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fines (debtors to the king, or persons presumes, there could be no war, at least committed in default of sureties to ap- of the offensive kind: and yet offensive pear at the assizes or quarter sessions), war, and the extirpation of whole namale and female debtors, male and fe- tions, are repeatedly enjoined in the Old male penitentiary or convicted felons; Testament, both under the theocracy bridewell annexed to the gaol. All and the kingly administration. Those these several rules, orders, and regula- who reason thus abstractedly forget that tions, with the table of fees, were ap• in the Jewish government the Deity, proved by the chairman and 24 juftices, who was their supreme ruler, cook on and conhrmed by Barons Perryn and himself the punithment of many crimes, Buller, Aug. 6, 1790. These regula. for which he provided no human puo tions and bye-laws were suggested to nishment; and our free thinkers as inthe justices of the peace for the county conliderately make the sanguinary laws at large, by Sir George Onesiphorus of Moles an objection to their divine Paul, who, at the request of the Bench, inftitution. The law of retaliation, on has thus republished them, with his ad. which our author infifts fo much, is dress to the said justices, allembled at dilused in all legislatures, and may be the Michaelmas general quarter feilions, fupposed to have been done away by with which he then introduced them. Jesus Christ himlelf. Laws are relative

We recommend this as a very useful to the constitution of the people where book.

they obtain ; and one might as well in

troduce the Spartan encouragement of 126. Reflections on ebe Injustice of ibe British theft as object to the English punith

Crown-Laws, so far as the same relate to obe ment of it. We have repeatedly had
Pun slimene of Capital Felonies.

occasion to remark, that our Saviour
THIS reformer of criminal police instituted no fuftem of civil polity;
crmplains heavily that coiners and spies confequently, nothing in his doctrine
are hanged, “ with a fecret and an un has any reference to civil or political
“ accountable pleasure in the breast of jurisprudence. If the passive doctrine
" their blood-guilty executioner," while which he opposes to retaliation is not to
the corrupter of virgin innocence and be s taken in its liberal sensc,” much
the adulterer commute their crimes by less is that of forgiveness of trespalics.
a pecuniary compensation. He objects To this writer's argument, drawn
to the publicity of our executions, for from the “ sending a fellow-creature
getting the Atronger obje&tion to the « out of the world in the career of
private ones performed in the prisons of fo!ly and wickedness, at a time whea
other countries; and, after mifrepre• . " he hath neither inclination por, per-
senting the attendance of the theriff, or “haps, power to repent, and thus de-
his deputv, " attended by their domestic “ priving him of all opportunity of
“ servants, decked out in tafels, and " making atonement for his past con-
" ornamented with all the vain and “ duct,' we need only oppose the ex-

gaudy trappings of scholastic finery," ample of hanging up, infiantly, the he tells us, tivo pages forward, that he ringleaders of a mutiny on board a does not object to the attendance of the transport bound to Botany-bay, or theriff, under-sheriff, contables, and shooting those of the riots of London, other mferior officers, but only to the 1780, or at Birmingham, 1791, when “ manner and the publicly indecent lo- the criminals would be in the mid ca“ cality of its observance.” He pro. reer of their crimes; and let him ak poles a place of execution far diftant himself, coolly, what relource Mercy or from the metropolis and the public Humanity hold out on these occasions, sords, yet freely accelible to all who or what effect a " system of criminal like such spectacles. His realoning, from “ prevention, composed of personal conScripture, that only murder was punith “ finement and corporal punishment," ed with death by the Mosaic law, is a would have in p:oducing the desired millake. Blasphemy and lacrilege, imit. reformation, Itronger than what has ing, or even curling parenis, witchcraft, been now investigated ? We are sorry and bealiiality, were capitally punished; we (1000t commend the composition, the (wo firti of which are not under reasoning, or printing of this pamphlet, the Christian fytiem, except by luch as can construe" hereticum de vila'' into

127. A Letter to ibe Rigbe Honour able Charlescapital punishment. If the fifth com

james Fox, occasionet by bis late Movin in maodment was as absolute as this writer

ibe touje of G.mmons re pesting Lil-eis; and


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Juggefling ib: alarming Consequences likely to capability-men, and the neglect of Sir enfue if the Bill now before obe Legislature Thomas Robinson's Virgilian motto on ttcn ibai Srbje should pass into a Law. his gate-piers at Rookby, which, ere By J. Bowles, Esq. of be Inner Temple,

now, it may be, bave fared the fate of Barrister at Law.

his museum of antiques at the same MR. B. addreffed the publiek lately place, Mr. F. proposes a kind of tem(see p. 548) on the subject of innova.

porary patch-work, to remedy the dations in the present law of libels. “He

inages and wounds of trees by unskilful “ feels it his additional duty to endea.

management and external accidents, in. “ vour to rescue the present pradice Read of supplying the deficiency by “ from objections to which, if thorough. plantation and culture. Not only ve. “ly understood, it will not appear to be getation and increased fruitfulnels, but "liable, and which he had too much soundness of timber, and healthful ve* Candour to anticipate at least in the getation, are to be restored to trees form in which they were made. He cracked and can kered, by his com poli. « also wiches to promote the considera tion, applied, in the manner of a plafier, "ssion of the real tendency of the plan to the wounded or injured part; whiclı, “ proposed to be substituted; while, being of a soft and healing nature, pof" with great deference and timidity, he sesses an absorbent and adhesive quality, “ veniurcs to suggest, but in a very ge and, by relitting the force of washing neral manner, a segulation which ap rains, the contraction of nipping frosis,

pears to him not only unexceptiona and the effe Éts of a warm sun, or drying “ble, but calculated to meet the whole winds, excludes the pernicious influence " of the objections, founded or un of a changeable atmosphere. “ founded, to the present mode of pro This prescription may be seen in our "! ceeding, to give complete fatisfaction

p. 569. " to the publick, and to secure a juit * and solutary fiecdom of the press to 129. The Dury of Christians to Magiftrales: A “ the remorcit poilerity. While schemes Serinin, occatured by the lare Koots a: Pir“ of inconsiderabie innovation are fup. min ham, prerobed a King's Weigh“ported by the general encomuns on lioste, Eat-Cheap, 5. Lerd's Day Alvarį, "ibe mode of trial bv jury, the publick July 24, 1791. llrba prifixei aldres to “ will remember that the true quellion

ib: Publick, intended to remove the Reproarh "is, Which of the two fyftems before

larely falen on Proufiani Diljenters. By " them most favour the conftitutional

John Clayton. " rights of juries? The author lavs-in

THE preacher concurs with us in “ his claim to an equally fervent but

opinion, that the kingdom of Cinsi is

not of this world, and that his minifters more rational attachment to those “lights than can contift with any plan

have buineis enough of their own 10 os ivhich confuands the important dil

mind without interiering with policicks. Tincuie?? between law and fact; and

Is acidicts to the publick is foi clie 4 bc withes his doricae rode lubrointed

and jift; and his discourse, though 10 no other sit inan their ionciency

modioan apology for the compositichi,

and find more fu the printing, is to the 10 pronore the original dinn, as ** weli as to preferve the real importa

purpoic. That our readers may judge "ancc, refpcciability, and usefulncis of of the forniti, we have here futjoined je *that lacred inflitution, A TRIBUNAL

at large, and added the best palage ia

the jer mon. " OF PEERS."


“ The truths and duties of religion may 12?. Observations on the Dileales, Defects, and frequently be enforced with peculiar advana

Injuries in all kinds of Fruie end Forest tage, by a suitable regard to providential ocos Trees; with an Account of a particular Miesboi of Cure, invented and praciifed by Wil “ The Inte unhappy riots at Pirmingham liam Forsyth, Gardener to bis Majesty ut give occasion to the foilowing sermon; in Kensington.

which the obligations of Christians to preWBILE lo many noble oaks, the

serve the character of the quiet in the land are

ftated and reconimendad. glory of our iile, bave received their

“ 'The discourse wa addrefled to a condeath-warrant from the hands of an

gregatiou of Protestant Dillenters, composed nuitants, mortgagees, borough-hunters,

of persons who bave not yet learnel, with gamefers, and a thousand private ex pbilosophizing Christians, to reject the alle travay ants, not to mention the rapscily thory, or explain away the obvious nicanof hewaids, woodwards, builders, and ing, of the inspired writings. 3

“ Being


“ Being a Diflenting-minifter, I have with subordination) have been lignified with the heartfelt concern known, that the religious appellation of Apofiles of Liberty. and political sentiments of Dillenters at large “I may add, farther, there were not a les have been misunderstood and misrepresenied among the Diflenters, both of their clergy by the publick in general. The origin of this and laity, who disipproved of the manner in prejudice I do not attribute to former ani which application was made to Parliament mulity-to jealousy in the King or his Mi. for the repeal of the Test and Corporation nisters--to bigotry in Bishops--or prejudice Acts. The want of success arose, in a great in Churchimen. No; the cause is to be measure, from the impresion made on the found in the conduct of individuals among minds cf Dignitaries in the Church, and numourselves; wlio, leaving the quiet duties of bers of the House of Commons, by the intheir profession, have spoken and written temperate resolutions framed and carried at Ferrerje Ibingi, to draw away disciples after various county-meetings. ibem.

“Very many serious Christians in the ef“ It is a mournful fact, that a large body tablished Church, as well as among Dillenof modern Diflenters, under the sanction of ters, are grieved that the ordinance of the reason and science, falsely so called, have Lord's Supper, instituted purely for a spiri. apoftatized from the dathrines of the Rifero tual end, should be perverted, and made to malion; and some can vilify, in very oppro- serve a secular purpose. Surely the cross of brious language, the truths which their an Christ ought not to be iufulted by persons cestors contended for, with meekness of wil. eager to press into the temple of Mammon. dem, at the expence of their liberty, treasure, “ The British Legislature is accessible ; and blood. It is true, the Reformers in Ger- subjects of this free country may petition, many, and the champions in the cause of not, contumeliously, but with decency, a Evangelical truth in England, both in the El- correcteil temper, and proper reverence for tablished Church and among Nonconformists, superiors. The number of respectable Dilwere fallible men : let those also, who are senting-ministers was not small, who, in the but men ibemselves, recollect on whose ashes late application to Parliament, disapproved they crample when they ridicule the senti- of blending religious and secular reasons as "ments held sacred by men of eried integriry, grounds of complaint. They wished, as miwho, in their confertions, spoke and wroce, riflers, to urge only what they deemed a pronot the effufions of enthusiasm, but words of fanation of the Lord's Supper as the argutrub ard soberness.

meut for a repeal. For we do not find that “ This sad apostasy of modern Noncon- the New Tettament Churclı ever contended, formilis is to be ascribed to, at least, a partial in her proper character, for any thare in the denial of the inspiration of the Scriptures, government or emoluments of worldly particularly the Epiftles of St. Paul. We kingdoms. are not to be surprized if men, who vacate “Others, having reason to believe that the rule of faith in Jesus Christ, should be some of our Reformers were infiuenced by defective in deference, and in obedient re- enmity against the doctrinal articles of the gards to men who are raised to offices of su- Established Church, and the orthodoxy of perior influence, for the purposes of civil her Liturgy, could noi sacrifice their pious order and public good. The boundless li- regard to truth, thoag! in a church they had berty some have exercised in judging of the separated from, to the pulicy of men who, ological subjects, is allociated with oppurition with respect to God our Savi ur, only conto the regulations of Government, and impa- sult to cast him down from his excellency. tience under restraints very prudently im “Should application be again maile to posed on persons separating from the estab. Parliament, the members of tha august allished religion of their country.

sembly may be affured the Diffenters are • 1 du venture to affirm (though uncom not unanimous in derring a repeal of the millioned), in the name of many of my bre- Test and Corporation Acts. I know many, thren in the ministry, men vencrable for of the first character and opulence, who, all their years--of found learning and exemplary ibings coundred, with that what is at rest piety-useful men, and highly esteemed in may not be disturbed. our churches, -as well as in the name of a “If any :hould ask, what is my motive for vast body of the laity-- attirm, that we writing this thurt address for answer I can greatly disapprove of the theological and po- assure the piblicks, I have no interest of avalitical sentiments of those who (by a parent rice to promote, being contented with that of their own creation) ítyle themselves Ra- abundance which is given me to enjoy. I timal Diljinlers.

have no interest of fame; I am fatisfied in “ The diffection to Government, ex- being known to that circle where my proprelled in toasts drunk at Revolution Clubs feltional duty calls me, I value human ap--in pamphlets – in sermons-must not be puse when it is the echo of a ientence proimputed to the Dilleniers as a bidy; but to nounced by my conscience, directed, in its those of them who have been corrupted by favourable verdict, by the Holy Spirit, which men of taients, wiw (in this age of impaired is promised to them that believe. Neither, GENT. Mac. Auguft, 1771.


in writing this, do I give vent to party-zeal: suffering claims. After all, Thould this med. avowedly I am not of any party, nor at. dling captain say the burning of his ship was tached to any sect of religious professors, as persecution for righteousness-fake, we must an island : I live in my attections on the bewail the infatuation in which his folly great Christian continent. Notwithstanding terminates." this declaration of liberality, I renounce all pretensions to the modern harlot-like charity, which opens her arms to promiscuous 13 - A Differtation on Suspended Respiration

from Drowning, Hanging, and Suffocation. luft; I desire no charity besides that which In which is recommended a different Mode of rejoiceth in the trutb. I must add, I am not

Treatment to any bieberto pointed out. By impeiled by fear, I have no apprehension of Edward Coleman, Surgeon. danger, for I have not raised the people,

THIS Differtation obtained the neither in the synagogues nor in the city ; neither against the law, nor yet againft cæ: prize-medal of the Royal HUMANE sar, have I offended any thing at all. While Society, as the best composition that really employed in the quiet duties of my appeared in answer to the question, profession, my religious political creed for

" Whether emetics, venelection, or bids all fear of man. I believe ibat the Lord electricity, be proper in suspended God omnipotent reignerb. I believe the wrath “ animation, and under what circumof man pall praise God, and be remainder of “ stances *?" 'wrath be will refrain. Lastly, I believe he In his theory and treatment of the who truftesh in i be Lord, and d etb good, mall disease, the author differs very matedwell in sbe land, and verily be fall be fed. rially from Dr. Goodwyn and Mr. Kite,

“ in writing these pages I have been inAuenced by justice to the Dissenters as a body, ject; and, by a number of curious ex

who have laiely written upon the subto my brethren in the ministry, and to myfelf; and also to disabusc, and let free from periments, endeavours to investigate the mistake, the minds of my superiors and fel- proximate cause of suspended anima. low-subjects, who may ibink this address

tior. Dr. Goodwyn ateributes death, and the following sermon worthy of their in these cases, to the blood contained in attention. As to composition, &c. excuse is

the left auricic and ventricle of the necessary; hut I make no apology for the h-art being incapable of exciting their fcntiments they contain.

contraction, from the privation of the “Should any persons give themselves the usual Itimulus fupplied by the air; and trouble of taking public notice of whit I have hence he derives the inmediate caule advanced, let them not conftrue my future of the fulpended circulation. Mr. Kite, filence (for I am determined to reply to no on the other hand, attributes it to apo. one) into conviction. In considering the following subject I liave disregarded the the plexy; and considers the Itoppage of ories of modern political divines and philoso- ternal, efficient cause of death.

The motion of the lungs as the firft, inphers. The ideas of Scripture on the duty of Christians with respect to politicks, I have

der to ascertain the truth or fallacy of endeavoured to collect: and the dictates of those opinions, on a subject lo import. inspired wisdom, relative to every obligation, ant, the author of the present work had I hope to carry with me unaltered to the recourse to a variety of experiments on grave.

J. CLAYTON. different animals, which are here, Ilirgeon, July 30, 1791." lated, and afford a result in direct con

tradiction to the above theories. Mr, “Should a foreigner, with his sip, Coleman maintains that suspended respienter one of our harhours at a time when the

ration is induced by licither of the caules inhabitants of this island were agitated by jarring opinions, you would judge it was his * The author received the prize-medal duty to make the best of the times, land his from the hands of Dr. Hawes, in the presence cargo, dispose of it, and retire quietly about of the vice-presidents, clergy, and a number his business. Should he, instead of such pru- of gentlemen allembled for the purpose, at dent conduct, indiscreetly meddle with mat the London Coffee-house. After an ingeters out of his province, and a lawless rabble nious and learned address delivered by the Thould burn his thip, we ought to regret the Doctor; the author, Mr. Coleman, modestly unjustifiable outrage, but we should not replied, that he considered himself highly wonder, because he came out of his place. honoured by this distinguihed mark of the It would greatly aggravate the oftence of this Society's approbation ; but that, whatever busy-body if he were tolerated, not only to share of merit they thought his Elsay entitled land from his ship the spices of Arabia, but to, was, in effect, to be attributed more to the most poisonous drugs. This unrestrain, the labours and information he had received ed liberty, abused to purposes hostile to the from the judicious publications of the Royal general content of the nation, must letlen the Humane Society, than to any icleas he could pily which hummity under every species of pollibly entertain of his own abilities.


In or

P. 31.

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affigned by those authors, but by colo povers hy which the vital functions are
lapse of the lungs; by which he means performed, the framers of the language
an emptying of the greater part of their of philofophy would not have recurred
air, which occasions such a mechanical to the invention of the terms vitality
obáruction in the interior pulmonary and principle of life.
vessels as prevents the right side of the The experiments from which he
heart from expelling its contents. draws his conclusions seem to have been

Dr. Goodwyn and Mr. Coleman have conducted with address, and to be reobjected to the term Suspended Anima. Jated with candour. Should his theory tion.-"Respiration and Circulation,” be well founded, which we see no reasays the latter, “ may be suspended; fon to dispute, the plan of treatment “ but the principle of life, or fufcepei hitherto generally adopted mult, in "bility of action, which is the source forne instances of apparent death, prove of these functions, may still remain. injurious. The author has adapted his “ Life, therefore, can with no propriety method of cure to his view of the proxi“ be said to be suspended when the viral mate cause of the disease; and, as it * principle is present."

differs in fome ellenrial points from that. This conclusion of the author, and, in common use, we recommend the work consequently, the sum of his objections, to the attention of medical practitioners. is founded on the supposition that Life and Animation are synonymous; but INDEX INDICATORIU S. whenever an objection is taken to terms, If N. P. who (p. 504) enquires whether the objector fhould consider the precise it is consistent with principles of bonour and meaning and force of such terms. The conscience to sell the perpetual advowson of term animation conveys an idea very an ecclefiaftical living, will take the trouble different from that usually understood to peruse" Strictures on Modern Simony," a by the vital principle; instead of de. small pamphlet printed in 1767, he will find noting the principle, it rather signifies

fome observations on the subject well worti the confequences flowing from that prin

the attention of the clergy in general. Or, if ciple. The latitude of lignification of he will send his address, direcica to the Rev. - moft words is a defect in language which Bookseller, in Stockport, Chelliire, he may

Dr. R---N, to be left with Mr. Reddito, it is easier ta lament than to remedy. potihly meet with a fuller anfwer. However, the most received fignification

Mr. JAMES Home, who resided some of the word animation is, the manifeft. years at Rome, and has a very great collecixg, by udlion, thoje powers wbicb arise tion of papal coins and medals, inforins us, from ibe VITAL PRINCIPLE, or ibe that what we have publiibed in p. 611 is not ANIMA of ibe antieni pbilosophers. If a medal, but a coin, called a Testone. Uiisuch be the meaning of the words fuf- der the gate is a small thield, with the arms pended animation, it must be more de. of Monsig. Bolognetti, the president of the scriptive of those symptoms or appear. Mint ; and the E. H. Itand for Hiermengild ances which take place when the human Hamerani, the graver of the same. -Urban body is wrapped up in the semblance of VI. reduced the jubilee to 33 years; and death, than suspended respiration, which Sixtus IV. confirmed the decree of having it only denotes the fulpenhon or respiration

every 25 years, made by his predecuilor,

Paul II. anno 1470. of an individual organ of life.

When Quoz, p. 621, gives up his name, Mr. Coleman proceeds to inform us,

ard produces his authority for the charges that “the distinction between the ac

against the College at Hackney, a FRIEND “tions and powers of life, which, with OF THAT INSTITUTION pledges himself to " so many other admirable observations prove that they are unfounded and illberal. “in phyliology, we owe to the ingenio A FAIR ONE, who aiks for a cure for

ous Mr. Hunter, clearly illustrates EARWIC:, is referred to p. 725. “the impropriery of the fanguage to

Mr. Crao's Continuation of THREEK“ which we objeći.” But in what man

INCHAM Notes in our next; -with AIVAN ner it illustrates the impropriety of the

DERER ;-the Memoirs of JOHN WILSON; language, he does not inform us; and J. D. on Pkiok's Birth-place; — Strietureson the trucia is, that our young author ap.

the land Tax;--Mr. Owrn and Mr. Wilpears to labour under fome confusion of of CONDORCET's Letter to Dr. PRIESTLEY;

LIAMS on the Welih Indians;-ihe Marquis ideas respecting the term Animation.

-Mr. ELDERTON'S View of CLIFTON, &c. The term life ittell, although, as Mr.

We are obliged to Di. TATHAM; hus Locke has obterved, it is used in a vague have not room for lis“ Letter to the Dita and indefinite luule, more properly de fenters.”—The time answer my be given Dotes the acliuns, than the powers, of to an infinite number of our correspondents of living animals; for, had is.denoted the almost every w fierent religious perfiladon.

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