homer rather than Virgil in the ' expelled the harbours of the brothel, should length of his periods, the copiousness of his
• be changed to deteftation, when we consider phrases, and the running of his verses into one pampered vice in the habitations of the another.
L • wealthy. The most free person of quality,
• in Mr. Courtly's phrafe, that is, to speak pro.
• perly, a woman of figure who tras forgot her No 286. MONDAY, JAN. 28. • birth and breeding, dishonoured her relations Nomina bonefla prætenduntur vitiis.
• and herself, abandoned her virtue and reputa. Tacit. Ann. I, 14. 6. 27.
* tion, together with the natural modesty of
• her sex, and risked her very soul, is so far froin Specious names are lent to cover vices.
I deserving to be treated with no worfe charac. • Mr. Spectator,
York, Jan. 18, 1712. "ter than that of a kind woman, (which is
.doubtless Mr. Courtly's meaning, if he has just a taste, whenever he pleases to use it ; any) that one can scárce be too levere on her, but it may not be amiss to inform your read in as much as fhe fins against greater restraints,
ers, that there is a false delicacy as well as a '? is less exposed, and liable to fewer temptati1
True delicacy, as I take it, confifts (ons, than beauty in poverty and distress. It in exactness of judgment and dignity of fenti ' is hoped therefore, Sir, that you will not lay ment, or if you will, purity of affection, as • aside your generous design of exposing that this is opposed to corruption and grofsness.
• monstrous wickedness of the town, whereby There are pedants in breeding as well as in a multitude of innocents are facrificed in a
o more barbarous manner than those who were
form of religion and government which is esta.. offered to Moloch. The uncharte are pro- blished in my own country. In this point I
voked to see their vice exposed, and the chalte think I am determined by reason and conviction ; i cannot rake into such filth without danger of but if I Mall be told that I am acted by prejues (defilement, but a mere Spectator may look. dice, I am sure it is an honest prejudice, it is
into the bottom, and come off without para a prejudice that arises from the love of my
taking in the guilt. The doing so will con- country, and therefore such an one as will al. ( vince us you pursue public good, and not ways indulge. I have in several papers endea• merely your own advantage : but if your zeal voured to express my duty and esteem for the • Nackens, how can one help thinking that Mr. church of England, and design this as an essay • Courtly's letter is but a feint to get off from a úpon the civil part of our constitution, having • fubject, in which either your own, or the pri- ofterf entertained myself with reflexions on this • vate and base ends of others to whom you are subject, wrich I have not met with in other • partial, or those of whom you are afraid, writers. • would not endure a reformation ?
That form of government appears to me the • I am, Sir, your humble servant and ad- most reafonable, which is moft conformable to • mirer, so long as you tread the paths of the equality that we find in human nature, protroth, virtue, and lionour.'
vided it be consistent with public peace and tran,
quility. This is what may properly be called « Trin. Coll. Cantab. Jan. 12, 1711-12. liberty, which exempts one man from fubjection * Mr. Spesianr,
to another, so far as the order and economy of T is my fortune to have a chamber- fellow, government will permit. with whom, though I agree very well in
Liberty hold 'reach every individual of a many sentiments, yet their is one in which people, as they all thare one common nature; we are as contrary as light and darkness. We if it only spreads among particufar branches,
are both in love : his mistress is a lovely fair, there had better be none at all, since such a jis • and mine a lovely brown. Now as the praise berty only aggravates the misfortune of those " of our mitreises beauty employs much of our
who are deprived of it, by fetting lntfore them a time, we have frequent quarrels in entering disagreeabte subject of coinparison, • upon that subject, while each says all he can This liberty is best preferved, where the le• to defend his choice. For my own part, I gillative power is lodged in several perfons, esper • have racked my fancy to the uttermolt; and cially if those perfons are of different ranks and
fometimes, with the greatest warmth of ima. interests; fot where they are of the fame rank, and • gination, have told him, that night was made conseqtently have an interest to manage peculiar to • before day, and many more fine things, though that rank, it differs but little from a despotical go
without any effcct : nay, latt night I could vernment in alingle person. But the greatett fecu' not forbear saying with more heat than judg- rity a people can have for their liberty, is when
ment, that the devil ouglit to be painted white. the legislative power is in the hands of persons ro "Now, my defire is, Sir, that you will be liappiły distinguished, that by providing for the . pleased to give us in black and white your particular interests of their several ranks, they • opinion in the matter of dispute between us; are providing for the whole body of the people; 6 wlich will either furnish me with fresh and or in other words, when there is no part of the • prevailing arguments to maintain my own people that has not a common intereit witir at
taste, or make me with less repining allow leatt one part of the legislators. " that of my chamber-fellow.
I know very
If there be but one body of legislators, it is • well that I have Jack Cleveland and Bond's
no better than a tyranny; if there are orly two, • Horace on my side ; but when he has such a
there will want a casting voice, and one of them sband of rhymers and romance writers, with must at length be swallowed up by disputes and • which he opposes me, and is so continually contentions that will 'necessarily arise between
chiming to the tune of golden treffes, yellow them. Four would have the fame inconveni
locks, milk, marble, ivory, silver, swans, ence as two, and a greater number would cause • snow, daisies, doves, and the lord knows
too much confusion. I could never read a paf• what; which he is always founding with so sage in Polybius, and another in Cicero, to this • much' vehemence in my ears, that he often purpose, without a secret pleasure in applying
puts me in a brown 1tudy how to answer him; it to the English conftitution, which it suits ' and I find that I am in a fair way to be quite much better than the Roman. Both there ' confounded, without your timely affittance great authors give the pre-eminence to a mixt < afforded io, Sir,
government, consisting of three branches, the • Your humble fervant,
regal, the noble, and the popular. They had • Philobrune,' doub:lefs in their thoughts the constitation of
the Roman commonwealth, in which the con.
sul represented the king, the fenate the nobles, No. 287. TUESDAY, JAN. 29.
and the tribunes the people. This division of
the three powers in the Roman constitution was Ω Φιλτατη γη μητες, ως σεμνον σφοδρ'. by no means fo distinct and natural, as it is in Τους νgν εχεσι κλημα και
the English form of government. Among se
veral objections that might be made to it, I think Dear native land, how do the good and wise
the chief are chofe that effect the consular power, Thy happy clime and countless bleffings prize! which had only the ornaments without the force
Look upon it as a peculiar happiness, that of the regal authority. Their number had not
were I to choofe of what religion I would a cafting voice in it; for which reason, if one be, and under what government I would live, I did not chance to be employed abroad, while Arould most certainly give the preference to that the other fat at home, the public businefs was
Toinetimes at a stand, while the consuls pulled The first thing every one looks after, is to two different ways in it. Besides, I do not provide himself with neceffaries.
This point find that the confuls had ever a negative voice will ingross our thoughts until it be satisfied. in the palling of a law, or decree of senate, so If this is taken care of to our hands, we look that indeed they were rather the chief body of out for pleasures and amusements; and among the nobility, or the fist ministers of itate, than a great number of idle people, there will be a distinct branch of the sovereignty, in which many whose pleasures will lie in reading and nove can be looked upon as a part, who are contemplation. These are the two great fournot a part of the legislature. Had the consuls ces of knowledge, and as men grow wise they been invested with the regal authority to as naturally love to communicate their discoveries; great a degree as our monarchs, there would and others seeing the happiness of such a learned never have been any occasions for a dictator- life, and improving by their conversation, emuTip, which had in it the power of all the late, imitate, and surpass one another, until a three orders, and ended in the fubverfion of nation is filled with races of wise and underthe whole constitution.
standing persons. Ease and plenty are therefore Such an history as that of Suetonius, which the great cherishers of knowledge: and as most gives us a succession of absolute princes, is to of the despotic governments of the world liave me an unanswerable argument against despotic neither of them, they are naturally over-run power. Where the prince is a man of wisdom with ignorance and barbarity. In Europe, in. and virtue, it is indeed happy for his people deed, notwithstanding several of its princes are that he is absolute; but since in the common abfolute, there are men famous for knowledge tan of mankind, for one that is wife and good and learning ; but the reason is because the you find ten a contrary character, it is very subjects are many of them rich and wealthy, dangerous for a nation to stand to its chance, or the prince not thinking fit to exert himself in to have its public happiness or misery depend his full tyranny like the princes of the eastern on the virtue or vices of a single person. Look nations, lest his subjects Tould be invited to into the history I have mentioned, or into any new-mould their constitution, having so many series of absolute princes, how many tyrants prospects of liberty within their view. But in must you read through, before you come to an all despotic governments, though a particular emperor that is supportable. But this is not prince may favour arts and letters, there is a all; an honest private man often grows cruel natural degeneracy of mankind, as you may oband abandoned, 'when converted into an abso- ferve from Augustus's reign, how the Romans lute prince. Give a man power of doing what lost themselves by degrees until they fell to an he pleases with impunity, you extinguish his equality with the most barbarous nations that fear, and consequently overturn in him one of surrounded them. Look upon Greece under its the great pillars of morality. This too wę find free states, and you would think its inhabitants confirmed by matter of fact. How many hope lived in different climates, and under different ful heirs apparent to grand empires, when in heavens, from those at present ; fo different are the poffeffion of them, have become such mon. the geniuses which are formed under. Turkish sters of lust and cruelty as are a reproach to Navery, and Grecian liberty. human nature.
Besides poverty and want, there are other Some tell us we ought to make our govern- reasons that debase the minds of men, who live ments on earth like that in heaven, which, say hinder Navery, though I look on this as the they, is altogether monarchical and unlimited. principal. This natural tendency of despotic Was man like his Creator in goodness and juf- power to ignorance and barbarity, though not tice, I should be for following this great model; insisted upon by others, is, I think, an unanbut where goodness and justice are not esien. fwerable argument against that form of governtial to the ruler, I would by no means pút my.. ment, as it shews how repugnant it is to the self into his hands to be disposed of according good of mankind, and the perfection of huto his particular will and pleasure.
man nature, which ought to be the great ends It is odd to consider the connexion between of all civil institutions.
L despotic government and barbarity, and how the making of one person more than man, makes the rest less. About nine parts of the N° 288, WEDNESDAY, JAN. 30, world in ten are in the lowest state of Navery, and consequently funk in the most gross and bru Pavor est utrique moleftus. tal ignorance. 'European Mavery is indeed a
Hor. Ep. 6. 1. 1, ver. 1o. ftate of liberty, if compared with that which
Both fear alike, prevails in the other three divisions of the world; and therefore it is no wonder thaç those
Mr. Spectator who grovel under it have many tracks of light ?
HEN you fpoke of the jilts and co.
quettes, you then promised to be very deftitute.
impartial, and not to spare even your own Riches and plenty are the natural fruits of li ! sex, Tould any of their secret or open faults berty, and where thefe abpund, learning and ? come under your cognizance; which has given all the liberal arts will immediately lift up their me encouragement to describe a certain species heads and flourish. As a man must have no of mankind under the denomination of male flavith fears and apprehentions hanging upon his jiltsThey are gentlemen who do not design mind, who will indulge the flights of fancy or I to marry, yet, that they may appear to have speculation, and push his researches into all the some sense of gallantry, think they must pay abftrufe corners of truth, so it is necessary for their devoirs to one particular fair; in order him to have about him a competency of all the to which they single out from amongst the conveniencies of life,
"herd of females her to whom they design to
make their fruitless addresses. This done, merciful to insignificant and mischievous men, they first take every opportunity of being in In order to this, all visitants who frequent fax her company, and then never fail upon all milies wherein there are young females, are forthoccasions to be particular to her, Jaying them with required to declare themselves, or absent from selves at her feet, protesting the reality of places where their presence banishes such as would their paffion with a thousand Oaths, soliciting pass their time more to the advantage of those a 'return, and saying as many fine things as whom they vifit. It is a matter of too great their stock of wit will allow ; and if they are moment to be dallied with : and I thall expect not deficient that way, generally speak to as from all my young people a satisfactory account to admit of a double interpretation; which of appearances. Strephon has from the publicathe credulous fair is too apt to turn to her rion hereof leven days to explain the riddle he
own advantage, fince it frequently happens to presented to Eudamia ; and Cloris an hour after • be a raw, innocent, young creature, who this comes to her hand, to declare whether the
thinks all the world as fincere as herself, and will have Philotas, whom a woman of no less • fo her unwary heart becomes an easy prey to
merit than herself, and of fuperior fortune, lang thore deceitful monsters, who no sooner per- guishes to call her own. ceive it, but immediately they grow cool, and thun her whom they before seemed so
"To the Spectator, o much to admire, and proceed to act the same
SIR, common-place villainy towards another. A INCE so many dealers turn authors, and • coxcomb Aushed with many of these infamous write quaint advertisements in praise of their • victories thall say he is sorry for the poor wares, one who from an author turned dealer
fools, proteft and vow he never thought of may be allowed for the advancement of trade to • matrimony, and wonder talking civilly can • turn author again. I will not however set up « be fo ftrangely misinterpreted. Novy, Mr. • like some of them, for selling cheaper than the • Spectator, you that are a professed friend to ! mort able honest tradesman can; nor do I send • love, will, hope, observe upon those who I this to be better known for choice and cheapness
abuse that noble paffion, and raise it in inno of china and japan wares, tea, fans, mullins,
cent minds by a deceitful affectation of it, ' pictures, arrack, and other Indian goods. Placed • after which they defert the enamoured. Pray' as I am in Leadenhall-ftreet, near the India: • bestow a little of your counsel to those fond "company, and the centre of that trade, thanks
believing females who already have or are in to my fair customers, my warehouse is graced
danger of broken hearts; in which you will as well as the benefit days of my plays and • oblige a great part of this town, but in a par operas; and the foreign goods !I. fell seem no . ticular inanner,
less acceptable than the foreign books I traniSir, your (yet heart-whole) admirer, lated, Rabelais and Don Quixote : this the cri6 and devoted humble servant, tics allow me, and while they like my wares
Melaivia.' they may dispraise my writing. But as it is not
! so well known yet that I frequently cross tho Melainia's complaint is occasioned by fo ge i feas of late, and speaking Dutch and French, neral a folly, that it is wonderful one could so * besides other languages, I have the conveniency long overlook it. But this false gallantry pro ( of buying and importing rich brocades, Dutch ceeds from an impo ence of mind, which makes o atlas's, with gold and filver, or without, and those who are guilty of it incapable of pursuing other foreign filks of the newest modes and bext what they themselves approve. Many a man i fabrics, finc Flanders lace, linens, and pictures, wishes a woman his wife whom he dare not • at the best hand; this my new way of trade I take for such. Though no one has power over
• have fallen into I cannot better publish than by his inclinations or fortunes, he is a nave to an application to you. My wares are fit only common fame. For this reason I think Melai. “ for such as your readers; and I would beg of nia gives them too soft a name in that of male you to print this address in your paper, that coquets. I know not wliy irresolution of mind those whose minds you adorn may take the orthould not be more contemptible than impo- naments for their persons and houses from me. tence of body; and these frivolous admirers • This, Sir, if I may presume to beg it, will be would be but tenderly used, in being only in. " the greater favour, as I have lately received cluded in the fame term with the insufficient rich lilk's and fine lace to a considerable vaanother way. They whom my correspondent lue, which will be sold cheap for a quick recalls male coquets, mould hereafter be called turn, and as I have also a large stock of other fribblers. 'A fribbler is one who professes rap
Indian filks were formerly a great cure and admiration for the woman to whom i branch of our trade; and since we must not he addresses, and dreads nothing so much as her fell them, we must feek amends by dealing in confent. His heart can futter by the force of athers. This I hope will plead for one who imagination, but cannot fix from the force of would lessen the number of teazers of the muses, judgment. It is not uncommon for the parents and who, fùiting his spirit to his circumstances, of young women of moderate fortune to wink humbles the poet to exalt the citizen. Like a at the addresses of fribblers, and expose their true tradesman, I hardly ever look into any children to the ambiguous behaviour which Me books but those of accounts. To say the truth, lainia complains of, until by the fondness to one I cannot, I think, give you a better idea of my they are to lose, they become incapable of love being a' downright man of traffic, than by ac towards others, and by confequence in their • knowledging I oftener read the advertisements, future marriage lead a joyless or a miserable than the matter of even your paper. I am unlife. As therefore 1 mall in the speculations der a great temptation to taậe this opportunity which regard love be as severe as I ought on of admonishing other writers to follow my exjilts and libertine women, so will I be as little ample, and trouble the town no‘more, but as
it is my prefent bufiness to increafe the number or mountain, what astonishing instances would of buyers rather than sellers. I katter to tell they be of that Providence which watches over you that I am,
all its works?. Sir, your moft humble
I have heard of a great man in the Romith and most obedient fervant, church, wbo, 'upon reading those words in the • Peter Motteux.' 5th chapter of Genefis, “. And all the days that
Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty
6 years, and he died; and all the days of Seth N° 289. THURSDAY, JAN. 31.
were nine hundred and twelve years, and he “ died; and all the days of Methuselah were
“ nine hundred and fixty nine years, and he Vita fumma brevis fpem, nos vetat inchoare longam. « died;" immediately shut himself up in a con
Hor. Od. 4. 1. 1. ver. 15. vent, and tired from the world, as not thinkLife's fpan forbids us to extend our cares,
iug any thing in this life worth pursuing, which And stretch our hopes beyond our years.
had not regard to another. CRÉECH.
The truth of it is, there is nothing in history
which is so improving to the reader, as those ac TPON taking my seat in a coffee house I counts which we meet with of the deaths of
often draw the eyes of the whole ::room eminent persons, and of their behaviour in that upon me, when in the hottest seasons of news, dreadful season. I may also add, that there are and at a time perhaps that the Dutch mail is
no parts in history which affect and please the just come in, they hear me ask the coffee-man reader in fo fenfible a manner. The reason I for his last week's Bill of Mortality: I find take to be this, because their is no other single that I have been sometimes taken on this occa. circumftance in che story of any person, which fion for à parish sexton, sometimes for an un can possibly be the case of every one who reads dertaker, and sometimes for a doctor of phyfic. it, A battle or a triumph are conjectures in In this, however, I am guided by the spirit of a which not one man in a million is likely to be philosopher, as I take occasion from hence to engaged; but when we fee a person at the point of reflect upon the regular increase and diminution death, we cannot forbear being attentive to every of mankind; and consider the several various thing he fays or does, because we are sure that ways through which we pass from life to eternir some time or other we shall ourselves be in the ty: I am very well pleased with these weekly same melancholy circumstances, The general admonitions, that bring into my mind such the fatesman, or the philosopher, are perhaps thoughts as, ought to be the daily entertainment characters which we may never ad in, but the of every reasonable creature; and can consider dying man is one whom, sooner or later, we with pleasure to myself, by which of those deli- Mall certainly resemble. verances, or, as we commonly call them, dil It is, perhaps, for the same kind of reason tempers, I may pollibly make my escape out of that few books, written in English, have been this world of sorrows, into that condition of so much perused as Dr. Sherlock's discourse upon existence, wherein I hope to be happier than it death; though at the same time I must own, is poffible for me at present to conceive. that he who has not perused this excellent piece,
But this is not all the use I make of the has not perhaps read one of the strongest perfuaabove-mentioned weekly paper. A bill of mor- fives to a religious life that ever was written in çality is in my opinion' an unanswer able argu- any language. ment for a Providence. How can we, without The consideration, with which I fall close supposing ourselves under the constant care of a this essay upon death, is one of the most ancient supreme Being, give any posible account for and most beaten morals that has been recom. that pice proportion, which we find in every mended to mankind. But its being so very great city, between the deaths and births of its common, and so universally received, though it inhabitants, and between the number of males takes away from it the grace of novelty, adds and that of females, who are brought into the very much to the weigbt of it, as it Thews that world? What else could adjust in fo exact a it falls in with the general sense of mankind. In manner the recruits of every nation to its loffes, short, I would have every one consider, that he and divide these new supplies of people into is in this life nothing more than a paffenger, and such equal bodies of both sexes ? Chance could that he is not to fet up his reft here, but to keep never hold the balance with so steady a hand. an attentive eye. upon that state of being to Were we not counted out by an intelligent fuper- which he approaches every moment, and which visor, we should sometimes be over-charged with will be for ever fixed and permanent. This multitudes, and at others waste away into a de- fingle consideration would be fufficient to extine fart: we should be sometimes a populus virorum, guish the bitterness of hatred, the thirft of avaas Florus elegantly expresses it, “a generation rice, and the cruelty of ambition. of males." and at others a fpecies of women. I am very much pleased with the passage of We may extend this confideration to every fpe- Antiphanes, a very ancient poet, who lived near cies of living creatures, and consider the whole an hundred years before Socrates, which repreanimal world as an huge army made up of in- sents the life of man under this view, as I have numerable corps, if I may use that term, whore here tranNated it word for word. quotas have been kept entire near five thousand « grieved," says he," above measure for thy years, in so wonderful a manner, that there is “ deceased friends. They are not dead, but not probably a single species loft during this long“ have only finished that journey which it is tract of time. Could we have gencral bills of « necessary for every one of us to take. We mortality of every kind of animals, or particu- « ourselves must go to that great place of relar ones of every species in each continent and “ ception in which they are all of them affem. iDand, I could almok fay in every wood, marsh, « bled, and in this goneral rendezvous of man.
« Be not