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Nov. 4.

this new work, as they pass through the cause the antient law, which ohliged press. From this happy coalizion, and every citizen to marry, and to educate all a due use of the pruning-knife in fuck his children, was still in force. But, inable hands, what may not be expected ? dependently of the laws, the Censors, acWe have long had, Every Man bis own cording to the exigences of the RepubLawyer. -Every Man bis own, Pbyfio lick, eng?ged the citizens to marry by cian, -and, Every Man his own Broker; name and by punishments, as appears and pray, Mr. Urban, why Kould we from Livy, lib. xlv.; Epit. lib. lix: ; A. not have "EVERY MAN. HIS OWN Gell, lib. i. c. 6; Val. Max. lib. i. c. 4. SHAKSPEARE-MAKER?

After Rome had been weakened by Yours, &c. Wilím STANLEY. discords, Triumvirates, and proscrip

tions, Julius Cæsar and Augufius, to reNew-Hall, near Birmingham, Nov. 30.

medy this evil, re-established the CenforP.S. Four skilful compositors, who ship, and would even he Centors themwere originally employed in the very selves. See Dion. lib. xlvi. and Xiphi. useful copper coinage of the great com. lin. in Auguft. J. Cæsar gave rewards mercial town near which I live, and to those who had many children. Dion. afterwards worked for the ingenious xxxvij. 62 ; Suet. vit. Jul. Cel. c. XX; Mr. Baskerville, are, I hear, engaged to Appian. B. Civ. lib. ii. p. 433. W. B. print the work above-mentioned; and the choice of them mun be allowed to Mr. URBAN, be extremely proper. Traflant fabrilia fabri . Having been long used to a nice A PASSAGE in Xenophon's Cyro

pedia inay serve to thew us of wliat and curious imitation of the genuine authority is manual correétion in educa. coin of the realm, they will execute tion. When young Cyrus palled a with spirit and accuracy an undertaking wrong judgement on the application of of a similar nature ; the object of which property, founding his distinction rather is not, as some may maliciously repre on the suitableness of the great coat to the sent, in adulterate Shakipeare, but to re great boy, and the little coat to :he little novare the old bard, and to exhibit him bov, intiead of the prior right which as he himself would with to be exhibited, each hoy had to the ccat actually in his were he now living.

polietlion, whether it fit:ed him or not,

his twior beat him, and told him, when Mr. URBAN,

he was appointed to judge concerning WH

THEN I consider the furious, and what was fit, this would be a good deci.

perhaps it would not be too harth fion; but in the prefen: case he was to a name to call them malevolent, calum det: rinine whole the coat was by just pole nies which your correspondent L. L. has session, whether h's who took it by force, vented against the University of Oxford,

or his who made it or purchaled it, fee p. 210, and 1009, and which your Εγώ γέν τέτοις δικάζων έγιων βίλλιον other coιτefpondent R. C. has fo fully είναι αμφοτέροις τον αρμόζουσα εκάτερον anfwered, p. 893, I am not surprized by its xilwvce 'EN AE TOY'IN kena at the part he has taken in the controversy between Mr. Curtis and Dii lasab sitw tô aquórlorlo; xpolins ētw door

σεν ο διδάσκαλος, λέων ότι οπότε μίν Parr, in the St. James's Chronicle. I do not wish to make or fee your Maga

COLETY *. zine rendered a vehicle of that or anv 6

Judex his ego datus ainhobus effe me. milar controversy; but I think, however lius judicavi, ut tunicam uterque Obi L. L's literary or poetical talents may

congruentem haberet.

At beic me Verentitle him to respeet, his peerish and pe

beribus magifter atfecit, quod diceret, ita tulant temper, when, influenced by polic faciendum elle, fi quando de eo quod tical or theological teners, it urges hiin congrueret judex conftitutus effet. to engage in controverly, cannot be too

Apply this principle to the new.mo

dellers of the French Constitution, and much animadveried on. Yours, Sic.

M. M.

lee what Cyrus's tutor would have laid to

them. He decerinined that to be juft, Mr. URBAN,

which was legal, or agreea'le to law; D' Sonyfius Halicarnall. lib. lvi. can.

and that to be violence, which was con not believe, that, after the death of trary to law, Το μεν νομιμον δικαιον ει305 of the Fabii, exterminated by the

yal, TO
de

But they have V , A.U.C.277, there reinained no inore of this family than one fingle child; be: * Xen. Cyrop. lib. i. c. ii. 14.

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Nov, 2.

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overset their old, and established new tion, yet it is possible that, without laws.

W. B. G. your communication, they might not

reach the eye of ***, and other of your Mr. URBAN,

readers, who will take intered in the ine A

RCHBISHOP Tillotson, in his fu• telligence they contain; therefore be lo Thomas Gouge, who was a Noncon: circulared Miscellany, which will, moreformit, gives him this excellent charac over, preserve as well as promulgate ter, which deserves to be ftudied, and them; besides, the insertion may poifitranscribed into the life of every Nog bly induce some persons, refident at conformist of the present day; and, I Wells and Wantage, to properly autrust, there will be found many imitators thenricate the information, and record of it amorg them.

the actual day of the hirundines being “ He was of a disposition ready to cm- seen at those places last. brace and oblige all inen, allowing oihers From “The Reading Mercury and to differ from him, even in opinions that Oxford Gazette" of Nov. 21, 1791: were very dear to him ; and, provided " Reading, Nov. 19. A very curious cirnien did but fear God and work righie- cumstance occurs at this season, which is, a ousness, he loved them heartily, how dirt great number of Swali.ws are seen hovering tant soever from him in things less neces about the cathedral and the Bishop's palace at sary. In all which he is very worthy to M'ells." be a pattern to men of all persuasions “ Many Swallows and Martens have like whatever."

wise been seen flying about the market-place I find this passage adopted as a rwotto

and other parts of the town of Wantage for to the title-page of the late Rev. Mr. Or- this fortnight past.”. ton's “ Letters to a Young Clergyman, Laft spring the same paper mentioned (see your Review, p. 844.) which book a Houpoo being taken with birdlime ì have perused with fingular satisfaction, near Caverfbar warren, in the neighI have been the contemporary, though bourhood of Reading. neither the companion nor the acquaint Not one of your correspondents, Mr. ance, of Dr. Doduridge and Mr. Orton; Urban, has remitted any account of the and I have lived to see the grievous fall. very antient eagle which was some time ing-off of their brethren in the Mininly fince found dead among its native rocks from the good old ways, the vital relis in the North of England; concerning gion, and candour, which inspired them. which, it is faid, many particulars in. I have lived to hear Diflenting Ministers teresting to ornithologists may be colo boast of love and charity, while they are lected. accefsary to the tearing open and keeping Indulge my inquisitiveness, Mr. Uropen wounds which a century has nearly ban, by allowing me to enquire, whe. healed. Of the former sort (when I have ther Capt. Huddard compleied the fur. fea i, in our valuable Miscellany, such vey he was making, 1789, of the seas extracts from the writings and conver. North-west of Scotland (Gent. Mag. fation of my present contemporaries of vol. LIX. p.931)? and, if he did, whe. the same persuasion, that I mudder at ther his remarks have appeared in pripit 'the prospect,) I hcartily pray, Sil ani It appears surprising that Governma mea cum animis eorum, persuaded as ment does not accommodate us with I am, though I quore the language of an new coinages of silver and copper; the Apocryphal book, that “the louls of want of which produces numberless obthe righteous are in the hand of God : ftru&ions in buying, selling, lending, and of the latter fort I as bearrily re giving alms, and bellowing gratuities, folve, “ O my soul, come not thou into beldes occalioning much walle of time, their fanctuary ; unto their allembly, and causing many petty disputes. Not mige honour, be not thou united." being honoured with a participation of

Your friend the Leicesterthire Anti- the lecrets of the Mint, I cannot ima. quary will do well to note how Dr. D. gine why coinages of the more plentiful 1pent his early years at Kibworth and and inferior metals are not oftener made Harborougb, fiom those letters, PP. 90, than those of the lels abundant and

G. more precious ole of Ophir, which take

place fufficiently frequent. England Mr. URBAN,

Dec 2.

yields copper, and Hanover filver, therto LTHOUGH the under extracis are fore no icarcity of those ores can be ad

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I with the useful quarter-guincas were great preparations made to entertain the revived; and I wonder the new guineas company, such as musick, good eating, are not made of value equal to an even &c. (Here follows a form of invitation sterling pound, or twenty fillings, in verse; but as the two following which would be more regular and con forms in profe give the idea of it, with venient.

NITHARD. less trouble of translation, it is omitted). MORRISIAN MISCELLANÝ.

Araith y Gwaboddwr, yn Llanbadarn

Fawr, 1762.
ARTICLE III.
CARDIGAN WEDDINGS.

“Arwydd y Gwahoddwr yw hyn; yn fwyn TH HE manner of their folemnizing ac yn hawddgar, yn lân ac yn deuluaidd, dios

Einion Owain a Llio Elis, a'ç ewyllys da ar their marriages among the mechanicks, farmers, and common people, in desgyl; dowç ag Arian Jifai ; Swilt, neu

Jdau, neu dri, neu bedwar, neu bump ; 'r ym Cardigan fhire, is peculiar, I think, to

ni'n gwahodd Caws ac Ymenyn, a'r Gwr a'r this country, and its borders.

Wraig a'r Plant, a'r Gweision a'r MorwynWhen the young couple have agreed ian, a'r mwyaf hyd y lleiaf; dowç yno'o to marry with the consent of their pa. fore, cewç fwyd yn rhodd, a diod yn rhad, repis or friends, they agree to meet, vstolion i eiste, a physgod, os gallwn eu dal, fome responsible persons assifiog on each ac onde cymmerwch ni yn esgusol ; ac fide, to settle the fortune, in writing, if nhwy ddon' hwyntau gyda çwithau p20 alwoç there be any fortune in money or lands.

am danynt. Yn codi allan o'r fan a'r fan." This they call Dyditio, i. e, appainting a

“ The intention of the bidder is this: with day. Then the bans are asked, as in

kindness and anity, with decency and libc. other countrics: and the day of mar.

rality, for Einion Owen and Llio Elis, he in

vites you to come with your good-will on riage is always, or most commonlv, or

the plate ; bring current money; a fhilling, dered on a Saturday; and Friday is al

or two, or three, or four, or five; with lorted to bring home the Tujell, or cheese and butter we invite the husband and chamber, of the woman, if the is to re

wifs, and children, and men-servants, and fide at the man's house ; or of the man, maid-servants, from the greatest to the leaft: if he is to reside at the house where the come there early; you thall have victuals woman lives.

freely, and drink cheap, ftools to sit on, and This chamber of the woman contains fuh if we can catch them; but if not, hoid generally a valuable oak cheft of wain us excusable: and they will attend with you fcot work, and a feather bed and bed when you call upon them. They set out cloaths, if she is fo rich, with fometimes fruin such and such a place.” a good deal of houthold furniture, col

(To be continued.) lected by her mother for some years. It is presumed that such as have This is set up by the friends of the par a talie for Britili antiquities and philories in ample order. The man's part is logy will be highly gratified with the to provide a bedfead, a table, a dresser, information, that the CELTIC REa pot, and chairs. That whcie evening MAINS, one of the most valuable lais employed in receiving preients of bours of Mr. Lewis Morris, is in a money, cheese, and butter, at the man's train of being laid before the publick: house from his friends, and at the wo. as a relation of his has transmitted the man's house from her friends. This is

copy from India with instructions for called Pwrs a Gwregys, or purse and that purpose ; and has liberally given up girdle, an ancient Briuth custom. But the advantages which may arise from it I should have taken notice that, a week to benevolent purpofes. Ít is needles or a fortnight before the wedding day, to urge any thing in favour of the use. an inviter or bidder (Gwaboddwr), fulneis of this publication; as it will be goes about from house to house with a the means of developing the antiquittes long stick with ribbons Aying at the end of this island, which are so wonderfully of it, and, Atopping at the middle of the confused, in consequence of being floor, repeats in Wellh a long lesson, handled by too many writers destitute of partly in verse, to invite the families the qualifications necessary for the unthat he calls at to the wedding of dertaking, and in particular a knowsuch and such persons, naming them ledge of the Celtic languages. and their places of abode, and mentioning the day of the wedding, and the Mr. URBAN,

HE that come there. This lesson he repeats church, are from the Latin Vula with great formality, enumerating the gate publiflaed by Sixtus V. but not allo

gether

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gether corresponding with it. Thus, in that profession, was no less distinguished by the first, only the second line corresponds his fkill and abilities, than for his intrepid with that version :

and persevering fpirit. This man, when Video quas folem & lunam & ftellas xi

abont forty years of age, had formed the adorare me. Gen. xxxvii. 9.

great idea of reching the East Indies by

failing Westward; but, as luis fortune was Line 5 does not agree with that version

very small, and the attempt required very in words, though in fenfe:

ette tual patronage, defirous that his native ..tatus eft & ait Pharao, bene interpretatus country ihould profit by his success, he laid est somnium meum & ideo eris totam ter his plan before the senate of Genoa ; but the

(ram camb' scheme appearing chimerical, it was rejecteft quod femt esse fames in terra.

ed. He then repaired to the court of PortuOnly this line with the version :

gal; and although the Portuguese were at

that time diftinguished for their commercial Et adhuc restant anni quinque. xlv. 6.

fpirit, and John Il. who then reigned, was Ideo venite ad me, & ego reficiam vos.

a diícerning and enterprising prince, yet the Line 7, only the two last lines corre prepotentions of the great men in his court, spond with the version :

to whom the matter was referred, caused Et huc ad hoc veniftis expoliare regem

Columbus finally to fail in his attempt there Jam experimentum veftri vos capiam De

also. He next applied to Ferdinand and lfaum enim timeo.

belia, king and queen of Arragon and Car

tile, and at the same time sent his brother Quia omnia quæ olim videbam perfor...

Bartholomew (who followed the same proNunc apparent michi bene ania per omnia.

fellion, and wbo was well qualified to fill The last is a mere monkith rhyme, the immediate place under such a leader) to Yours, *c.

DR.

England, to lay the proposal before Henry

VII. which likewise, very fortunately for Mr. URBAN,

the future well-being of the country, met R. Thorndon, p. 817, millakes in

with no success. Many were the years

which Christopher Columbus fperit in inefTutenham, p. 6, note. It is Milles, and

fectual attendance at the Castiliau court; the not Miles.

impoverished fate into which the finances of How could W. Wimpen be W. Wim

the united Kingiiom were reduced by the war

with Granada, repretling every disposition pew the vicar, who died 1665 1 does

to attempt greul designs; but, the war being Mr. T. suppose he would rilin the

al length terminated, the powerful mind of vicarage for the schoolmater's place *: Isabella broke through all obstacles; the de. 1 very much suip & the naine of His

clared herself the patronefs of Columbus, manus is prostituted in your po 723 to whilst her husband Ferdinand, decliuing to ferre a worle purpose. Let us admit parike as an adventurer in the voyaje, only the folly of the Tholofans in making a gave it the sanction of his name. Thus did Martyr, is it at all inconiistent with the the superior genius of a woman effect the accidental death of a fon by the accidene dicovery of one half of the globe ! tal blow or push of a father? Will Huo The ships fent on this important search manus, becaule he denies the son was in. were only three in number; two of their titled to the crown of martyrdom, deny

very small: they had ninety men on board. that his death was unlucky or acciden. Although the expence of the expedition 11.1. tal? But Humanus, in blarning bigo:rk, long rein.ined the fole obit::cle to its being

undertaken, yet, when every thing was prois himself the most angry of bigots

He

videat, the coit did not amount to more than ought at least to prove that his hair tury,

4,00 1. and there were twelve months pro. as he says, food on end. G. G. G.

vifions put on board.

Columbus (et fail from Port Palos, in the Some Account of CHRISTOPHER Co province of Audalusia, Aug. 3, 1492 : he

LUMEUS, wiib an Enquiry into bis proceeded to the Canary iDands, and thence Irue Charafler ; in Opiofition 10 ite directed his course due W. in the latitude of prevailing Opinion which is en crtaine about 28 deg. N. In this course he conti. ed of it. (From PAYN's

" New Syr. nued for two months, without falling in with tem of Geography," jaji published, in any land; which caused such a spirit of difTwo Volumes, Fot:o.)

content and mutiny to rise, as the superior HRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, who was

commander ing a new hiemnisphere to Europeans, was by these qualities be was eminently diftinguish. birih a Genoeie, who had been early trained

ed. He was at length reduced to the necesto a fea-faring life, and, baving acquired fity of entering into a solemn engagement to every branch of knowledge connected with abandon the enterprize, and recoru home, if

land did not appear in three days. Probably Epit;

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he would not have been able to reitrain his such an opinion was founded entirely on its people so long from acts of violence and out. spherical form. It is indeed remarkable, rage, in pursuing so untried and dreary a how many of the conjectures which have course, had they not been sensible that their been made, and opinions formed, by the most fafety in returning home depended very intelligent and enlightened of mankind, in all much on his skill as a navigator in conducting ages, respecting the globe, have been found the vessels.

to be erroneous when experiment has subAt length the appearance of land changed itituted fact for opinion. A striking instance their despondency to the most exulting rap. is in the supposed existence of a verra Auftrafure. It was an ifland, abounding with in- lis incognila, which, when investigated by habitants, both sexes of which were quite Capt. Cook, vanished like the baseless fabrick naked; their manners kinil, gentle, and un of a vision. The opinion of a Northern paisuspecting. Columbus named it San Salva- fage to the East Indies, whether by an Eaft.

it is one of the cluster which bears the ern or a Western course, was no less begeneral name of Bahania; it was only 3 deg. lieved, and is now no less confuted; for, alzo min. latitude to the S. of the island of Go- though it seems highly probable that no land mora, one of the Canaries, whence he took lies in the high Northern latitunes, yet a barhis departure. 'This navigator wiis ftill so rier equally impenetrable is formed by the confirmed in the opinion which he had form. immense expanse of ice which ever occupies ed before he undertook the voyage, that he the polar regions. But to return : believed himself to be then upon an island Nothing could potlibly tend more effectuwhich was situated adjacent to the Indies. ally to rouse every active principle in human Proceeding to the S. he saw three other nature, than the discoveries which Columbus islands, which he named St. Mary of the had made ; no time was therefore lost, nor Conception, Fernandinn, and Ifahellir. At expence (pared, in preparing a fleet of ships, length he arrived at a very large ifiaod; and, with which this great man should revisit the as he had taken leven of the natives of San countries he had made known. Seventeen Salvador on board, he learned from then that thips were got ready in six months, and fifa it was called Cuba, but he gave it the name of teen hundred persons embarked on board Juanna. He next proceeeed to an inand them, among whom were many of noble fawhich he called Espagniola, in honour of the milies, and who had filled honourable Itakingdo:n hy which he was employed; and it tions. These engaged in the enterprize from still bears the name of Hispaniol. Here he the expectation that the new.discovered built a fort, and formed a small settlement. country was either the Cipango of Marco He then returned home, having on board Paulo, or the Ophir from which Solomon some of the natives, whom he had taken obtained his gold and precious merchandize. from the different inlands. Seering a more Ferdinand, now desirous of securing what Southern course, he fell-in with fome of the before he had been onwilling to venture for Caribbee iflands; and arrived at the port of the obtaining, applied to the Pope lo be inPalos on tlie 15th of March, 1493, having vested with a right in these new-discovered been seven mouths and eleven days on this countries, as well as to all future discoveries most important voyage.

in that direction; but, as it was neceilary un his arrival, letters patent were issued that there Thould be some favour of religion hy the king and queen, confirming to Colum- in the business, he founded his plea on a des bus, and to his heirs, all the privileges con fire of converting the favage natives to the taine<l in a capitulation which had been exe Romish faith. Alexander VI. who then cuted before his departure ; and his family filled the papal chair, it ought to be premised, was ennobled,

was the most profligate and abandoned of Not only the Spaniards, but the other na men; being a native of Arragon, and defi. tions of Europe, seem to have adopted the rous of conciliating the favour of Ferdinand. opinion of Columbus, in confidering the for the purpose of aggrandizing his family, lie countries which he had discovered as a part readily granted a request which, at no exof India ; whence Ferdinand and Isabella pence or risk, tended to extend the confegave them the name of “ Indies," in the ra quence and authority of the Papacy : he tification of their former agreement with therefore bestowed on Ferdinand and lize Columbus. Even after the error was detect bella “ all the countries inhabited by infidels, ed, the name was retained, and the appella- which they had discovered, or should discotion of “ West Indies" is now given by all ver:" but, as it was neceflary to prevent this Europe to this country, and that of Indians to grant from interfering with one not long hethe inhabitants. That the East Indies might fore made to the Crown of Portugal, he apbe reached by a Western course, was proved pointed that a line, fupposed to be drawn not long after by Magellan : the only error, from pole to pole, one hundred leagues to therefore, imputable tu Columbus, is his lupe the Westward of the Azores, should serve as poting them fo near to Europe in that direc a limit between them ; and, in the plenitude tion, which implies that he had no 300 rate of his power, conferred all to the E. of this idea of the circumference of the globe ; as imaginary line upon the Portuguese, and all GEXT. MAG. December, 1791.

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