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gines, that had America been dependent on this country, we could have compelled her to purchase our merchandise, though really higher than that of other states.—Our colonial system was always more liberal than that of Spain; but did all the restrictions, regulations, and guarda-costas, of that power, prevent her colonies from being deluged with the commodities of England, France, and Germany? No custom-house regulations, however rigorously enforced, can ever command or preserve any market; it is solely by the comparative cheapness and quality of the goods offered for sale, that the demand is regulated. The dread of being deprived of colonial produce, if we had no colonies, appears equally futile and unfounded. —What country can be mentioned, which, though it had no share in the colony trade, ever wanted its products, if disposed to pay for them P Countries possessing extensive colonies are frequently reduced to great difficulties by foreigners refusing to buy their commodities, but when did we hear of any people refusing to sell? This is altogether a visionary danger:—the
Years, Imported. 1801,...............143,611,596lbs. 1802,............... 78,476,165 1803, ............... 85,740,537 1804,... ..129,969,997
1805,...............205,792,755 1806, ...............200,737,940 1807,.............. .216,836,202 1808,... ... 86,694,229
1809,........... . 64,081,840 1810, ............... 68,368,792 1811,............... 73,976,609
desire to sell has always been, and must always be, as strong as the inclination to purchase. With the present colonial system the slave trade can only be considered as nominally abolished.—I do not imagine any such keen and determined opposition would have been made to the slave registration bill, if vast numbers of those wretched beings had not still found their way to our islands. But when the cultivation of the sugar cane shall become general in America, it is to be presumed that this infamous traffic will be really put an end to. A government residing on the spot, can see that the laws preventing fresh importations are rigorously executed; but the same thing cannot possibly be effected by a far distant government, whose agents must often be interested in a continuance of the traffic, which they are officially engaged to suppress. The following table shews the quantity of sugar imported into the United States, and again exported, and, consequently, the quantity of foreign growth consumed in that republic from 1801. to 1812, both inclusive. It is extracted from Mr Pitkins' work, page 255.
Exported. Consumed. 97,734,209 lbs. 45,877,387 lbs. 61,180,208 17,295,967 23,323,482 62,417,055 75,096,401 54,873,596 122,808,993 82,983,762 145,630,841 55,107,099 143,119,605 72,716,597 28,962,527 57,731, 702 45,297,338 18,784,502 47,024,002 21,344,790. 18,268,347 55,708,262 13,927,277 58,510,284
MEMORANDUMS OF A VIEW-HUNTER. London, 5th Mar. 1817. MR EDITOR,
If you can find room for some brief sketches of a view-hunter, who has a little enthusiasm in his line, and who, like not a few of his countrymen, has been a view-hunting lately in France, his memorandum book is very much at your service. The sketches have at least one merit—they are warm from the life.
—Preparing the race-ground for the races. This raised a train of ideas about the D , S , the fair MI , and all that, varied but pleasing—Pretty clean-looking village of Bridge in the bottom. The country rich with gentlemen's houses and garden-like enclosures. The track was now new to me. This had been the boundary of my former trips on the Dover road. The dale to the right, with hamlets, villages, churches, gentlemen's seats, appears peculiarly elegant, contrasted with the plainness on the left. The road is carried along the east side of a valley. This valley is narrow and rich—of the glen sort— and, as we approach Dover, it has several pleasing vista-openings in the Scottish style. We got a small peep of the channel, two or three miles from Dover. The town itself is scarcely seen till we enter. On descending to the bottom, in which it stands, we took up a little man about twenty, one of the most free and easy persons I have ever met with. He introduced himself to us in a moment, and gave us all the information we wanted; indeed, much more than my companion S— seemed to want. But I was pleased with the rattle for the moment. He, however, did not lack either sense or discrimination. He pointed out the stream that creeps in the bottom, as being reckoned the richest in England of its size, for manufacturing returns. So he said. Saw several paper manufactories and flour mills. One of the former, he said, was famous for fine paper; the scenery of its banks pleasing, and from this account it became more interesting. It seems to descend from a vista on the right, and to run only four or five miles. Our attention was attracted by a group of young women promenading
in agreen field on its banks, near a very
small rustic chapel and church-yard; the latter only about fifty feet square. The whole formed a fine rural picture. On descending to the level of the stream, we found both the footway and the road covered with walkers; for this was Sunday afternoon, and the weather was uncommonly fine. When we entered the town, we still found the footway—for it has a footway on each side, and this was one of the few we were to see for many a hundred mile—still crowded with promenaders. The people well dressed, particularly the women. The girls very pretty. Seldom have seen so many fine faces in a town of the same size; but it was Kent. A smile on every countenance. I like to see the evening of the Sabbath-day kept in this cheerful but de
Dover. : At the Paris hotel. Very good house. Civil and attentive. Full of passen
gers to and from the Continent. Walked out with my companions, Dr B. and Mr S. to view-hunt a little on the heights on so fine an afternoon. The town built on a narrow slip of land at the bottom of steep chalky cliffs. Ascended a circular excavation in the chalk. Three winding stairs up it, of about 200 steps. Made some years ago. Sentinels both at the entry below and above. Part of the works of defence, on the top of the hill, a little to the right of this. Ascend it by ladder stairs on the outside. These have a fine effect, combined with the fortifications. The castle, also, has a venerable and picturesque appearance from this station. I inquired about Shakspeare's cliff of the soldiers. A decent-looking militiaman, who was carrying a #. child, while two more were playing round him, pointed it out to me—a mile or so off. A few halfpence made the little folks very happy, and the parent's fond eye glisten with delight. I cast a wishful look to this favourite cliff:—The declining day was so fine. But Dr B. said, he was so fatigued he could not think of it; and as I could not leave him so abruptly, I was obliged to give up the project, but not without regret that was constantly recurring. This is the inconvenience of a view-hunter entangling himself with any non-view-hunter as a travelling companion. He is prevented from seeing half of what he may see.—A word to view-hunters. , I determined to give my companions the slip for the future, except at meals. I then proposed ascending to the citadel. The way at first steep, and nearly on the edge of the precipice. Dr B. said to some of the soldiers who pointed out our way, as they were reclining on the declivity, that it lookcd like ascending to the skies. Nothing of that sort, said a drummer. I
have climbed it often, and I never ,
found I was a bit nearer heaven than before. The pert drummer might not oo far wrong with respect too himSeit. \ The view of the harbour, which is a tide one, and very extensive, having gates between the outer and sinner station, with the ships so far below us, formed an interesting picture. The sea was delightfully calm. The white
cliffs of France, whither we were goWing, had their effect. The sight set *-us a talking of the probability of the
junction of Great Britain formerly
with the Continent. The sameness of the soil, and other geological phenomena, and the proximity, seemed to make a junction likely; the vast length of the British channel, and the wide German Ocean approaching so near, render a separation from the first as natural. In short, whether this part of the channel was once an isthmus, and Albion a peninsula, or not, will ever be a doubtful speculation. We have nothing but conjectural reasons, and these appear to be as strong on the one side as the other. Two very bonny lasses, with a fine child, ascended at the same time with us, but still nearer the precipice. I begged them, for Heaven's sake, not to go so near. They laughed, and went still nearer; and sat down almost on the very edge of the tremendous precipice, which, even at the distance we were standing, made us shudder. Goodbye, my poor dears, said I to them; I shall see you no more. They gave me some jocular reply. Such is the effect of custom. Went up to the citadel. Not allowed to enter. A nice-looking woman and her husband on the drawbridge. She seemed quite frightened. . On raising my eyes, I soon found the cause of her terror. They were going to fire the evening gun from the rampart. The picture was truly fine. The poor female was crouching down on the bridge, though the gun was full twelve feet above her, and stopping her ears; and the artillery men were standing in order by it, waiting till the sun, who was now going down, should sink under the hill. We were at unequal distances, watching the hand that held the lighted match. This was applied. The height seemed to shake under us. The thunder ran round the hills for some time, and returned again. The varied and pleasing form of these winding heights, with their picturesque ornaments,< the glens between them, which put me in mind of some of the glens of the Grampians, though in miniature, ——and the brilliant tints which the sun had left behind him, received such an addition from this simple and familiar
incident, that Dr B., who secmed to .
ssess a very moderate share of viewting enthusiasm, exclaimed, 'Tis
truly grand and beautiful. I felt the justness of the observation home, and I echoed it with the most cordial asSent. As we marched off, highly delighted with this short evening view-hunt, we were assailed by a host of native enemies. These were hornets. I did not mind them, and they soon left me. But Dr B. was quite alarmed. In vain I advised him to let them alone. The more he laboured to chase these buzzers away, the more furious and mumerous did they return to the attack. I have frequently found these insects near cannon and ordnance depots. I do not know why. While we sat at tea, a little valetudinarian Jew, whom they called Moses, offered his services in the moneychanging line. He said he followed this business merely for the sake of a little amusing employment. He charged a penny more for his Louises (of twenty francs) than I had paid in London, or 16s. 4d. He wanted very much to tempt me to part with some of the slips of paper I had received from Hammersley, for French gold,— no doubt by way of amusement also. But in vain he offered me a douceur, as I meant to keep my paper till I got to Paris. He loitered in the coffeeroom, and again and again he attempted to bribe me to part with it. Pho? thought I, as Isipt my tea; and is the theory of our bullion committee come to this in practice. The notes of the Bank of England, alone, are now from eight to ten millions more than when this learned body, far above the prejudices of metal-money times no doubt, were theorizing ; and yet here is a Jew (for the sake of mere amusement, it is granted) offers me more gold for my paper money, than even its mint price warrants. His urgency, also, certainly looks very much like his considering paper really more valuable than gold. 'Tis a pity that facts will still be giving the negation flat to certain favourite theories. We shall, however, reach something like good sense on money at length, perhaps. I say good, and not common sense ; for the common sense on the subject of money, as on many others, has a good deal of that negative kind of sense in it, which is styled nonsense. All this, it is to be noticed, I thought, and not said. From some remark that had fallen from Dr B. I perceived he was an adherent of the metal moncy party, and I was a decided partisan of paper. Now, it is well known, that a regular argumentation on paper and metal money, unless abruptly terminated by a quarrel or a duel,-to say nothing of disturbing all around us with our moise, seldom, on a moderate calculation, abates in its violence in less than two hours and a half. But I wished to retire to bed early, and therefore I did not offer battle.
My bed-room was just under a perpendicular cliff of chalk, say, from 150 to 200 feet high. Supposenow, thought I to myself, this cliff should tumble down in the night. However, thought I to myself again, this perpendicular cliff has stood during the nights of several thousand years, and why should it, of all nights, fall down on the very night that I sleep at Dover ?—And sleep there I did, and very soundly too. In three minutes I was unconscious of existence, and dreamt neither of Jews changing money for mere amusement, metal nor paper, bullion committees, nor yet perpendicular cliffs of chalk.
And now, sir, with your permission, I shall postpone my invasion of France till next month.
ACCOUNT OF THE AMERICAN STEAM FRIGATE.
MR EDITOR, As the following account of the steam frigate lately built in America, has, so far as I know, not yet been published in this country, I have taken the liberty of transmitting it for your Magazine. It was communicated to me some time ago by Samuel L. Mitchill, M.D.F.R.S.E. of New York, one of the commissioners who superintended its construction.—I am, Sir, yours, &c. D. BREwsTER. Edinburgh, March 4th, 1847.
Report of Henry Rutgers, Samuel L. Mitchill, and Thomas Morris, the commissioners superintending the construction of a Steam Vessel of War, to the secretary of the navy. New York, December 28, 1815. SIR,-The war which was terminated by the treaty of Ghent, afforded, during its short continuance, a glorious display of the valour of the United States byland and by sea--it made them better known to foreign nations, and, what is of much greater importance, it con
tributed to make them better acquainted with themselves—it excited new enterprises—it educed latent talentsit stimulated to exertions unknown to our people before. A long extent of coast was exposed to an enemy, powerful above every other on the ocean. His commanders threatened to lay waste our country with fire and sword, and, actually, in various instances, carried their menaces into execution. It became necessary, for our defence, to resist, by every practicable method, such a formidable foe. It was conceived, by a most ingenious and enterprising citizen, that the power of steam could be employed to propel a floating battery, carrying heavy guns, to the destruction of any hostile force that should hover on the shores, or enter the ports of our Atlantic frontier. The perfect and admirable success of his project, for moving boats containing travellers and baggage by the same elastic agent, opened the way to its employment for carrying warriors and the apparatus for fighting. The plan was submitted to the consideration of the executive of an enlightened government. Congress, influenced by the most liberal and patriotic spirit, appropriated money for the experiment; and the navy department, then conducted by the Honourable William Jones, appointed commissioners to superintend the construction of a convenient vessel under the direction of Robert Fulton, Esq. the inventor, as engineer, and of Messrs Adam and Noah Brown, as naval constructors. The enterprise, from its commencement, and during a considerable part of its preparatory operations, was aided by the zealous co-operation of major-general Dearborn, then holding his head-quarters at the city of New York, as the officer commanding the third military district. The loss of his valuable counsel, in conducting a work which he had maturely considered, and which he strongly recommended, was the consequence of his removal to another section of the union, where his professional talents were specially required. The keels of this steam frigate were laid on the 20th day of June, 1814. The strictest blockade the enemy could enforce, interruptcd the coasting trade, and greatly enhanced the price of timber. The vigilance with which he guarded our coast against intercourse with foreign nations, rendered difficult the importation of copper and iron. The same impediment attended the supplies of coal, heretofore brought to New York from Richmond and Liverpool. Lead, in like manner, was procured under additional disadvantages. These attempts of the enemy to frustrate the design were vain and impotent. All the obstacles were surmounted. Scarcity of the necessary woods and metals was overcome by strenuous exertions; and all the blockading squadron could achieve, was not a disappointment in the undertaking, but merely an increase of the expense. So, in respect to tradesmen and labourers, there was an extraordinary difficulty. Ship-wrights had repaired to the lakes for repelling the enemy, in such numbers, that comparatively speaking, few were left on the seaboard. A large portion of the men who had been engaged in daily work, had enlisted as soldiers, and had marched under the banners of the nation to the defence of its rights—yet, amidst the scarcity of hands, a sufficient number was procured for the purpose which the commissioners had in charge. An increase of wages was the chief impediment, and this they were enabled practically to overcome. By the exemplary combination of diligence and skill, on the part of the engineer and the constructors, the business was so accelerated, that the vessel was launched on the 29th day of October, amidst the plaudits of an unusual number of citizens. Measures were immediately taken to complete her equipment; the boiler, the engine, and the machinery, were put in board with all possible expedition. Their weight and size far surpassed any thing that had been witnessed before among us. The stores of artillery in New York not furnishing the number and kind of cannon which she was destined to carry, it became necessary to transport guns from Philadelphia. A prize taken from the enemy, put some fit and excellent pieces at the disposition of the navy department. To avoid the danger of capture by the enemy's cruizers, these were carried over the miry roads of New Jersey. Twenty heavy cannon were thus conveyed by
the strength of horses. Carriages of the most approved model were constructed, and every thing done to bring her into prompt action, as an efficient instrument of war. About this time, an officer preeminent for bravery and discipline, was commissioned by the government to her command. Prior to this event, it had been intended by the commissioners to finish her conformably to the plan originally submitted to the executive. She was a structure resting upon two boats, and keels separated from end to end by a canal 15 feet wide, and 156 long. One boat contained the cauldrons of copper to prepare her steam. The vast cylinder of iron, with its piston, lever, and wheels, occupied a part of its fellow ; the great water-wheel revolved in the space between them; the main or gun deck supported her armament, and was protected by a bulwark 4 feet 10 inches thick, of solid timber. This was pierced by 30 port holes, to enable as many 32 pounders to fire red hot balls; her upper or spar deck was plain, and she was to be propelled by her enginery alone. It was the opinion of Captain Porter and Mr Fulton, that the upper deck ought to be surrounded with a bulwark and stanchions—that two stout masts should be erected to support latteen sails—that there should be bowsprits for jibs, and that she should be rigged in a corresponding style. Under authorities so great, and with the expectation of being able to raise the blockade of New London, by destroying, taking, or routing the enemy's ships, all these additions were adopted, and incorporated with the vessel. It must here be observed, that, during the exhaustion of the treasury, and the temporary depression of public credit, the commissioners were exceedingly embarrassed;—their payments were made in treasury notes, which they were positively instructed to negotiate at par. On several occasions even these were so long withheld, that the persons who had advanced materials and labour were importunate for payment, or silently discontented. To a certain extent, the commissioners pledged their private credit. Notwithstanding all this, the men, at one time, actually broke off. The work was retarded, and her come pletion was unavoidably deferred, to