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or of Rome; but about to address in this as I did in my former defence, the whole collective body of people, cities, states, and councils of the wise and eminent, through the wide expanse of anxious and listening Eu. rope. I seem to survey as from a towering height, the far extended tracts of sea and land, and innumerable crowds of spectators, betraying in their looks the liveliest interest, and sensations the most congenial with my own. Here I behold the stout and manly provess of the Germans, disdaining fervitude; there the generous and lively impetuofity of the French ; on this side, the calm and stately valour of the Spaniard ; on that, the composed and wary magnanimity of the Italian. Of all the lovers of liberty and virtue, the magnanimous and the wise, in whatever quarter they may be found, some secretly fa. vour, others openly approve; some greet me with congratulations and applause; others, who had long been proof against conviction, at last yield themselves captive to the force of truth. Surrounded by congregated mul. titudes, I now imagine, that, from the columns of Hercules, to the Indian ocean, I behold the nations of the earth, recovering that liberty which they so long had lost; and that the people of this island, are transporting to other countries, a plant of more beneficial qualities, and more noble growth, than that which Triptolemus is re. ported to have carried from region to region; that they are disseminating the blessings of civilization and freedom among cities, kingdoms, and nations. Nor shall I ap. proach unknown, nor perhaps unloved, if it be told that I am the same person, who engaged in single combat that fierce advocate of despotism ; till then reputed invincible in the opinion of many, and in his own conceit; who infolently challenged us and our armies to the combat; but whom, while I repelled his virulence, I silenced with his own weapons; and over whom, if I may trust to the opinions of impartial judges, I gained a complete and glorious victory. That, this is the plain unvarnihed fact appears from this; that, after the most noble queen of Sweden, than whom there neither is, nor ever was a personage more attached to literature and to learned men, had invited Salmafius or Salmafia, (for to which sex he

belonged belonged is a matter of uncertainty,) to her court, where he was received with great distinction, my defence suddenly surprized him in the midst of his security. It was generally read, and by the queen among the rest, who, attentive to the dignity of her station, let the stranger experience no diminution of her former kindness and munificence. But, with respect to the rest, if I may affert what has been often told, and was matter of public notority, such a change was instantly effected in the public sentiment, that he, who but yesterday flourished in the highest degree of favour, seemed to day to wither in neglect; and foon after receiving permission to depart, he left it doubtful among many, whether he were more honoured when he came, or more disgraced when he went away; and even in other places it is clear, that it occa. fioned no small loss to his reputation; and all this I have mentioned, not from any futile motives of vanity or oftentation, but that I might clearly show, as I proposed in the beginning, what momentous reasons I had for commencing this work with an effusion of gratitude to the father of the universe. Such a preface was most honour: able and appropriate, in which I might prove, by an enumeration of particulars, that I had not been without my share of human mifery ; but that I had, at the same time; experienced fingular marks of the divine regard ; that in topics of the highest concern), the most connected with the exigencies of my country, and the most beneficial to civil and religious liberty; the supreme wisdom and bene: ficence had invigorated and enlarged my faculties, to defend the dearest interests, not merely of one people, but of the whole human race, against the enemies of human liberty; as it were in a full concourse of all the nations on the earth : And I again invoke the fame Almighty Being that I may still be able with the same integrity, the same diligence, and the same success, to defend those actions which have been so gloriously atchieved; while I vindi: cate the authors as well as myself, whose name has been associated with theirs, not so much for the fake of honour as disgrace, from unmerited ignominy änd reproach ; but if there are any, who think that it would have been better to have passed over these in silent contempt, I should


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