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“ The manufacturers of this isand are the enable them to vie with our own trade best purchasers of this native commodity; in stuff manufactures. and where could the wool-grower get a In the First Part of his work the better price ? Holland and Flanders are writer controverts some positions of Dr. now no longer what they were.

The ma

Anderson, and gives a comparative pufacturers of England are of themselves ten

view of the price and quantity of wool thousand rivals to each other.”

ar different periods of this country. He In the markets at home the wool. fates too, that “in the most flourifling grower will find sufficient encourage. “ times of Henry II. there were not ment; exportation, therefore, is need.

“ near 500 weavers in the whole realm less. It is more than ncedless; it is of England; a number so insignifi, productive of certain loss to the com

cant, that every petty town in Flan. munity: for, says the writer,

“ ders and Brabant could produce as “ It should be remembered, that while many." p. 18. Hence, by fair infer, the clothier or manufacturer is working ence, he concludes the fuperiority of round his profit of 20 s. the various people Flemish to English manułactories at he employs make, on the same wool, at least that æra.- In the Second Part he res an hundred shillings profit; two-thirds of commends the growth of fine wool ; which are laid out in purchasing the produce and intimates the means by which the of the land, to the great advantage of the increase of that article may be promoto Jandholder. A good trade, fully encouraged ed. A separate breed of theep, downat home, becomes the best possible encouragement to the wool-grower, who, gene. pafturage, and attention to the manage. rally fpeaking, is also a farmer. The subject

ment of their flocks, are pointed out to is much misrepresented by those who atseit the wool-grower. that a foreign market, in our present state of Mr. W. concludes with pertinent reimprovement, would benefit the wool- marks on the utility of machines, and grower. It should be always taken into the combats the popular prejudice against same argument, that on every 20s. worth of the introduction of aids so indifpenfibly wool lent abroad, there is above 60s. worth necessary in the Western counties. "The of labour taken from the community, who, "adopting of these machines to the in lieu of that deprivation, mult subsist on 6. woollen marofacture will occafion an fomething, and that must ultimately fall on

“ increasing demand of wool, and therethe landholder.” p. 27.

by greatly encourage the wool-grower, “A pack of English combing-wool is

« and enable the manufacturer to give a worth about 12d. per lb.; but when made

" better price." p: 70. into sagathies, or fine camblets, will employ 202 persons for a week, who will earn upon

The historical deductions in this that pack of wool 431. sos. If into stock pamphlet lhew considerable research ; ings, 184 (additional) persons will receive the arguments against exportation seem wages thereon, to the amount of 561. If, to carry conviction, as they are found. instead of being manufactured, this pack of ed rather on the experience of facts than wool is exported, it will employ one cart on the theories of lpeculation. and one horse for one or two days, part of a thip's crew for three days, and produce, 194. Lectures on Political Principles. By tbe when at Life, about 161.: but if first manu Rev. David Williams. (Continued from factured and then exported, would produce vol. LIX. p. 928.) 681.; balance of loss to this country on one

THE basis of these Lectures is, a single pack of combing-wool, 521.” p. 65. The national advantage derived from quieu's Spirit of Laws, carried down to

close and regular review of Montelthe home-markets seems of itself a suf- the eighteenth book. Our readers ac, ficient reason for probibiting the expor- quainted with that popular work need tation of wool. But, in addition to this

not therefore be told the plan of this argument for non-exportation is the before us. Modern philosophers, having consideration, that "the long combing. traced facts and experiments up to im“ wool is covered by the French for mutable principles in natural knowledge, “their fifanes, and other worfted

are now transferring their acumen to the “ ftuffs." p. 32-34.

fcience of politicks. In searching for Under such circumstances, it is surely there principles our author discovers a jultifiable policy to withhold from our considerable address. And though we competitors an article which we confi. mean to use the free permission given der as conducive to their intereft; fince, us in the preface, of doubting whether by communication of that article, we the principles he endeavours to establich

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be demonftrable or visionary, we Ihall from the effects of his address on doubtful find on difficulty in admitting that he principles, I have no inclination to check has frequently placed those of Monter. the most ardent sensibility on the subject of quieu in the latter predicament, whose his humanity and benevolence. His talents metaphysical dreams of the origin of will entitle him to admiration ; but the good society, whose Aattering rhapsody on

ness of his heart, an unremitting solicitude to imaginary perfections in the Englilla happiness, of mankind, will fecure to his

meliorate the sufferings, and to promote the Constitution, and political mysticism in regard to the operation of physical memory the esteem and affection of all causes on the mind, are perhaps treated

Mr. Hobbes is also mentioned with with successful severity. As the author informs us, in his preface, that the de- rical reader decides on the justice of this

considerable applause. While the polifign of these Lectures was rather to encomium on the author of Leviatban, raise than to satisfy a spirit of inquiry let it not be thought invidious if we rein the young persons whose studies he directs, the reader will be the less of. mark, that the panegyrick on this wrifended though he should now and then infinuation, which furely the author

ter involves a sophistical and pernicious remark a disposition to cavil about

could not design to convey. words, and to multiply minute and captious differences. He is, however, upon

“ The prepossessions against Mr. Hobbes the whole, neither a weak por illiberal

are evaporating; and his works might be as opponent. As a proof that he ranks not popular as they are abhorred, if not degraded under the latter imputation, the follow than atheism; I mean insincerity. "His po

by a circunutance till more exceptionable ing fair and forcible sketch of his ad. litical disquisitions are warped by mean and versary's character will sufficiently de interested dispositions to pay court to the monstrate :

Stuart family at its restoration to the Englista * The genius of Montesquieu is of an order crown." commanding admiration and respect. It is

But will any one serioully maintain, fertile and inventive in the art of displaying that despotic notions in politicks are wonderful treasures of heterogeneous knowledge. His talents in constructing the prin. doctrines in religion? So gross a fole

really less exceptionable than atheistical ciples of a system are not equal to those he employs in drawing circumstar.ces, from all cism in the principles of Hobbes, Mr. imaginable quarters, to favour and support it. Williams himself, who has borne such The predominant faculty of his mind is ima. ample and ready ieftimony to his abilis gination: his theory is fabricated from com- ties, cannot but attribute to the meanelt mon prepoffeffions; as is generally the case infincerity. And if this be one of the in the fable of epic poems and plays: but his prejudices against bis writings, we are address in giving it plausibility, the unaffected forry, if the fact be true, that it is be. ease with which extensive knowledge is ape ginning to evaporate. plied, the pertinence and beauty of the

It is now time to observe, that our images and allusions, and the charms of his author's work is not a mere cavil upon style, have raised him above the rank which Montesquieu; his critique on that wrihe would have had a right to occupy with the first poets of any age or country: Mon. to exhibit his own opinions. In support

ter is rather the form in which he chuses tesquieu is, among Politicians, what Sterne may be among Divines; he affumes princi- of them, the reader will find much in ples and truths; searches the universe for genuity and strong writing. Yet it may circumstances to corroborate them; warmly not be inapplicable to observe, that a interests the heart in their favour; and points free use of physical metaphors in the and directs his language with a delicate and discussion of moral subjects has a tend. irresistible hand. Hence the astonishing po- ency to mislead and perplex the reader, pularity of his writings. As grave, solid, and and to render the style turgid and intriunornamented sermons are neglected for the cate, The collected force of our au. more brilliant fallies of sentimental essays, thor's reasoning would go to prove, that the institutes of Justinian, the works of Bo no facts recorded in hiftory, por argudin, Harrington, Grotius, Puffendorf, Bacon, ments adduced by Montesquieu, affct Hobbes, Stuart, and Hume, are frequently the pollibility of creating a body which discarded for the captivating charms of the

“ fhall controul its members without Spirit of Laws. But I would not anticipate observations which may, in future, obviously

impeding their particular offices.". arife from the subjects before us. I will only Thus difiiftog ali tenderneis for preadd, whatever reasons I may have to guard judice, all regard to habit, all respect to youthful candour, in ftudying Montesquieu, anticat usage, he would bave the ground

citared,

cleared, and a conftitution laid de novo, be accounted a blefling, onder any form corresponding with this perfect model of goveroment. Mean time, it is a pious in the minds of political philosophers. fraud in the votarics of liberty to pre

Referring, for the present, our private tend that despotic governmears are not, opinion of such a plan itself, and the from their forplicity, adapred to business arguments made use of to support it, we and dispatch. It is in vain to argue that acknowledge, with pleasure, that he has the best form of human policy cannot be dropped many valuable and important exempe from some mark of human im- . hines; among which are his spirited perfection. Each will have defe&ts peand manly arguments on the subject of culiar to itself; and it can be proved ta a supposed equality of the human spte demonftration, that free governments cies. This idea, he confefTes, is as ab• have as natural and unavoidable a tend. furd as a proposal would be to render ency to corrupt the morals as despocis men of equal height, or to make them forms have to depress the spirits of a weigh an equal oumber of grains, and people. Finally, it rests with the reader fupposes that a design to correct such to determine whether the prefumprion imaginary errors of nature might give of natural philosophers does not lead sise io the fable of the bed of Procrustes. them a little too far, when they would After this strong and pointed ridicule of persuade us that it is possible to conftithe ravings on the subject of an equal iute a government on mere principles of distribution of power and property, we mechanism; whether thole technical were furprised and concerned to find allusions, which lend a fi{titious colour him, in the sequel, an intemperate de- to such hypotheses, do not, in fact, mir. claimer againfi the order of nobility, lead, by arguing from analogies which which, under proper regulations, is we really do not comprehend? Mathes certainly one of those wholesome ine• matical people are fond of recurring to qualities.--- Before we conclude our ex- them. And the work before us teens tracts, we wilh to recommend his strik: with passages fimilar to the following, ing observations on the alarming and an attempt to refute that assertion of increafing influence of lawyers in our Montesquieu which would limit repub. legislacure, to the serious consideration licks to a small exteot of territory. of our countrymen :

“ The beauty or utility of a machine does “ Men educated to the law, accustomed to not depend on the quantity of matter em. public speaking, pertinacious in the pursuit ployed in it, but on the skill with which it is of objects, and Aexible in their talents and confructed. It is true, in our first mechaconsciences, are thought fit inftruments by nical essays we confine ourselves to imam leaders of political parties, and introduced spaces and portions of matter. This is owing into legislative assemblies in the face of a to defect of skill, not to fixed relations of general and acknowledged maxim ; 'those certain quantities, to certain kinds of ma* who may be interested in the execution of chinery. Our first attempts are improved laws rould have no infuence on their upon until the inventions we modeled as • formation. Modern statutes are contrived toys occupy any spaces we chuse to affiga for the benefit of lawyers, not of the commu- them. This is the case in government,” &c. nity, where they are gencrally abhorred." If this sort of media be admitted upon

It is a pity that the author's zeal such questions as the present, we may againt despotism should have led him, look to see, in due time, a lyftem of in one intance, to misunderland and ethicks, as well as politicks, constructed misrepresent what Montesquieu has ad.

on the newest principles of mechanism; vanced on the fimplicity of civil and fuch as shall evinee what a miftake it criminal laws in governments of that was in Alcæus to affert, Dature. He maintains, on the contrary,

Οι λιθοι, υδε ξυλα, that Montesquieu is neither “juftified Οι τεχνα νεαλονων αι σολεις εισί. “ by fact, nor warranted by pollibility." In the mean time, as we have our And why? “Because decisions must doubts concerning the possible applica“ be as variable as thc difpofitions of tion of such principles in combining “ all the pachas and governors of en• those contractable materials called men “ Naved provinces.” But who does not into machines and engines, we had raobserve that Montesquieu (peaks here ther stand by while the experiment is of fimplicity as it relpects the easy pro. making in France and America, than cess and operation of laws, not of io. be practised upon even by that great flexible uniformity in their application; poliiical mechanick Dr. Adam Smith which, absolutely confidered, can never himself,

195. A Treartje en Tropical Diseafes ; on Mile canine madness in St. Domingo and Ja.. sary Operations, and on sbe Climate of ebe' maica, in 1783; and thews, with great Wett Indies. By Benjamin Moseley, M.D. clearnefs, that it arose fpontaneously, dec. &c. (Gentinued from vol. LX. p. 838.) and originated in the atmosphere. This

WE now proceed to the further exa- entirely refutes the commonly-received mination of this valuable work, which notion, that “this disease can only we refume with pleasure; and, not "proceed from the poison of an extera withstanding the interval has furnished “bal bice; or that it originates in fome several medical tracts on West Indian “ particular dog, from internal diseafe, diseases, the circumftance has proved “and from thence is disseminated." most flattering to our author, as they Dr. M. (as we have observed before) have chiefly been compilations, and is decidedly of opinion that primary pu. doctrines selected from this extensive trid diseafes are not to common in hot and original performance, without ei- climates as is imagined; that petechial ther compliment or acknowledgement. and purple (pots are generally the off.

to the Differtation on the Climate of spring of heating medicines and regia the West Indies, Dr. Moseley has em- men; and that lizy blood and inflam. braced every thing which relates to cli- matory diseases occur oftener than o. mate, and has given the peculiarities of therwise, except after much rain, and this and almost every other climate, to in the fall of the year.-Dr. M. aito gether with their various phænomena, observes, “the great endeinic in the and the effects and impressions of their " West Indies is the nervous remillent transitions, to which Dr. M. chicfly fever, which is unattended with any afcribes moft febrile diseases in tropical • putrid symptoms, and which has its countries.

« leat in the nervous syfem, or, as I This part of the work is enriched “ have often thought, in the brain with a concife history of pulmonary" itself." pbibifts, with such observations on its Among other curious falls, Dr. M. trealment, as far as relates to climate informs us, that “In tropical covotries and fea-voyages, as make it highly im people are seldom affected with dao. portant to those who have the care of

gerous pulmonic diseajes ; idiotism and people afflicted with this endemic of our

mania

are very uncommon: and own climate, and who may not have " though the moon has unqueftionably had those opportunities which Dr. M's

great

influence on crises and re. medical pursuits have afforded him, in “ lapses, in continued and intermitting almost every part of the globe.

fevers, yet lunacy is almos unknown; Our author has confidered the con " and scurvy and gravel are diseases ftruction of buildings for houses, hofpi “ seldom to be met with, and the jione tals, barracks, &c. with great judge. “ scarcely ever.ment; and his directions for seafoning Dr. M. then relates the case of an the habit of body, living, cloathing, officer of the 79th regiment, who had and guarding against dileales, are such been greatly affiliated with the stone in as must enable every person going to the England, but by going to Jamaica, and East or Weft Indies, or to any hot clio refiding there three years, the discale mate, to preserve their healih. This gradually diminished, and entirely leto fubjcct is fo methodically treated, that him. The stone was lo large, and the thote deftined for tropical countries may dilease fo violent in England, that, on have a perfect knowledge of what is exainination, Mr. Port recommended most proper for them, from their gomg the extracting it by lithotomy; to which on board the vessel which carries them, the officer had cun sented, but which ope.. to their arrival; and for their guidance ration he fortunately avoided by being afterwards, during their residence, une suddenly obliged to join his regiment. der every fituation and circumstance. Many are the useful thermometrical This part of the work is of great im- obtervations in this essay. The fealons portance to those who have the com• of the year are delineated with interestmand of thips and regiments, as well as ing accuracy; and hurricanes, which to individuals.

our author has witneffed, are described Dr. M, discusses very fully the treat- in the most matterly manner; and, in ment of the bite of mad dogs, and the deed, we may venture to affert, that his misehjefs from venomous insects and is the only just descriprion of the horror ferpents. He describes she epideroic and devaliation which accompany these GENT. MAG. November, 1796.

drcadius

dreadful disturbances in nature we have double Sense of Prophecy The Second cver met with

Pfalm illustrated, as descriptive of the Tem. Dr. Mofeley concludes this differta. poral State of David, and the Spiritual Bleftion with judicious remarks, and cau- sings of the Kingdom of Chrift. tions against the evils of irinerant and

i The Caution and Reserve of Christ, in transient medical people diffusing their not declaring himself to be the Meitials,

otherwise than by the Miracles that he unpractical notions, through the medium of theories; which, applying to all triumphant, and the Prophets of Baal de

wrought, stated and accounted for.--Elijah countries alike, frequently fccure the stroyed. - On the Day of judgment.— The grofteft impofitions from detection, and Mission of John the Baptift, and the Natuue cause the deaths of thousands.

of bis Doctrine, considered.—The Utility of In this we entirely coincide with our Public Charity-schools.-On the Resurrecauthor's benevolent and just intentions tion..-Liberty without Licentiousness. The towards mankind; as we well know Union of Mercy and Truth in the gracious that a short refidence can afford but Act of our Redemption. On the Com. scanty opportunities for a medical work; forter. --- Jacob's Prayer considered. -Tie and as liule should we expect that a Neceility of laying-up Treature in Heaven.

-On Death.-lhe Christian Conteft.-On physician, who had begun and finished

the Last Day." his residence in London, within the space of a few years, could be capable The reader will see that much doc. of dire&ting the practice of the inetro- trinal is intermixed with practical matpolis, as that a transient medical man ter, and that it is the doctrine of the should be acquainted with the diseases Church of England. But this is rather of any country. A physician muff ac matter of praise than ceofure. It may quire the condence of the people be- be perhaps objected, that the author is fore he will be entrusted with their too defultory in the arrangement of his lives; and extensive practice must be senteoces, too fond of metaphors, and the result of public opinion. Doctor not fufficiently diffuse on metaphyficat Moseley, from these considerations, ap- subjects. We shall, however, give his pears to be the only author, hitherto, excellent observations on the subject of who has had these necessary advantages the resurrection, referring to some late in the West Indies. The practice of inquiries : Towne and Hillary was founded chiefly “ The objector has cavilled at the doctrine on theories which have long been ex. of the resurrection of the same body, by alploded. (To be continued.) serting, that the boxly never long continues

the same; that the particles that compofe it 196. Sermons on prallical Subje/s. By ibe

are in continual fluctuation; and that the Rou. A. B. Rodd, M. A. The Second different periods of life produce a different Edition, wirb Additions. 2 vols, 8vo. constitution. Though this Ahould he admit.

THE first edition of these Sermons, ted, it must still be allowed, that this infenficomprehending the firQ and part of the ble diminution or alteration of particles does fecond volume, now under considera- not affect personal identity ; and whilst this tion, not appearing in London, we had continues the same, it is all that can be cons not an opportunity of reviewing it. The tended før, in the idea of an individual

resurrection. present edition has prefixed to it a nu. " In the same body that the man dies, in merous and respectable list of sub- that will he rise to judgment; and ia that fcribers. The subjects are,

will he become either the subject of reward, * The Design and Object of Christianity, or the victim of puishment. considered and illustrated.The Divinity of " The explicit manner in which the faChrift asserted by the Evidence of the Cen- cred writings have recorded this fubject is turion and his Attendants, at the Crucifixion. sufficient to assure us, that there is no doubt A fixed Belief in the Divine Attributes the of the fact ; and is an argument, above all true Support of Man in this Life. The true others, to induce us to cultivate holiness of End and Design of Baptism considered. The life. Christian Warfare, Faith triumphant over “ Existence here, within this narrow space, Death.-Divine Justice appeased by contrite the limits of which we can easily see through, Guilt.--The great Importance of an carly is too often sufficiently irksome to the disquiand virtuous Education. The Benefit of Ge- eted soul of man, neral Infumaries illustrated.The Excel. “ But existence bere can be but moment. lency of the Gospel coufidered as a System ary. Let us then fuppose, that, opprefled by of Faith and Manners. The Christian's Hope those nameless calamities which foaflict the in Death.-On the Sacrifices of the Law, as fons of men, in some evil hour the genines of figurative of the Death of Christ. On the Desperation arms the band of man against

luimielf;

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