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INTRODUCTION TO PEVERIL OF THE PEAK.
IF I had valuea my own reputation, as it is said I ought in pru: | the polite and gentlemanlike manner in which he stated feelings dence to have done, I might have now drawn a line, and remained concerning his ancestry, to which a Scotsman can hardly bo for life, or (who knows?) perhaps for some years after death, the supposed to be indifferent. "ingenious author of Waverley." I was not, however, more In another respect, Mr. Christian with justico complains, that desirous of this sort of immortality, which might have lasted Edward Christien, described in the romance as the brother of some twenty or thirty years, than Falstaff of the embowelling the gentleman executed in consequence of the Countess's arbia which was promised him after the field of Shrewsbury, by his trary act of authority, is pourtrayed as a wretch of unbounded patron the Prince of Wales. “Embowel'd i If you embowel me depravity, having only ingenuity and courage to rescue him from to-day, you may powder and eat me to-morrow!"
abhorrence, as well as hatred. Any personal allusion was en. If my occupation as a romancer were taken from me, I felt I tirely undesigned on the part of the author. The Edward Chrisshould have at a late hour in life to find me out another; when I tian of the lale is a mere creature of the imagination. Comcould hardly expect to acquire those new tricks, which are pro mentators have naturally enough identified him with a brother verbially said not to be learned by those dogs who are getting of William Christian, named Edward, who died in prison after old. Besides, I had yet to learn from the public, that my intru being confined seven or eight years in Peel Castle, in the year sions were disagreeable ; and while I was endured with some 1650. or him I had no access to know any thing, and as I was patience, I felt I had all the reputation which I greatly coveted. not aware that such a person had existed, I could hardly be said My memory was well stored, both with historical, local, and to have traduced his character. It is sufficient for my justificatraditional notices, and I had become almost as licensed a plague tion, that there lived at the period of my story a person named to the public as the well remembered beggar of the ward, whom Edward Christian," with whom connected or by whom begot," men distinguish by their favour, perhaps for no better reason I am a perfect stranger, but who we know to have been engaged than that they had been in the habit of giving him alms, as a in such actions as may imply his having been guilty of any thing part of the business of their daily promenade. The general fact bad. The fact is, that upon the 5th June, 1680, Thomas Blood, is godeniable,-all men grow old, all men must wear out; but (the famous crown stealer.) Edward Christian, Arthur O'Brien, men of ordinary wisdom, however aware of the general fact, are and others, were found guilty of being concerned in a conspi: nawilling to admit in their own case any special instances of racy for taking away the life and character of the celebrated Biore. Indeed, they can hardly be expected themselves to dis. Duke of Buckingham ; but that this Edward was the same with huzush the effects of the Archbishop of Granada's apoplexy, the brother of William Chistian, is impossible, since that broand are not unwilling to pass over in their composition, as in- ther died in 1650 ; nor would I have used his christened name of stances of mere carelessness or bad luck, what others may con- Edward, had I supposed there was a chance of its being consider as symptoms of mortal decay. I had no choico save that nected with any existing family. These genealogical matters of absolutely laying aside the pen, the use of which at my time are fully illustrated in the notes to the Appendix. ni life was become a habit, or to continue its vagaries, until the I ought to have mentioned in the former editions of this ropublic should let me plainly understand they would no more of mance, that Charlotte de la Tremouille, Countess of Derby, reme: a hint which I was not unlikely to meet with, and which I presented as a Catholic, was, in fact, a French Protestant. For was determined to take without waiting for a repetition. This misrepresenting the noble dame in this manner, I have only Lu. bint, that the reader may plainly understand me, I was determin. cio's excuse"I spoke according to the trick." 'In a story where ed to take, when the publication of a new Waverley novel should the greater part is avowedly fiction, the author is at liberty to pot be the subject of some attention in the literary world. introduce such variations from actual fact as his plot requires, or shepherd boy, instead of looking after his flock on the lea, as skilfully eluded; firearms were often suddenly discharged near was his duty, slunk into the house to see what he could pick up, her, but never on such occasions was she seen to start. It seems or perhaps out of mere curiosity. Beinz tempted by something probable, however, that Lizzie grew tired of all this mistrust, which was in his eyes a nicety, he put forth his hand, unseen as for she one morning disappeared as she came, without any cerehe conceived, to appropriate it. The dumb woman came sud mony of leave-taking. denly upon him, and in surprise forgot her part, and exclaimed, She was seen, it is said, upon the other side of the English in loud Scotch, and with distinct articulation, " Ah, you little border, in perfect possession of her speech. Whether this was deevil's limb!". The boy, terrified more by the character of the exactly the case or not, my informiers were no way anxious person who rebuked him, than by the mere circumstance or in inquiring, nor am I able io authenticate the fact. The shephaving been taken in the insignificant offence, fled in great dis. herd boy lived to be a man, and always averred that she had may to the church, to carry the miraculous news that the dumb spoken distinctly to him. What could be the woman's reason woman had found her tongue.
An accidental circumstance decided my choice of a subject which are calculated to enhance it; in which predicament the for the present work. It was now several years since my imme- religion of the Countess of Derby, during the Popish Plot, ap. diate younger brother, Thomas Scott, already mentioned in peared to fall. If I have over-estimated a romancer's privileges these notes, had resided for two or three seasons in the Isle of and immunities, I am afraid this is not the only, nor most impor Man, and, having access to the registers of that singular terri. tant, case in which I have done so. To speak big words, the tory, had copied many of them, which he subjected to my peru- heroic Countess has far less grounds for an action of scandal, sal. These papers were put into my hands while my brother than the memory of Virgil might be liable to for his posthuhad thoughts of making some literary use of them, I do not moun scandal of Dido. well remember what; but he never came to any decision on that The character of Fenella, which, from its peculiarity, made a head, and grew tired of the task of transcription. The papers, favourable impression on the public, was far from being original. I suppose, were lost in the course of a military man's life. The 'The fine sketch of Mignon, in Wilhelm Meister's Lehrjahre, a tenor of them, that is, of the most remarkable, remained en celebrated work from the pen of Goethe, gave the idea of such graved on the memory of the author.
a being. But the copy will be found greatly different from my The interesting and romantic story of William Christian es- great prototype ; nor can I be accused of borrowing any thing, pecially struck my fancy. I found the same individual, as well save the general idea, from an author, the honour of his own as his father, particularly noticed in some memorials of the isl country, and an example to the authors of other kingdoms, to end, preserved by the Earl of Derby, and published in Dr. Peck's whom all must be proud to own an obligation. Desiderata Curiosa. This gentleman was the son of Edward, Family tradition supplied me with two circumstances, which formerly governor of the island ; and William himself was are somewhat analogous to that in question. The first is an ac afterwards one of its two Dempsters, or supreme judges. Both count of a lawsuit, taken from a Scottish report of adjudged father and son embraced the party of the Islanders, and con- cases, quoted in note to Chapter V., p. 29. tested some feudal rights claimed by the Earl of Derby as King The other-of which the editor has no reason to doubt, having of the Island When the Earl had suffered death at Bolton-le. often heard it from those who were witnesses of the fact--re. Moors, Captain Christian placed himself at the head of the lates to the power of a female in keeping a secret, (sarcastiRoundheads, if they might be so called, and found the means of cally said to be impossible,) even when that secret refers to the holding communication with a fleet sent by the Parliament. - exercise of her tongue. The island was surrendered to the Parliament by the insurgent In the middle of the eighteenth century, a female wanderer Manxmen. The high-spirited Countess and her son were arrest. came to the door of Mr. Robert Scott, grandfather of the preed, and cast into prison, where they were long detained, and sent author, an opulent farmer in Roxburghshire, and made signs very indifferently treated.' When the restoration took place, the that she desired shelter for the night, which, according to the Countess, or by title the Queen dowager of the Island, seized custom of the times, was readily granted. The next day the upon William Dhone, or Fair-haired William, as William Chris- country was covered with snow, and the departure of the wan. tian was termed, and caused him to be tried and executed, ac. derer was rendered impossible. She remained for many days, cording to the laws of the island, for having dethroned his liege her maintenance adding little to the expense of a consider: mistress, and imprisoned her and her family. Romancers, and able household ; and by the time that the weather grew milder, readers of romance, will generally allow that the fate of she had leamed to hold intercourse by signs with the household Christian, and the contrast of his character with that of the around her, and could intimate to them that she was desirous of high-minded, but vindietive Countess of Derby, famous du- staying where she was, and working at the wheel and other emting the civil wars for her valiant defence of Latham House, ployment, to compensate for her food. This was a compact not contained the essence of an interesting tale. I have, however, unfrequent at that time, and the dumb woman entered upon dwelt little either on the death of William Christian, or on the her thrift, and proved a useful member of the patriarchal manner in which Charles II. viewed that stretch of feudal household. She was a good spinner, knitter, carder, and so power, and the heavy fine which he imposed upon the Derby forth, but her excellence lay in attending to the feeding and estates, for that extent of jurisdiction of which the Countess bringing up the domestic poultry: Her mode of whistling to had been guilty. Far lese have I given any opinion on the jus- call them together
was so peculiarly elfish and shrill, that it tice or guilt of that action, which is to this day judged of by was thought, by those who heard it, more like that of a fairy the people of the island as they happen to be connected with than a human being. the sufferer, or perhaps as they may look back with the eyes of In this manner she lived three or four years, nor was there the favour upon the Cavaliers or Roundheads of those contentious slightest idea entertained in the family that she was other than day. I do pot conceive that I have done injury to the memory the mute and deprived person she had always appeared. But in of this gentleman, or any of his descendants in his person ; at a moment of surprise, she dropped the mask which she had the same time I have most willingly given his representative an worn so long. opportunity of stating in this edition of the Novel what he It chanced upon a Sunday that the whole inhabitants of the thinks necessary for the vindication of his ancestor, and the household were atchurchexcept dumb Lizzie, whose infirmity was reader will find the exposition in the Notices, for which Mr. supposed to render her incapable of profiting by divine service, Christian desires admission. I could do no less, considering and who therefore stayed at home to take charge of the house. • See Appendix. No. I.
It happened that, as she was sitting in the kitchen a mischievous No. I.
for persevering so long in a disguise as unnecessary as it was The family returned home in great surprise, but found that severe, could never be guessed, and was perhaps the conre. their inmate had relapsed into her usual mute condition, would quence of a certain aberration of the mind. I can only add, that communicate with them only by signs, and in that manner de. I have every reason to believe the tale to be perfectly authentic, nied positively what the boy atfirmed,
so far as it is here given, and it may serve to parallel the supFrom this time confidence was broken betwixt the other in- posed case of Fenella. mates of the family and their dumb, or rather silent, guest.- ABBOTSFORD, Traps were laid for the supposed impostor, all of which she 1st July, 1831.
APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTORY EPISTLE.
ance and aid of a zealous local antiquary, gradually led to an
examination of all accessible authorities on this very subject The following Notices were recommended to my attention, in among others. So it happened, that I had not landed many the politest manner possible, by John Christian, Esq. of Miln.
nours before I found the mournful ditty of " William Dhones town, in the lale of Man, and Unrigg, in Cumberland, Dempster
(brown or fair-haired William, this very identical William Chris. at present of the Isle of Man. This gentleman is naturally in.
lian) twanged through the demi-nasal, demi-guttural trumpet of terested in the facts which are stated, as representative of the the carman, and warbled by the landlady's pretty daughter; in respectable family of Christian, and lineally descended from short, making as great a figure in its little sphere as did once William Dhone, put to death by the Countess of Derby. I can
the more important ballad of Chevy Chace in its wider rauge ; be no way interested in refusing Mr. Christian this justice, and
the burden of the song purporting that William Dhône was the willingly lend my aid to extend the exculpation of the family.
mirror of virtue and patriotism, and that envy, hatred, and ma. lice, and all uncharitableness, operate the destruction of the wisest and the best.
Themes of popular feeling naturally attract the earliest notice HISTORICAL NOTICES
of a stranger; and I found the story of this individual, though
abundantly garbled and discoloured on the insular records, full OF EDWARD AND WILLIAM CHRISTIAN ; TWO CHARACTERS IN of circumstances to excite the deepest interest, but which, to PEVERIL OF THE PEAK."
be rendered intelligible, must be approached by a circuitous
route, in which neither elfin page, nor maiden fair, can be the The venerable Dr. Dryasdust, in a preparatory dialogue, ap.
companion of our walk. prises the Eidolon or apparition of the author, that he stood The loyal and celebrated James, seventh Earl of Derby, was
much accused for adulterating the pure sources of historical induced, by the circumstances of the times, to fix his chief resi. knowledge;" and is answered by that emanation of genius,
dence in the Isle of Man from 1643 to 1651. During this period " that he has done some service to the public if he can present he composed, in the form of a letteri to his son Charles, (Lord to them a lively fictitious picture, for which the original anec.
Strange,) an historical account of that island, with a statedote or circumstance which he made free to press into his ser
ment of his own proceedings there ; interspersed with much vice, only furnished a slight sketch ; " " that by introducing to political advice for the guidance of his successor; full of acute the busy and the youthful,
observation, and evincing an intimate acquaintance with the
works of Machiavelli, which it appears, by a quotation, that • Truthe severe in fairy fiction dressid,'
he had studied in a Laun edition. The work, although forand by creating an interest in fictitious adventures ascribed to an mally divided into chapters and numbered paragraphs, is prohistorical period and characters, the reader begins next to be fessedly desultory, and furnishes few means of determining the anxious to learn what the facts really were, and how far the novel relative dates of his facts, which must accordingly be supplied Ist has justly represented them."
by internal evidence, and in some cases by conjecture. The adventures ascribed to "historical characters" would, He appears to have been drawn thither, in 1613, by letters however, fail in their moral aim, if fiction were placed at vari
intimating the danger of a revolt: the "people had begun the ance with truth; if Hampden, or Sydney, for example, were fashion of England in murmuring;' "assernbled in a tumultu. painted as swindlers; or Lady Jane Grey, or Rachel Russel, as ous manner; desiring new laws, they would have no bishops, abandoned women.
pay no tithes to the clergie, despised authority, rescued people "Odzooks; must one swear to the truth of a song ?" although committed by the Governor," &c. &c. an excellent joke, were a bad palliation in such a case. Fancy The Earl's first care was to apply himself to the consideration may be fairly indulged in the illustration, but not in the perver
of these insurrectionary movements; and as he found some in. sion of fact, and if the fictitious picture should have no general terruption to his proceedings in the conduct of Eduard Caris. resemblance to the original, the flourish of
tian,** an attempt shall be made, so far as our limits will ad. ** Truth severe in fairy fiction dress'd,"
mit, to extract the Earl's own account of this person. "I was
newlyti got acquainted with Captain Christian, whom I perwere but an aggravation of the wrong.
The family of CHRISTIAN is indebted to this splendid lumi. 1 His countess resided at Latham Honse (her heroic defence of which nary of the North for abundant notoriety.
is well known) until 1614 or 5, when she also retired to the Isle of Man The William Christian represented on one part as an ungrate- A contemporary publication, the Mercurius Aulirus, by John Birken. ful traitor, on the other as the victim of a judicial murder, and head, says, "the Countesse, it seems, stole the Earl's breeches, when be his brother (or relative) Edward, one of the suite of a Duke* of Aed long since into the Isle of Man, and hath in his absence played the Buckingham, were so far real historical persons. Whether the Man at Latham.” This insinuation is certainly unjust; but the Earl talents and skill of Edward in imposing on Fenella a feigned
seems to consider some explanation necessary, "why he left the land, silence of several years, be among the legitimate or supernatu
when every gallant spirit had engaged hinsell for king and country ral wonders of this fertile genius, his fair readers do not seem
Danger of revolt and invasion of the island covetitute the substauce of to be agreed. Whether the residue of the canvass, filled up
this explanation. There is reason, however, to conjecture, that he had with a masterly picture of the most consummate hypocrite and brought a considerable levy to join the King at York: Any explanation,
been disappointed of the command he had a right to expect, when he satanic villain ever presented to the imagination, be consistent with the historical character of this individual, is among the military spirit, which were above all impeachment.
in short, might be listened to, except a doubt of his loyalty and urdent subjects of research to which the novelist has given a direct in- Published in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, in 1779. vitation in his prefatory chapter
Peck, p. 446,- fortiter calumniari aliquid adhærebit. English history furnishes few materials to aid the investiga- Peck, 116. * Loath to dwell too long on one subject," skip over to tion of transactions chiefly confined to the Isle of Man. Cir- some other matter. cumstances led me, many years ago, to visit this ancient Lilli- ! Peck, p. 434 put; whether as one of those " smart fellows worth talking ** For a history of this family, established in the Isle of Man so early
in consequence of a tumble from my barouche," " as a as 1422, see Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. iii. p. 146. They ruined miner," or as "a disappointed speculator," is of no ma
had previously been calablished in Wigtonshire. terial import. It may be that temporary embarrassment drove
11 This is an example of the difficulty of arranging the relative dater; me into seclusion, without any of the irresistible inducements
the word newly, thus employed at the earliest in 1643, refers ? 1628, the alluded to ; and want of employment, added to the acquaint
date of the appointment of E. Christian to be governor of the Isle of
Man, which office he had dill 1635, (Sacheverill's Account of the Isle of • Not the Duke described in Peveril, but the companion of Charles I. Man, published in 1702, p. 100,) the Farl being then Lord Strange, bu' on his Spanish romance.
apparently inking the lead in public business during his father's lifetime.
ceived to have abilitics enough to do me service. I was told he , dwellirgs are thetr own auntient inheritances, and that they may had made a good fortune in the Indies; that he was a Mankes. passe the same to any, and dispose thereof tho!!! license from man bom." .: "He is excellent good companio; as rude as a the Lord, but paying him a bare small rent like unto a fee-farine sea captain should be ; but refined as one that had civilized in England: wherein they are much deceived, himself half a year at Court, where he served the Duke of William the Conqueror, among his plans for the benefit of his Buckingham."..."While he govemed here some few years English subjects, adopted that of inducing or compelling them he pleased me very well," &c. &c. * But such is the condition to surrender their allodial lands, and receive them back to hold of man, that most will have some fault or other to blurr all by feudal tenure. The Earl of Derby projected :he surrender of their best vertues ; and his was of that condition which is a similar right, in order to create tenures more profitable to reckoned with drunkenness, viz. covetousness, both marked with himself-a simple lense for three liver, or twenty one years. age to increase and grow in man." . ."When a Prince has 'The measure was entirely novel, although the attempt to pre. given all, and the favourite can desire no more, they both grow vent** alienation without license from the lord, for purposes of weary of one another."*
a less profitable exaction, may be traced, together with the An account of the Earl's successive public meetings, short, scenes of violence it produced, through many passages in the from the limits of our sketch, is extracted in a notet from the ancient records, which would be inexplicable without this clue. headings of the chapters (apparently composed by Peck) In The Earl proceeded, certainly with sufficient energy and conthe last of these meetings it appears that Edward Christian siderable skill, to the accomplishment of his object. In the very attempted at its close to recapitulate the business of the day : year of his arrival, Dec. 1643, he appointed commissioneront to
Asked if we did not agree thus and thus," mentioning some compound for leases, consisting of some of his principal officers, things (says the Earl) " he had instructed the people to aske; (members of council,) who had themselves been prevailed on which happily they had forgot." The Earl accordingly rose in by adequate considerations to surrender their estates, and are by wrath, and, after a short speech,“ bade the court to rise, and general tradition accused of having conspired to delude their no man to speak more."-"Some," he adds, "were committed simple countrymen into the persuasion, that having no titleto prkon, and there abided, until, upon submission and assurance deels, their estates were insecure ; thar leases were title-deeds ; of being dery good and quiet, they were released, and others were and although noininally for limited terms, declared the lands to pat into their rooms. I thought fit to make them be deeply be descendible to their eldest song. It is remarkable that the frd; since this they all come in most submisse and loving names of Euan and Walliam Christian, two of the council, are renut." Pretty efficient means of producing quiet, if the alone excluded from this commission. despot be strong enough, and with it such love as suits a des. We have already scen two of the name committed to prison. pot's fancy! Among the prisoners were Edward Christian and The following notices, which abundantly unfold the ground of his brother William of Knockrushen; the Intter was released the Earl's hostility to the name of Christian, relate to Ewan in 1641, on giving bond, among other conditions, not to depart Christian, the father of William Dhûne, and one of the Deemthe island without license.
sters excluded from the commission. *One presented me a pe. or Edward, the Earl says, "I will return unto Captain Chris-tition against Deemster:: Christian, on the behalf of an infant tian, whose business must be heard next week" (either in 1614 who is conceived to have a right unto his Farme Rainsway, or early in 1645.) “ He is still in prison, and I believe many (Ronaldsway,) one of the principal holdings in this country, wonder thereat, as savouring of injustice, and that his trial who, by reason of his einivencie here, and that he holdeth should be deferred so long," " Also his business is of that much of the same tenure of the straw in other places, he is soe condition that it concerns not himself alone." "If a Jurie of the observed, that certainly as I temper the matter with him in this, people do pa se upon him, (being he had so cajoled them to soe shall I prevail with others.''68 ... "By policier they (the believe he suffers for their sakes,) it is likely they should quit Christians) are crept into the principal places of power, and him, and then might he laugh at us, whom I had rather he had they be seated round about the country, and in the heart of it; betraged." "I remember one said it was much safer to take they are inatched with the best families," &c. men's lives than their estates: for their children will sooner * The prayer of the petition formerly mentioned was to this much forget the death of their father than the loss of their effect, that there might be a fair tryal, and when the right was patrimonie."$ Edward died in custody in Peel Castle in 1650,"recorered, that I would graunt them a lease thereof-this being in after an imprisonment of between seven and eight years; and the tenure of the straw."..."Upon some conference with the so far, at least, no ground can be discovered for that gratitude petitioner, I find a motion heretofore was made by my commiswhich i, afterwards said to have been violated by this family, sioners, that the Deemster should give this fellow a summe of urless indeed we transplanted ourselves to those countries where money. But he would part with none, neverthelesse now it it is the fashion to flog a public otficer one day, and replace may be he will, and I hope be so wise as to assure unto himself him in authority the next.
his holding, by compounding with me for the lease of the same, The insular records detail with minuteness the complaints of to which, if they two agree, I shall grant it him on eary terms. the people relative to the exactions of the church, and their For if he break the ice, I may haply catch some fish."*** adjustment by a sort of public arbitration in October, 1643. The issue of this piscatory project was but too successful. But it is singular, that neither in these records, nor in the Earl's Ewan bent to the reign of terror, and gave up Ronaldsway to very studied narrative of the modes of discussion, the offences, his son William, who accepted the lease, and named his own and the punishments, is one word to be found regarding the descendants for the lives. Still the objects attained were un more important points actually at issue between himself and substantial, as being contrary to all law, written or oral; and the people. The fact, however, is fully developed, as if by the system was incomplete, until sanctioned by the semblance accident, in one of the chapters (xri.) of this very desultory of legislative confirmation. but sagacious performance. "There comes this very instant We have seen that the Earl had in the island a considerable an occasion to me to acquaint you with a special matter, which, military force, and we know from other sourcestit that they if by reason of these troublesome and dangerous times, I can: lived in a great measure at free quarters. We have his own not bring to passe my intents therein, you may in your better testimony for stating, that he achieved his objects by imprileisure consider thereof, and make some use hereafter of my soning until his prisoners " promised to be good;" and succes. present labours, in the matter of a certain holding in this coun. sively filling their places with others, until they also conformed try, called the tenure of the straw; 11 whereby men thinkt bheir to his theory of public virtue. And the reader will be prepar
ed to hear, without surprise, that the same means enabled • Peck, p. 444. There is apparently some error in Hutchinson's gene- him, in 1645, to arrange a legislatureit: capable of yielding a alogy of the family in his History of Cumberland : Ist brother, John, bom 1602; 2, died young, 3d, William, born 1608; 4th, Edward, law court, and the grantor, in the face of the court, transferrel his title Liegt. Governor of the Isle of Man, 1629, (according to Sacheperill, p. to the purchaser by the delivery of a straw ; which being recorded, was 100, 1625.) This Edward's birth cannot be placed earlier than 1609, and his title. The same practice prevailed in the transfer of personal prohe coald not well have made a fortune in the Indies, have frecuented perty. Sir Edward Coke, iv. 69, when speaking of the Isle of Man, says, the Court of Charles I, and be selected as a fit person to be a governor, * upon the sale of a horse, or any contract for any other thing, they at the age of 19 or 2. The person mentioned in the text was obviously make the stipulation perfect per traditionein stipula," (by the delivery of malute age; and Edward the governor appears to have been the of a straw.) Perhaps a more feasible etymology of atipulation, than younger brother of William Christian, a branch of the name family, the usual derivation from stipes, (a stake or land-Inark,) or stipa, (a poareasing the estate of Knockrushen, near Castle Rushen, who, as well piece of money or wages.) as Edward, was imprisonerl in Peel Castle in 1613.
** Among those instances in which the commands of the lord pro † Peck, 338, et seq. " Chap. viii. The Earl appoints a meeting of the prietor have" (in the emphatic words of the commissioners of 1791, p. batives, every man to give in his grievances; upon which some think to 67.) “ been obtruded on the people as laws," we find, in 1553, the preoutwit him, which he winka at, being not ready for them, therefore hibition to dispose of lands without license of the lord, is prefaced by cajoles and divides them; on the appointed day he appears with a good the broad admission, that, "contrary to good and laudable order, and guerl; the people give in their complaints quietly and retire. Chap. ix. divers and sundry general restraints made, the inhabitants have, and Apother meeting appointed, when he also appears with a good guard. daily do, notwithstanding the said restrainte, buy, sell, gire, grant, chop Maoy basy men speak only Mankes, which a more designing person and erchange their farms, lards, tenerents, &c., at their liberties and (probably Captain Christian, a late governor) would hinder, but the pleasures." Alienation fines were first exacted in 1613. Report of Earl forbids it; advice about it appearing in public; the Mankesmien Commissioners or 1791. App. A., No. 71, Rop. of Law Officers. great lalkers and wranglers; the Earl's spies get in with them and 11 The governor comptroller, receiver i and John Cannel, deemster. wheecle them. Chap. x The night before the meeting the Earl con. 11 Deemster, evidently Anglieized, the person who deems the law; a solus with his officris what to answer ; but tells them nothing of his designation anciently unknown among the natives, who continue to call spies; compares both reports, and keeps back his own opinion ; sends this officer Brehon, identical with the name of those judges and laws 80 some of the officers, who he knew would be troublesome, out of the often mentioned in the Histories of Ireland way, about other matters; the (present) governor afresh commended ; $$ Peck, 447. what counsellors the properest. Chap. xi. The Earl': carriage to the 1 lb. 448. people a: his first going over ; his carriage at the meeting to mo lest pe I have ascertaineil the date of this petition to le 1613. utioners, to impudent, to the most confident, and to the most dangerous, *** Covetousness is not attributed to the head of this family ; but th: tiz. them who stood behind and prompted others. All things being Earl makes himself merry with his gallantry-natural children, it seems, agreed, Captain Christian cunningly begins disturbance; the Earl's re- took the name of their father, and not of their mother, as elsewhere, and ply and speech to the people; Christian is stroke blank ; several people " the deemeter did not get soe many for lust's sake, as to make the nan.e committed to prison and hved, which quiets them."
of Christian flourish." or him, or a successor of the same name, it is Peck, 442
related, that he "won 500L at play from the Bishop of Sodor and Man, Peck, 448-9.
with which he purchased the manor of Ewanrigg in Cumberland, still i Feltham's Tour, p. 161, places this event, (while a prisoner in Peel possessed by that family." Castle,) on the authority of a tombstone, in 1660, " John Greenhalgh ttt Evidence on the mock trial of William Dhône. being governor". Now John Greenhalgh ceased to be governor in 1651 ; 111 We shall see, by and by, a very simple method of packing a jodi, the date is probably an error in the press for 1650.
cial and legislative body, by removing and replacing seren individuals s In the transfer of real estates both parties came into the common by one and the same mandate. VOL. IV.-S
forced assent to this notable system of submission and loving 1 sentence without erlal, made their return, To be tried by course of kindness.
law. This is perhaps the most convenient place for stating, that, On the 26th November, it is recorded, that the Governor and in the subsequent surrender of the Island to the troops of the Attorney-General having proceeded to tho jail "with a guard of Parliament, the oply stipulation made by the Islanders was, soldiers, to require him (Christian) to the bar to receive his " that they might enjoy their lands and liberties as they for trial, he refused, and denied to come, and abide the same"merly had" In what manner this stipulation was performed, (admirable courtesy to invite, instend of bringing him to the my notes do not enable me to state. The restoration of Charles bar!). Whereupon the Governor demanded the law of Deem. II., propitious in other respects, inflicted on the Isle of Man the ster Norris, who then sat in judication. Deemster John Chrisrevival of its feudal government; and the affair of the tenures tian having not appeared, and Mr. Edward Christian, 1 his son, continued to be a theme of perpetual contest and unavailing and assistant, having also foreborne to sit in this Court, he the complaint, until finally adjusted in 1703, through the mediation said Deernster Norris craved the advice and assistance of the of the excellent Bishop Wilson, in a legislative compromise, twenty-four Keys; and the said Deemster and Keys deemed known by the name of the Act of Settlement, whereby the the law therein, to wit, that he is at the mercy of the Loro people obtained a full recognition of their ancient rights, on for life and goods. condition of doubling the actual quit rents, and consenting to It will be observed, that seven of the Keys were formerly alienation fines, first exacted by the Earl James in 1643. * absent, on what account we shall presently see. All this was
In 1648, William Dhune was appointed Receiver General; very cleverly arranged by the following recorded order, 29th and in the same year we find his elder brother, John, (assistant December-" These of the twenty-four Keys are removed of that Deemster to his father Ewan,) committed to Peel Castle on ope Company, in reference to my Honourable Lord's order in that be. of these occasions, which strongly marks the character of the hall;" enumerating seven names, not of the seventeen before person and the times, and affords also a glimpse at the feeling mentioned, and naming seven others who " are sworn** in their of the people, and at the condition of the devoted family of places." "The judicature is farther improved by transferring an Christian. "The inquisitive will find it in a note ;t other readers eighth individual of the first seventeen to the council, and filling will pass on.
his place with another proper person. These facts have been reThe circumstances are familiarly known, to the reader of lated with some minuteness of detail for two reasons; Ist, AlEnglish history, of the march of the Earl of Derby, in 1651, though nearly equalled by some of the subsequent proceedings, with a corps from the Isle of Man for the service of the King i they would not be credited on common authority; and, 2d, his joining the royal army on the eve of the battle of Worces. They render all comment unnecessary, and prepare the reader ter; his flight and imprisonment at Chester, after that signal for any judgment, however extraordinary, to be expected from defeat ; and his trial and execution at Bolton in Lancashire, such a tribunal. by the officers of the Parliament, on the 15th October of that Then come the proceedings of the 29th December-The Proyear.
posals, as they are named, to the Deemsters, and twenty-four Immediately afterwards, Colonel Duckenfield, who command Keys now assembled, "to be answered in point of law." Ist, ed at Chester on behalf of the Parliament, proceeded with an Any malefactor, &c. being indicted, &c. and denying to abide armament of ten ships, and a considerable military force, for the law of his country in that course, (notwithstanding any the reduction of the Isle of Man.
argument or plea he may offer for himself,) and thereupon deemWilliam Christian was condemned and executed in 1662-3, ed to forfeit body and goods, &c. whether he may afterwards for acts counected with its surrender, twelve years before, obtain the same benefit, &c. &c.; to which, on the same day, which are still involved in obscurity; and it will be most ac- they answered in the negative. It was found practicable, on ceptable to the general reader that we should pass over the in. the 31st, to bring the prisoner to the bar, to hear his sentence termediate periodi and leave the facts regarding this indivi. of being " shot to death, that thereupon his life may depart from dual, all of thein extraordinary, and some of peculiar interest, his body;" which sentence was executed on the 2d of January, to be developed by the record of the trial, and documents de 1663. rived from other sources.
That he made "an excellent speech," at the place of execuA mandate by Charles, 8th Earl of Derby, dated at Latham, tion, is recorded, where we should little expect to find it, in in September, 1662, after descanting on the heinous sin of rebel. the Parochial Register; the accuracy of that which has been lion, "aggravated by its being instrumentals in the death of preserved as such in the family of a clergyman, (and appears to the Lord; and stating that he is himself concerned to revenge have been printed on or before 1776,!) rests chiefly on intemal a father's blood," orders William Christian to be proceeded evidence; and on its accordance, in some material points, with against forth with, for all his illegal actions, at, before, or after, facts suppressed or distorted in the Records, but established in the year 1651, (a pretty sweeping range) The indictment the proceedings of the Privy Council. It is therefore given charges him with being the head of an insurrection against without abbreviation, and the material points of evidence in the the Countess of Derby in 1651, assuming the power unto him- voluminous depositions on both trialsgs are extracted for referself, and depriving her Ladyship, his Lordship, and heirs, ence in a note. 110 thereof." A series of depositions appear on record from the 3d to the
f The grandson of Eran. It appears by the proceedings of the King 13th October, and a reference by the precious depositaries or in council, 1663, that," he did, then the court refused to admit of the justice of that day, to the twenty-four Keys, “Whether upon protestation against their illegal proceedings, and did withdraw him. theexamination taken in writ before, you řnd Mr. W. Christian
self, and came to England to solicit his Majesty, and implore his justice." of Ronaldsway, within compass of the statute of the year 1422,- ** The Commissioners of 1791 are in doubt regarding the time when, that is, to receive a sentence without quest, or to be tried in the and the manner in which, the keys were first elected; this notable preordinary course of law." This body designated on the record cedent had perhaps not fallen under their observation.
so many of the Keys as were then present,” were in number 11 Hugh Cannel was now added as a second Deemster. seventeen ; but not being yet sufficiently select to approve of 11 One of the copies in my possession is stated to be transcribed in that
year from the printed speech, the other as stated in the text. • Report of 1791 App: A No. 71.
$$ Both trials: the first is for the same purposes as the English grand † A person named Charles Vaughan is brought to lodge an informa- jury, with this most especial difference, that evidence is admitted for tion, that being in England, he fell into company with a young man the prisoner, and it thus becomes what it is frequently called, the first named Christian, who said he had lately left the Isle of Man, and was trial; the second, if the indicument be found, is in all respects like that in search of a brother, who was clerk 10 Parliament Officer ; that in by petty jury in England. answer to some questiona, he said, "The Earl did use the inhabitants of 1. This testimony will of course be received with due suspicion, and thut Isle very hardly; had estrcated great fipes from the inhabitants; confronted with the only defence known, that of his dying speech. It had changed the ancient tenures, and forced them to take leases. That goes to establish that Christian had placed himself at the bead of an he had taken away one hundred pounds a year from his father, and had association, bound by a secret oath, to "withstand the Lady of Derby in kept his uncle in prison four or five years. But if ever the Earl came to her designs until she had yielded or condescended to their aggrievances ;?' England, he had used the inhabitants so hardly, that he was sure they among wbich grievances, during the Earl's residence, we find incidentwould never suffer him to land in that island again." Ao order is given ally noticel, “ the troop that was in the Isle and their free quarterage ; to imprison John Christian (probably the reputed head of the family, that he had represented her ladyship to have deceived him, by entering his faiber being advanced in years) in Peel Castle, until he entered into into negotiations with the Parliament, contrary to her promise to combonds to be of good behaviour, and not to depart the Isle toithout license. municate with him in such a case ; that Christian and his associates de--- (Insular Records) The young man in question is said to have been clared that she was about to sell them for twopence or threepence a piece: the son of William Christian of Knockrushen.
that he told his associates, that he had entered into correspondence with Some readers may desire an outline of this period. The lordship Major Fox and the Parliament, and received their authority to raise the of the Island was given to Lord Fairfax, who depuited commissioners to country ; that in consequence of this insurrection her lady ship appointed regulate its affairs : one of them (Chaloner) publised an account of commissioners to treat with others "on the part of the country," and the Island in 1656. Hle puts down William Christian as Receiver Gene articles of agreement were concluded (see the speech) which nowhere ral in 1653. We find his name as Governor, from 1656 to 1658, (Sache- now uppear; that on the appearance of Duckenfield's ships, standing verill, p. 101,) in which year he was encceeded ty Chaloner himself for Ramsay Bay, one of the insurgents boarded them off Douglas, "Lo Among the anomalies of those times, it would seem that he had retuined give intelligence of the condition of the country ;" the disposable troops the office of Receiver while officiating as Governor; and episcopacy marched under the governor, Sir Philip Musgrave, for Ramsay; that having been abolished, and the receipts of the see added to those of the when the shipping had anchored, a deputation or three persons, diz. exchequer, he had large accounts to settle, for which Chaloner sequesJohn Christian, Ewen Carphey, and William Standish, proceeded on tered his estates in his absence, and imprisoned and held to bail his bro- board, to negotiate for the surrender of the Island (wbere William was ther John, for aiding what he calls his escape; his son George returned does not appear.) The destruction of the articles of agreement, and the from England, by permission of Lord Fairiax, to settie his father's ac. silence of the records regarding the relative strength of the forces, leave counts. Chaloner" informs us, that the revenues of the suppressed see us without the means of determining the degree of merit or demerit to be were not appropriated to the private use of Lord Fairfax, who, “for ascribed to these negotiators, or the precise authority under which they the better encouragement and support of the ministers of the Gospel, acted; but the grievances to be redressed, are cleared from every obseuand for the promoting of learning, hath conferred all this revenue upon rity by the all-sufficient testimony of the terms demanded from the the ministers, and so for maintaining free schools, i.e. at Castletown, victors, " that they might enjoy their lands and liberties as formerly Peel, Donglass, and Ramsay." Chaloner pays # liberal tribute to the they had; and that it was demanded whether they asked any more, but talents of the clergy, and the learning and piety of the late bishops. nothing else was demanded that this examinant heard of.” The taking
See the remark in Christian's dying speech, that the late Earl bar or Loyal Fort near Ramsay, (commanded by a Major Duckenfield, sbo been executed eight days before the insurrection.
was made prisoner,) and of Peel Castle, appear on record; but nothing | The court for criminal trials was composed of the governor and could he found regarding the surrender of Castle Rushen, or of the council (including the deemsters) and the keys, who also, with the lordi, Countess of Derby's subxequent imprisonment. Had the often repeated composed the three branches of the legislative body; and it was the tale, or William Christian having surencherously seized upon the lady practice in cases of doubt to refer points of customary law to the deem- and her children, with the governors of both castles, in the middle of the slels and keys
pighi" -- (Roll's History of the Isle of Man, published in 1773, p. 89) Ewen Curphey, Samuel Ratcliffe, and John Cæsar, men of con1 The apprehension was but too correct.
The last speech of William Christian, Esq., who was execu- nord look upon, and his Majesty's Act cast out as being of no force, ted 2d January, 1662-3:
I have with greater violence been persecuted; yet nevertheless "Gentlemen, and the rest of you who have accompanied me i do declare, that no subject whatever can or ought to take this day to the gate of death, I know you expect I should say upon them acts of indemnity but his sacred Majesty only, with something at my departure ; and indeed I am in some measure the confirmation of Parliament. willing to satisfy you, having not had the least liberty, since my "It is very fit I should say something as to my education and imprisonment, to acquaint any with the sadness of my suffer- religion. I think I need not inform you, for you all know, I was inge, which flesh and blood could not have endured, without brought up a son of the Church of England, which was at that the power and assistance of my most gracious and good God, time in her splendour and glory; and to my endless comfort I into whose hands I do now commit my poor soul, not doubting have ever since continued a faithful member, witness several of but that I shall very quickly be in the arms of his mercy. my actions in the late times of liberty. And as for government,
"I am, as you now see, hurried hither by the power of a pre- I never was against monarchy, which now, to my soul's great tended court of justice, the members whereof, or at least
the satisfaction, I have lived to see is settled and established. I am greatest part of them, are by no means qualified, but very ill well assured that men of upright life and conversation may have befitting their new places. The reasons you may give your the favourable countenance of our gracious King, under whose selves.
happy government, God of his infinite mercy long continue these *The cause for which I am brought hither, as the prompted his kingdoms and dominions. And now I do most heartily and threatened jury has delivered, is high treason against the thank my good God that I have had so much liberty and time to Countess Dowager of Derby, for that I did, as they say, in the disburden myself of several things that have laid heavy upon mo year fifty-one, raise a force against her for the suppressing and all the time of my imprisonment, in which I have not had time rooting out that family, How unjust the accusation is, very or liberty to speak or write any of my thoughts; and from my soul few of you that hear me this day but can witness ; and that the I wish all animosity may after my death be quite laid aside, and thes rising of the peopie, in which afterwards I came to be en my death by none be called in question, for I do freely forgive gaged, did not at all, or in the least degree, intend the
preju; all that have had any hand in my persecution; and may our dice or ruin of that family; Ike chief whereof being, as you well good God preserve you all in peace and quiet the remainder of TERERSET, dead eight days, or inereabout, before that action hap your days! pered. But the true cause of that rising, as the jury did twice "Be ye all of you his Majesty's liege people, loyal and faithbring in, was to present grievances to our Honourable Lady; ful to his sacred Majesty ; and, according to your oath of faith which was done by me, and afterwards approved by her Lady- and fealty to my Honourable Lord of Derby, do you likewise, in ship, under the hand of her then secretary, M. Trevach, who is all just and lawful ways, observe his commands; and know that yet living, wäich agreement hath since, to my own ruin and my you must one day give an account of all your deeds. And now puer fazily's endless sorrow, been forced from me. The Lord God the blessing of Almighty God be with you all, and preserve you forgive them the injustice of their dealingy with me, and I wish from violent death, and keep you in peace of conscience all your from my heart it may not be laid to their charge another day! days !
"You now see me here & sacrifice ready to be offered up for I will now hasten, for my flesh is willing to be dissolved, and that which was the preservation of your lives and fortunes which my spirit to be with God, who hath given
me full assurance of were then in hasard, but that I stood between you and your (then in his mercy and pardon for
all my sins, of which his unspeakable all appearance) utler ruin. I wish you still may, as hitherto, enjoy goodness and loving kindness my poor soul is exceedingly the sweet benefit and blessing of peace, though from that mi- satisfied." nute until now I have still been prosecuted and persecuted, nor Note. Here he fell upon his knees, and passed some time in have I ever since found a place to rest myself in. But my God prayer; then rising exceedingly cheerful, he addressed the Le for ever blessed and praised, who hath given me so large a soldiers appointed for his execution, saying-Now for you, measure of patience!
who are appointed by lot my executioners, I do freely forgive "What services I have done for that Noble Family, by whose you." He requested them and all present to pray for him, addpower I am now to take my latest breath, I dare appeal to them ing, “There is but a thin vail betwixt me and death; once selves, whether I have not deserved better things from some of more I request your prayers, for now I take my last farewell." them, than the sentence of my bodily destruction, and seizure of The soldiers wished to bind him to the spot on which he the poor estate my son ought to enjoy, being purchased and stood. He said, "Trouble not yourselves or me ; for I that dare left him by his grandfather. It might have been much better had face death in whatever form he comes, will not start at your fire I not spent it in the service of my Honourable Lord of Derby and bullets ; nor can the power you have deprive me of my and his family : these things I need not mention to you, for courage." At his desire a piece of white paper was given him, that most of you are witnesses to it. I shall now beg your which with the utmost composure he pinned to his breast, patience while I tell you here, in the presence of God, that I to direct them where to aim; and after a short prayer address. never in all my life acted any thing with intention to prejudice ed the soldiers thus-"Hit this, and you do your own and my Sovereign Lord the King, nor the late Earl of Derby, nor my work." And presently after, stretching forth his arms, the cow Earl ; yet notwithatanding, being in England at the which was the signal he gave them, he was shot through the time of his sacred Majesty's happy restoration, I went to Lon heart and fell. dou, with many others, to have a sight of my gracious King, Edward Christian, the nephew, and George, the son of the whom God preserve, and whom until then I never had seen. But deceased, lost no time in appealing to his Majesty in Council I was not long there when I was arrested upon an action of against this judical murder; and George was furnished with an twenty thousand pounds, and clapped up in the Fleet; unto order to pass and repass," &c. "and bring with him such rewhich action, I being a stranger, could give no bail, but was cords and persons as he should desire, to make out the truth of there kept nearly a whole year. How I suffered God he knows; his complaint." Edward returned with him to the Island for but at last, having gained my liberty, I thought good to advise that purpose ; for we find him, in April 1663, compelled, in the with several gentlemen concerning his Majesty's gracious Act true spirit of the day, to give bond that he would at all times of Indemnity that was then set forth, in which I thought my appear and answer to such charges as might he preferred against self concerned ; unto which they told me, there was no doubt him, and not depart the Isle without license.” George was preto be made but that all actions committed in the Isle of Man, vented, by various contrivances, from serving the King's order ; relating in any kind to the war, were pardoned by the Act of but on presenting a second petition, the Governor, Deemster, lodemnity, and all other places within his Majesty's dominions and Members of Council, were brought up to London by a Serand countries. Whereupon, and having been forced to absent my geant-at-arms; and these six persons, together wit the Eail self from my poor wife and children near three years, being all of Derby, being compelled to appear, a full hearing took place that time under persecution, I did with great content and satis- before the King in person, the Chancellor, the Lord Chief Jusfaction return into this Island, hoping then to receive the com- tice, Lord Chief Baron, and other Members of Council; judg. fort and sweet enjoyment of my friends and poor family. But ment was extended on the 5th of August, and that judgment alas! I have fallen into the share of the fowler ; but my God was on the 14th of the same month ordered to be printed shall ever be praised, -though he kill me, yet will 1 trust in him in folio, in such
manner as Acts of Parliament are usually print"I may justly say no man in this Island knows better than ed, and his Majesty's Arms prefixed." myself the power the Lord Derby hath in this Island, subordi- This
authentic document designates the persons brought up as Date to his sacred Majesty, of which I have given a full account Members of the pretended Court of Justice;" declares that the in my declaration presented to my judges, which I much fear will general Act of Pardon and Amnesty, did extend to the Isle of szber see light, wekich is no small trouble to me.
Man, and ought to have been taken notice of by the Judges in "It was his Majesty's most gracious Act of Indemnity gave that Island, although it had not been pleaded ; that the Court reme the confidence and assurance of my safety; on which, and fused to admit the deceased William Christian's plea of the Act an appeal I made to his sacred Majesty and Privy Council, I of Indemnity,” &c. "Full restitution is ordered to be made to from the unjustness of the proceedings had against me, I did his heirs of all his estates, real and personal.” Three other much rely, being his Majesty's subject here, and a denizen of persons " who were by the same Court of Justice imprisoned, England both by birth and fortune. And in regard I have diso- and their estates seized and confiscated without any legal trial, eezed the power of my Lord Derby's Act of Indemnity, which you are ordered, together with the Christians, "to be restored to
all their estate -rested on the slightest semblance of truth, we should inevitably have
real and personal, and to be fully repaired in all found an attempt to prove it in the proceedings of this mock trial. In
the charges and expenses, which they have been at since their the absence of authentic details, the tradition may be adverted to, that first imprisonment, as well in the prosecution of this business, as her ladyship, on learning the proceedings at Ramsay, hastened to em.
in their journey hither, or in any other way thereunto relating."
- This fact, as might be expected, is not to be traced on the record of 1 This note is annexed to all the copies of the speech.
siderable landed property.