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think you will find some things suitable to the epitaph: Sex libros compofuit-libros your purpose, particularly in hiş speech lo aliquot fuos fecum condi voluit. The the contpirators; which you will meet with fame fix books that he compojed he pub. towards the beginning of the History, $ 20, lijbed; and some, i.e. a few, copies of where he pleads Liberty as a ground for his there he ordered to be buried with bim, undertaking, but mentions honour, power, by way of experiment at leal, whether out some bitter reflexions against the ministers they could not be handed down to polteand placemen of those days. Quin igitur ex
rity in case the whole impression of all pergescimini en illa, illa, quam fepe optäjäis Lie his writings above ground should, by bertas : præterea divitie, decus, gloria, in ocu
any such accident as he muft have heard lis fita funt, &c. In my ed tion is the folo had happenud to other authors, he comlowing note on the word Libertas: “ Tacitus pletely destroyed. By what poflible colo vere (Ann. XI. 17) falfo 1. ibertatis vocabuliem larion Indagator was led to pronounce obtendi ab iis qui privatim degeneres in publicum any four of his books to be preferred to exitiofi ni bil spei nisi per difcordias babear:.” the other two, or to all the other fix, is Gras winkel], one of the Variorum commen too much for my penetration. tators. There is a great deal to the fame pur The explanation here offured suggests pofe in Catiline's speech, and in other parts
a curious question, which I doubt not of the History; but it is near forty years foine of your learned correspondents can fince I last read it, which was with tlie pu- answer; and that is, what, or whesher pils at Northampton, 1739. I have long any, book can be recollected, the whole thought there are many pairages in the account of that conspirscy very parallel to the
impreson of which was deftroved by the present state of our nation between loyal men
fire of London, 1666; wbich, it appears and those who are called patriots, and who
from a contemporary wiiter (Brit. Top. chure, by a figure of speech, to call them. I. 701), fell fo beasy on the bookfélieis selves Whigs just as they call me a Tory. flocks in the vaults under St. Paul's. Many are angry with me because I discoun
D. H. tenance their duroyalty ; but I despise their | anger as much as I dislike their principles Mr. URBAN, W.A-, Dec. 20.
and conduct. I would willingly be doing fome good while I am here ; and to promote
N your valuable Repository for Oato.'
ber is a furious, and, I think, an il: Byalty, fujcêtion, and peace, is doing soul. I think I have already softened some sharp
liberal attack on the clergy of the Soutch fpirits amongst us, at least brought them to
Episcopal Church. I have no doubt hold their tongues, or to be less conti lent. but fome of these gentlemen will give I Mall be sorry to find that your neighbour, the letter fuch an antiver as it deferves: Mr.-, exposes himself and his ministry but, in the mean time, allow me, who by his politicks. An antient Bishop says, am a perfect by-fander, unconnected' ri What has an ecclesiastick to do with polic with either party, to requeft you will ticks p" Lend him Palmer's Abridgement of publish the inclosed Lift in your next Baxter's Reformed Paftor."
Magazine. I cut it out of Chalmers' It is a melancholy reflexion, Mr. Ur. Aberdeen Almanack for 1792; and ban, that such worthy men as Dr. Dod- there is no reason to question is authen. dridge, Mr. Orion, &c. &c. should have ticity.
Youis, &c. such successors as fome few of the prelent
A MATTER-OF-TACT MAN. race of leaders among the Diffencing minisers; and that their evangelical dicc Lift of the Bifbops and Clergy of the trioes, which have been the faith of the
Scotch Episcopal Churcb, wiib ibe Chrillian church for near eighteen cen
Places where ibey refide. turies, should be so spoken against and Diocese of Edinburgh.-R. R. Wm. A. exploded. But, if we ever believed too bernethy Drummond, in Edinburgh, bithop. much, we are now to exceed on the defi. Edinburgh, John Allan, Charles Webster, cicnt fide. Yours, &c. Q Q. Alexander Allan, John Webster ; Leith,
Simon Reid ; Stirling, George Gleig; GlasMr. URIAN,
Dec. 26. gow, Alexander Jameson. TOUR correspondent INDAGATOR,
Diocese of Dunblane and Fife. p. 1015, leems to have perplexed mank; Allo, John Rhind; St. Andrews,
, bishop. Muthil. Alexander Cruik. himself about what appears to me at leaft, Williain Robb ; Pittenweem, David Low. a very obvious matter. Mr. Chamber.
Diocese of Dunkeld.
, bifhor. layne ordered fome, or a few (a!ique!), Forfar, George Skene ; Kirriemuir, James of his books to be buried with biai, ter
Lyell, William Jolly ; Meigle, William Nithe benefit of po!terity. That they wete coll; Perth), Alexander, Walker ; Strathnot in MS. is clvar from the woruiny of tay, John Robertson.
Diocese of Brechin.-R. R. John Stracban, der.-Revering the memory of our ancestors in Dundee, bifhop. Arbroath, Patrick Rose;. with gratitude, as ibe first founders of our Brechin, fanies Somerville ; Montrose, A- liberties, it is but just to acknowledge, in a lexander Walker; Laurence Kirk, Jonathan most solemn manner, that all the pre-emia Wation; Lochlee, Peter Jolly ; Redmire, nence and prerogatives of liberty, granted to Rohert Spark; Drumlithie, Donald Rose; this order by Casimir the Great, &c. &c. &c. Stonehaven, Alexander Grig; Muchalls, are by the present act renewed, confirmed, George Garden.
and declared to be inviolable. We acknow. Diocese of Aherdeen.-R. R. John Skin. lege ib: rank of the noble Equestrian ord:r 1x per, in therdeen, bifhop. Aberdeen, Ro- Poland to be equal to all degrees of n biliya ger Aitken; Oldmeldrum, Arthur Walker; all persons of bat order to be equal among ibema Ellon, John Cruickshank; cruden, Johor felves, not only in the elig bility to all pots of Giug; Peterhead, Patrick Torry; Long- banour, trust, or emolument, but in the ena fide, John Skinner ; Lonmay, W l'iam joyment of all privileges and prerogatives; Singites ; Fraserburgh, Alexander Jolly; personal liherty, and security of territorial Five, Alexander Christie ; Turriff, John and moveable property; nor shall we even Cruickshank; ruminestown, Andrew Rita suffer the least incroachment on either by sbe chies Banff, Jolin Skinner ; Arradoul, A. (upreme national power (on which the present lexander Shand; Forgue, folin Innes; form of Government is established!), under Merkiefolla, James Innes ; Blairdaff, James any pretext whatsoever ; consequently, we Morison.
regard the preservation of personal fecurity Diocese of Moray and Ross.—R. R. An- and property, as by law ascertained, to be a drew Macfarlane, in Inverness, bishop. In tie of society, and the very essence of civil verness, William Mackenzie ; Elgin, Hugh liberty, which ought to be considered and reBuchan; Keith, Alexander Christie ; p!unt- spected for ever. ly, James Walker ; Urd, Wiilian Paterson; Art. 111. Towns and Citizens. The law Appin, Donald Viaccoll.
made by the present Diet, intituled, “ Our
royal free towns within the dominions of the NEW CONSTITUTION OF THE GO. Republick," we mein to consider as a part
VERNMENT OF POLAND, of the present Conftitution, and promise to As established by ibe Revolution, May 3, 1591. maintain it as a new, alditional, true, and In ebe name of God, one in the Holy Trinity!
etfcelval support, of our common liberties,
and our mutual defence. Stanislaus Augustus, hy the grace of God, Art. IV. Peasants and Villagers. This
and the will of the Nation, King of Poland, agricultural class of people, the most nume&c. &c. together with the Confederate
rous in the Nation, consequently furming Statcs assembled in double number to re
the most considerable part of its force, we present the Polish nation.
receive under the protection of national law ONVINCED by a long train of expe- and government ; enacting, that whatever
rience of many Jefects in our Govern- liberties, grants, and conventions, between ment; and willing to profit by the favourahle the proprietors and villagers, either indivimoment which has restored us to ourselves; dually or collectively, may be entered atfree from the disgraceful shackles of foreign thentically into in future ; such agreements in fence ; prizing more than life the exter Mall import mutual and reciprocal obliganal independence and internal liberty of the tions, binding not only the present contractnation; in order to exert our natural rights ing parties, but even their succeflors hy ille with zeal and firmness, we do folemnly efte heritance or acquisition. Thus having inbih 1bpresent Consti'urion, which we declare lured to the proprietors every advantage they wholly inviolable in every part, till such pe have a right to from their villagers, and riod as shall be prescribed by law; when the willing to encourage most effe&tualiy the poo Nation, if it should think fit, may alter by pulation of our country, we publiko and prge its express will such articles therein as Thall claim a perfurt and entire liberty to all people, be found inadequate.
either who may be newly coming to leitle, Art. I. The Dominant National Religion. or those who, having emigrated, would re-The holy Roman Catholick faith, with all turn to their native country: and we declare its privileges and immunities, shall be the do- moft folemnly, that any person coming into minant national religion: but, as the fame Poland, from whatever part of the world, or holy religion commands us to love our neigh- returning from abroad, as soon as he fets his bours, we therefore owe to all people, of foot on the territory of the Republick her whatever persuasion, peace in matters of comes free, and at liberty to exercise his infaich, and the protection of Government; dustry, wherever and in whatever manner confequently, we allure to all persuasions and he pleases, to settle either in towns or vile religions freedom and liberty, according to lages, to farm and rent lands and boules, on the laws of the country, and in all dominions tenures and contracts, for as long a term as of the Republick.
may be agreed on; with liberty to remaini, Art. Il. Nobility, or the Equestrian Or. or to remove, after having fulfilled the oli GENT. Mag. Supplement, 1791.
gations lie may have voluntarily entered into. and sent up to the Senate, the votes of both
Ait. V. Form of Government.-All pow Houses shall be jointly computed, and the er in civil society should be derived from the majority, as described by law, shall be confiwill of the people, its end and object being dered as a decree and the will of the Nation. the preservation and integrity of the State, . Ilme Senators and Ministers who, from the civil liberty, and the good order of soci- their 11're in executive power, are accountety, on an equal scale, and on a lasting foun able to the Republick, cannot have an active dation. Three diftinct powers shall com voice in the Diet, but may he present in pose the Government of the Polith nation, order to give neceffary explanations to the according to the present Conftitution :
States. 1. Legislarive power in the States allem There ordinary legiNative Diets thall have bled.
their uninterrupted existence, and he always 2. Executive power in the King and the ready to meet ; renewable every two years. Council of Inspection. And,
The length of feflions thall be determined by 3. Judicial power in Jurisdictions exist
the raw concerning Diets If convened out ing, or to be establithed.
of ordinary feilion upon some urgent occaArt. VI. The Diet, or the Legislative fion, they shall only deliberate on the subject Power. The Diet, or the Allembly of which occafioned such'a call, or on cii cumStates, shall be divided into two Houses, the Itances which may arise out of it. House of Nuncios, or Deputies; and the The law concerning the Dietines, or priHouse of Senate, where the King is to pre mary elections, as established by the present side. The former being the representative Diet, shall be regarded as a most ellential and central point of supreme national autho foundation of civil liberty. lity, shall poslefs the pre eminence in the The majority of votes fhall decide every Legidature; therefore, all bills are to be de.
thing, and every where; therefore we abocided frít in this House.
lim, and utterly annihilate, all sorts of con1. All general Law; constitutional, civil, federacies, and confederate Diets, as ruinous criminal, and perpetual taxes; concerning to society. which' matiers, the King is to issue his pro Willing to prevent, on one hand, violent positions by the circular letters sent before and frequent changes in the national Constithe Dietines to every palatinate and to every tution, yet, confidering on the other, the district for deliberation, which coming before neceflity of perfecting it, after experiencing the House with the opinion exprelled in the its eftects on public prosperity, we deterinstructions given to their representatives, mine the period of every twenty-five years Thall be aken the first for decisions.
for 30 Extraordinary Confitutional Diet, to be 2. Particulus Laws: temporal taxes; re held purposely for the revision and such al. gulations of the mint; contracting public terations of the Constitution as may be found dehts ; creating dobles, and other casual re requifite. compences; reparation of public expences, Art. VII. The King, or Executive Pow. both ordinary and extraordinary ; concerning er.-The mont perfect Government cannot war ; peace ; ratification of treaties, politie exist without an effectual Executive Power. cal and commercial ; all diplomatic acts and Experience has taught us, that the negle&ting conventions relative to the laws of nations ; this eflential pair of Government has overexamining and acquitting different executive whelmed Poland with disasters. departments, and similar subjects arising from Having, therefore, secured to the free Po. the accidental exigencies and circumitances lish nuion the right of enacting laus fur of the State; in which the propofitions, com themielves, the supreme inspection over the ing directly from the Throne into the House Executive Power, and the choice of their of Nuncios, are to have preference in wiicur magillrates, we intrust in the King, and bis fion before the private biils.
Council, ibe big bell power of executing tbe laws. In regard to the House of Senate, it is to This Council thall be called Siroz, or the confiftof bithops, Palatines, Caitellans, and Council of Inspection. Ministers, under the prefidency of the King, The duty of such Executive Power shall be who ihall have but one vote, and the casting to watch over the laws, and to see them vote in cale of parity, which he may give strictly executed according to their import, either personally, or by a meitage to the even by the means of public force, should is House. Its power and duty Mall be,
be neceflary. 1. Every G neral Law that paties formally I he Executive Power cannot affume the through the House of Nuncios is to be sent right of making laws, or of their interpret.ie immediately to this, which is either incepted, tion. Stisexpresy forbiddentucontract public or suspended till further national deliberation. Jedrs; to alter the repartition of the national If accepted, it becomes a law in all its force; income, as fixed by the Diet; to declare war; if fulp nded, it ihall be refumed at the next to conclude definitively any treaty, or any Der; and, if it is then agreed to agiin hy, diplomatic alt: it is only allowed to carry on the llouse of Nuncios, the Senate muit suba' negotiations with foreign Courts, and facili. mit tu it.
tate ten orary occurrences, always with re3. Every Purticular Lacu, as soon as it has ference to the Diet. been determined by the lioule of Nuncios, The Crown of Poland we declare to be 4
elclive in regard to families, and it is settled 3. Of two Secretaries to keep the Pro“ fo for ever.
tocols. Having experienced the fital effects of The Herelitary Prince coming of age may interregna, periodically subverting Govern- affift at, but shall have no vote therein. ment, and being d. frous of preventing for The Marshal of the Diet, being chosen for ever all foreign influence, as well as of in. two years, has also a right to fit; for the end furing to every citizen a perfect tranquillity, only of calling together the Diet, always ex, we have, from prudent motives, refolved to ing, is absolutely neceffary, and the King
adopt beredi:ary luccellion to our Throne : refusing to do it. therefore we enact and declare, that, after The cases demanding such convocation of the expiration of our life, according to the the Diet are the following: gracious will of the Almighty, the present 1. In a preiling necetlity concerning the Elector of Saxony Thall reign over Poland. law of nations, and particularly in case of a
The Dynasty of future Kings of Poland neighbouring war. shall begin in the person of Frederic Auguf 2. In case of an internal commotion. tus, Elector of Saxony, with the right of in 3. In an evident danger of general famine. heritance to the Crown to his male descend in the orphan fate of the country, or
The eldest ton of the reigning King is in case of the King's dangerous illness. to lucceed his father ; and, in care the pre All resolutions of the Council of Inípecfent Elector of Saxony has no male illue, a tion are to be examined by the rules abovebusband chosen by him (with the consent and mentioned. approbation of the Republick) for his daugh The King's opinion, after that of every ter, Thail begin the raid Dynasty. Hence we member in the Council has been heard, Thall declare the Prince's Mary-Augufta Nepo- decisively prevail. mucena, only daughter of the Elector of six Every resulotion of this Council Mall be is. ony, to be Infanta of Poland.
sued under the King's fignature, CountersignWe reserve to the Nation, however, the ed by one of the Ministers fitting therein. right of electing to the Throne any other Should all the Members refuse their counHouse or Family, after the extinction of the terlig!, the King is obliged to forego his firit.
opinion. Every King, on his accesiion to the Ministers coniporing this Council cannot Throne, Thall take a folemn oath to God and be employed at the same time in any other the Nation, to support the prefeat Conftitut depuitment. tion, to fulfil the para convenia, which will If it ihould happen that two-thirds of febe fet:led with the present Elector of Sixeny, cret vote in both Houses demand the changas appointed to the Crown, and which thalling of any perfon, either in the Council, or bind him in the fine manner a former enes. any executive department, the King is bound
The King's perfonis sacred and inviolable; to nominate another. as no act can proceed immediately from him, Willing that the Council of Inspection he cannot be in any manner refponfible to mould be repofible to the Nation for their the Nation; he is not an absolute Monarch, 2étions, we decree that, when accused of any but the father and the head of the people; tranfgrettion of pohtive law, th:y are , his revenues, as trxed by the patta convenia,
swerable with their persons and fortunes. 1hall he sacre ily preserved. All public acts, Such impeachments fhall be tried inimedia the acts of magistrzc.es, and the con of the ately by the comitial tribunal, and recrive fin, kingilom, thall bear his name.
nal judgement. Tlie King, who ought to poffeís every In order to form a necessary organization power of dong good, shall have the right of of the Executive Power, we establith hereby parduning thosethat are conde nned to death, separate commillions, connected with the except the crimes be against the State. above Councils, and subjected to obey its vie
In time of war he lliall have the supreme dinations. conimand of the national forces he may ap These commillions are, ift. of Education ; point the commanders of the army, however, , 20. of Police; 31. of War ; 4th. of Treasury. by the will of the 5tites. It ihall be his pro Art. Vill. Julicial Power As judicial vince to patentee officers in the army, and Power is incompatible with the Legislative, other dignitaries, confonant to the regulations nor can be administered by the King, there-hereafter to be expreffed, to appoint Bishops, fore triburials and magiftratures ought to be Senators, and Ministers, as members of the established and elected. It ought to have Executive Power.
local existence, that every citizen should The King's Council of Inspection is to know where to seek justice, and every trans. consist,
greffor can discern the hand of national Go. 1. Of the Primate, as the head of the
We establiin, therefore, Clergy, and the President of the Commitlion 1. Primary Courts for each palatinate and of Education, or the first Bishop in ordine. district, composed of Judges cholen at the
2. Of five Ministers: the Minister of Po. Detine, which are always to be ready to ad. lice, Minister of Justice, Minister of War', m.. Ater justice. From these Couiis appeals Minister of Finances, and Minister for Fo are allwwed to the high tribunals, erected relgrt Affairs.
one for each of three provinces, in which
the kingdom is divided. Those Courts, both cants are natural defenders of their country primary and final, fhall be for the equestrian and its liberties. ordery and all proprietors of landed property. The army is only an extract of defensive
2. We determme separate Courts for the regular force from the general mass of natifiee royal tou ns.
onal Areogth. 3. Each movince hall have a Court of The Nation owes to the army reward and Relerenularies for the trial of causes relating respeel, because of is devoting itself wholly to the pealanury, who are all hereby declared for the defence of the country. fres.
The army owes to the Nation to guard the 4. Courts, curial and affefforial, tribunals frontiers against enemies, and to maintain for Courland, and relational, are hereby public tranquillity within. This national confirmed.
force, tlicrefort, shall he employed for gas5. I xecutive commiffions Mall bave judi- risoning fortrefles, and affitting the Civil cial power in matters relative to their admi. Power in the execution of the law against nistration.
those that are refractory. 6. Besides all there, there thall be one fu. Declaration oibe States assembled. preme general tribunal for all the claffes, All laws and statutes, old and new, concalled a Comitial Trbunal or Court, com trary to the present Conftitution, or to any posed of persons chosen at the opening of part thereof, are hereby abolithed ; and every Diet. This tribunal is to try all the every paragraph in the foregoing articles to persons accused of crimes against the State. be a competent part of the present Conttitu
Lastly, we shall appont a Committee fortion is acknowledged. We recommend to the forming a civil and criminal code of laws, the Executive Power to see the Council of by persons whom the Diet thall elect for that Inspection immediately begin its office under purpose.
the eye of the Diet, and continue its duties Art. IX. Regency.-The same Council of without the least interruption. Inspection is to compose the Reger.cy, with We swear before God and the Country to the Queen at their heal, or, in her absence, maintain and defend, with all poflible human, with the Primate of the kingdom. The Re- power, the present Conftitution; and confi. gency may take place only,
dering this oath as a proof of real love of our 1. During the King's minority,
country, we comn and all magiftrates and 2. in case of the King's settled alienation troops here piesent to take it immediately. of reason.
The commillion of war shall issue orders to 3. In case of the King's being made a pri- the rest of the army quartered in the king. foner of war.
dom, and in the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania, Minority is to be considered till eighteen to do the same within one month at farthest years are completed, and the malady must from the date of the present law, be declared in the existing Diet by the plu We iecommend !o our Bishops to appoint rality of three-fourths of votes of both con one and the same day of public thank ígiving bined Houses.
to God Almighty in all churches over the When the King comes of age, or recovers kingdom ; also, we appoint a day, N. N. his health, or reluins from captivity, the Re- for the solemn celebrating by us and our pogency thall cease, and shall be accountable to Aterity of a commemoration anniversary for him, and responsible to the Nation in their the mercies of the Supreme Being Thewn to perfuns and fortunes, for their actions during us after so many public calamities. their office.
And that future ages may know and feel Art. X. Education of Kings' Children.- that it is by the aliistance of the Supreme The King's fons, being designed fucceffors to Disposer of nations we have surmounted the the Crown, are the firit children of the greatest difficulties and obstacles, and effected country. Thence the care of their proper this appy Revolution, we decree, that a education, without encroaching, however, church shall be erected and conseciated to on the right of their parents, devolves natu Divine Providence, in memory of this event,, rally upon the nation.
and at the expence of the States. During the King's life, the King himself, Having this satisfied our general feelings wiihine Council, and a Tutor, appointed by on this event, we turn our attention towards the State: , shall superintend the education of securing the same Conftitution, by délaring, the Princes.
and en::cting, that whoever Mould dare to In time of a Regency, it fall be intrufted oppose it, or to disturb the public tranquilwith this direction jointly with the above- lity, either by exciting mistrutt, or by permeniioned Tutor.
verfe interpretation of this Constitution, and In both cases this Tutor, named by the much more by forming insurrections and States, is to make bis report before each or confederacies, either openly or secretly, such plinary Diet of the education and progress of person or persons are declared to be eni sies the Princes.
and tractors to ibeir country, and shall be puo' Ait. XI. National Force, or the Army nished with the utmost rig ur by the Comic The Nation is bound to preserve its po tial Tribunal. For this purpose we order funs against inson; therefore, all inhabi- this tribunal to fit uninterruptedly at War