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leging that the constitution of the United States has not given the president the right which he assumed. « If," said this great diplomatic luminary, “ it is an act merely arbitrary, it is amongst the class of acts of aggression, and becomes a cause of war. I do not recollect what the wormeaten writings of Grotius, Puffendorf, or Vattel, say on the subject; I thank God I have forgotten what these hired jurisprudists have written upon the rights of nations at a period when all were enchained.”
On the 5th of December the president sent a message to the two houses, containing a formal complaint of the behaviour of the French minister, but at the same time acknowledging, in very explicit terms, the friendly attachment manifested by the French republic in the general tenor of its conduct towards America -" that they had given advantages to the commerce and navigation of the United States, and made overtures for placing those advantages on permanent ground; and he expressed his firm conviction that the government of France will not suffer them to remain long exposed to the insults of a person who has so little respected the mutual dispositions of the two nations." He takes notice, however, of the seizures of American vessels with enenıy's goods on board, both by the French and English, in violation of what he apprehended to be the true principles of neutrality, and that representations had been made to the belligerent powers to obtain redress for the past, and more effectual provisions against the future. Also, that on the subjects of mutual interest between America and Spain, negotiations and conferences were at that time depending.
The outrages nevertheless committed by the British armed veffels and cruizers on the American traders, in consequence of the famous order of council dated November, 1793, were so enormous, the encroachments made by the governments of Canada upon the American territory were so flagrant, and the indisposition of the court of London to deliver up the forts upon the great lakes, conformably to the treaty of 1783, was so openly manifested, that the president, in a message to congress, dated April 16, 1794, declared to the American legislature, that the aspect of their affairs with Great Britain was very serious ; and he at the same time communicated to them the appointment of Mr. Jay, who held the high office of chief justice of the United States, as envoy extraordinary to his Britannic majesty. “ A mission like this,” said the president, “ while it corresponds with the solemnity of the occasion, will announce to the world a solicitude for a friendly adjustment of our complaints, and a reluctance to hostility.”
Several cireumstances at this period concurred to excite the strongest suspicions in the minds of the Americans of the evil designs of the British court, which, with impotent' malignity, resented the good understanding uniformly kept up by the republic of America with the republic of France, notwithstanding the occasional abuses and excefies of the French government. In a TALK or conference held by lord Dorchester, late sir Guy Carleton, with the Indian chiefs of Lower Canada in February, 1794, the governor declared, that he should not be surprised if the king their father were to be at war with the people of the United States before the end of the year—«. You are witness, children,” said he to the chieftains, “ that on our part we have acted in the most peaceable manner, and borne the language of the United States with patience; and, I believe, our patience is almost exhausted.”—An insurrection having broken out in the western territory in consequence of the recent introduction of the excise laws among that rude people, the insurgents threatened, that if the tax in question was not repealed, they would place themselves under the protection of Great Britain. In the course of the summer they were, however, reduced to submission. With a view, as it appeared, to co-operate with these insurgents, the Indian nations to the northward made a desperate in
cursion into the western territory. General Wayne, being fent with an armed force to repel this attack about the middle of August, penetrated to the Miami river, on the banks of which, to his utter surprise, he discovered a fort erected and garrisoned by the British settlers of Detroit and Canadian militia ; and under the cannon of this fort the Indians routed and pursued by Wayne fought and found refuge. Major Campbell, governor of the fort, wrote to general Wayne to know the cause of his hostile approach to a garrison appertaining to his Britannic majesty. The American general in reply, afferted, « that he knew of no act of hostility excepting that committed by the major in erecting a fortification within the acknowledged boundary of the United States, which he summoned him forthwith to surrender, and withdraw within the limits of the British territory. Major Campbell. with laudable difcretion, informed general Wayne, “ that being a military officer merely he had no authority to enter into any discusfion of right, but that he was confident the difference would be amicably adjusted between their several governments; and on this assurance general Wayne, with equal moderation, drew off his troops.
In the southern colonies also the American government had strong ground to suspect that the Creek and Seneca Indians had been tampered with by the British agents, to engage in a war against the Americans; but all these causes of difference were referred to the well-known address and management of Mr. Jay.
Nearly at the same time the president nominated, as minister-plenipotentiary to the French government, Mr. James Monroe, a man of a cool and difpassionate temper, of excellent parts, and a sincere friend to the cause of Gallic as well as of American liberty. He arrived at Paris immediately after the fall of the Robespierrian faction, and at his first audience (August 15, 1794) he was received with the moit cordial tokens of esteem and affection. « The
French people," said the president of the Convention, in his answer to the speech of Mr. Monroe, “ have not forgotten, that it is to the Americans they owe the beginning of liberty. It was by admiring the sublime insurrection of the American people against Albion, once so proud, now so degraded,,it was by taking arms themselves to second the courageous efforts of that insurrection, it was by cementing the independence of America with the blood of their bravest warriors, that the French people learned to break the sceptre of tyranny in their turn, and to erect the ftatue of Liberty on the ruins of a throne founded on fourteen centuries of corruption and crimes."
BOOK BOOK XV.
Wonderful Acquisitions of France during the War. Sefion of
Parliament, 1795. King's Speech holds out bold and fallacious Hopes of Success. Defection of Mr. Wilberforce, and other Partizans of the Ministry, from the System of the Court. Causes of the National Delusion. Sufpenfion of the Habeas-Corpus Act renewed. Loan granted to the Emperor. Statement of the National Finances. Motion of Mr. Grey respecting Peace~ Insidiously counteracted by Mr. Pitt. Similar Motion of the Duke of Bedford---Rejected by the Peers. Resolutions moved by Mr. Grey and the Duke of Bedford also negatived. Motion by Mr. Fox to inquire into the State of the Nation evaded. Motions respecting the Recall of Lord Fitzwilliam from Ireland negatived. Pacific Motion by Mr. Wilberforce negatived. Marriage Establisɔment of the Prince of Wales. Motion for the Abolition of the Slave-Trade rejected. Acquittal of Mr. Hastings. Termination of the Seffion. Proceedings of the Irish Parliament--- Appointment of Earl Camden to the Government Catholic-Emancipation Bill rejected---Diftracted State of the Country. Military Transactions. Shattered Remains of the Duke of York's Army embarked for England. Peace between France and Prufia---Allo between France and Spain. Surrender of Luxemburg. Indecisive Operations on the Rhine. Naval Engagement of the Const of Corficu. Skilful Retreat of Admiral Cornwallis. French Squadron defeated by Lord Bridport. The Isands of St. Eustatius and St. Lucia recovered by the French. War against the Maroons in Jamaica. Cape of Good Hope captured by the English. State of Affairs in France. Revengeful Proceedings of the Gironde Faction. Disastrous Expedition to La Vendée. Death of the Dauphin. New