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Europe, but for none so unfortu. olaration that he was desirous of nately as the French, was the system peace, above all things, and ready adopted by Buonaparte.

to listen to any reasonable overture After the battle of Jena, a pro. for that end. That the French position was made, either by chief was sincere in this declaration, Russia in concert with her allies to there is little reason to doubt. The the ruler of France, or by the ruler progress of his arms from the Elbe of France to Russia and her allies, to the Oder, and from the Oder to for a congress of all the belligerent the Passarge, beyond the Vistula, powers, to be held for the purpose and the commanding position of his of a general pacification. The army, strengthened by the reduce Russian government, keeping a stea. tion of Dantzig, might enable him dy eye on Constantinople, objected to treat with advantage, and to re. to the admission of the Turks into turn to Paris with glory. On the the congress. Buonaparte insisted other hand, the battle of Eylau, as on the admission of the grand sig. well as that of Pultusk, and other nior as the friend and ally of France, engagements, proclaimed the un. in return for which, Russia would certain issue of a decisive action be permitted likewise in the con. with such an enemy; and in whose ETESS to make common cause with favour a powerful diversion might England. The basis of negotiation be occasioned by a combined Swe. proposed by Buonaparte, between dish and English army, landing in what he called the two belligerent Pomerania, in his rear, and com. masses* was equality and reci. manding the course of the Oder procity, and a system of compensa. from Stralsund to Frankfort. The tions. Though the negotiation had necessity too, which would be in. been interrupted by a serious of hot volved by a prolongation of the actions, and the king of Prussia, war, of drawing levy after levy, of and the Russian generalissimo, had unfortunate young men and boys, declined to enter into any treaty for from their wretched families, could an armistice, or peace, as above no. not be any other than a cause of ticed, after the battle of Eylau, most serious alarm, and apprehen. Buonaparte, on the fall of Dantzig. sion. Since the commencement made a direct proposal for renew. of the war against Prussia, that is, ing the negotiation to the emperor in the course of six or seven Alexander, accompanied by a de. months, three several levies of con.

scripts *A term that might include a maritime pacification with England. † Besides the conscripts of actual service, there are an equal number of conscripts of the reserte, to march only in cases of emergency; and besides this, a tard body, called supplementary conscripts, amounting to of the whole contingent, for the purposeof filling up the contingencies occasioned by death, desertou, or other causes, before junction at head quarters. If the supplement should wat be equal to this purpose, the reserve supplies its place; and, at all events, no defciency is permitted, as each canton is accountable for its full assessment. No Frenchman under the age of thirty, can travel through the Empire, or hold any atuation under government, or serve in any public office, unless he can produce a certi cate duly authenticated, attesting that he has discharged his liability to the conscription. Thus the whole male population of France is organized

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scripts had been raised. The last but half disguised in the lowering of these, by which the conscripts of brows of the most resolute of the September 1808, were called for in disaffected, constantly on the alert to March 1807, created a melancholy improve the concurrence of oppor. bordering on despair. Although tunity, and who hailed this despe. all correspondence relative to the rate expedient as a confirmation of position of the armies, 'was rigor. their hopes. The orator of the go. ously interdicted, and no letters vernment, Renaud St. Jean D'An. suffered to pass without scrutiny, gely, shed tears, whether of sorrow it was impossible wholly to' conceal or joy, as he stated the necessity of the mortality and the hardships in the measure: and the Senate recei. separable from the various move. ved it, contrary to their usual pracment of the troops, and the unad. tice, in silent acquiescence, and with customed rigours of a northern every symptom of reluctance and winter. A third conscription was dismay.* In order to assuage the generally considered as an under general grief, it was found advise. Talling too bold for the internal ad. able to qualify the new cail for ministration, especially at a moment 80.000 men, by a clause enacting when a belief was current among all that they were then to be merely ranks, that the emperor would not organized, and retained within the be able to extricate hiroself from the limits of the empire, as a national embarrassments, in which, after the guard. Circumstances enabled battle of Eylau, he was supposed them to adhere to this condition, to be involved. The government, which most certainly world have apprehensive of the danger, set been violated, if the armies had sus. themselves to prepare the public tained a defeat.- In the midst of mind for the event, by employing disquietude and fear, public festiemissaries to announce their inten. vals were multiplied, in order to tion in whispers through the circles, give the administration at home and three thousand coffee-houses of an air of confidence: and an unthe capital. But an impression of usual degree of splendour bright terror was visible, even to a cursory ened the court of the empress, who, observer, on the countenances of remained in Paris, and took a prin. those who were either themselves cipal share in those mummeries of cxposed to the danger, or shudder. despotism.t ed at the prospect of new revolu. It was not to be wondered at, tionary horrors, of suspicion andjoy, therefore, if, all things considered,

into a military system. The members of the confederation of the Rhine are not subjected to the conscription. The French government unwilling to make the allics as warlike as the French nation, does not demand any very copious supplies of men; but incredible contributions for the maintenance, pay, and clothing, of its own troops.

* As a proof and illustration of the abject condition to which that body was recluced, it may be mentioned that before the law was passed by the senate, the minister of police had issued his orders for the appearance of the conscripts of Parix at the registry. ..

Code de la conscription, &c, Paris, 1806, seance du senat conservateur du 4. April 1807


Buonaparte should be desirous of the right hand and the left.* The a pacification. There was no re- offices and administration of the cution, perhaps no return, for him goveroment were now transferred to Paris, but in the character of a from Warsaw to Dantzig, which en beror. Though, after the fall seemed at this time to be intended of Dantzig, the main army was for the capital of the French domi: in reased by a disposeable force of nions in those parts. This city was nu than 30,000, and though there visited on the 30th of May by Buow Beitber truce nor armistice, he naparte, attended by the greater & sot take any measures for im. part of his staff, his minister for Dediately opening the campaign, foreign relations, and in short, all ani sururizing the enemy according his court. He reviewed his troops, to his usual system, by the promp. and gave orders for the reparation titude and the celerity of his move of the works demolished in the ments, but manifested every sym. course of the siege. General Dion of a sincere and even somewhat Rapp, a great favourite, was ap. Pardest desire that hostilities might pointed governor, and Le Febvre be, for the present, terminated by created duke of Dantzig. Each negotiation. Till this negotiation soldier engaged in the sieze, recei. should be brought to some issue, he ved a gratuity of ten írancs. From germed determined to remain on the his imperial camp at Finkenstein, defensive. The ambassadors at. May 28th, Buonaparte wrote to the trading his court at Finkenstein, conservative senate, that he had were witnesses of the proud emi. instituted duchies, as rewards for Dance on which he now stood, and eminent services done him, whether abundant care was taken that they military or civil, and that, in pursu. should fully understand the impor- ance of this system of encouragc. tance of his recent conquest, the ment, he had created, by letters great bulwark of the Vistula, patent, the marshal Le Febvre, he. When the ambassador of the port reditary duke of Dantzig, not only (Srid Mahomed Vahid) was present. in consideration of his late achieve. de on the 28th of May, by the ment, but because ont, and ever prince of Benevento (Maurice since the first day of his reign, Le Talley rand) to Buonaparte, he said Febvre had rendered him the most is the asıbassador, that he, and the signal service. It was his business, soltan Selim, would be for ever he said, to establish the fortunes of after, as inseparably connected as such families as devoted themselves

• Buonaparte, of whom it has been said that he is an honorary member of all Terduns, has always heen at great pains to propagate a behet among the Maho. medans that be entertains the utinot veneration for islaumism and the prophet. He assumed a Vlahomedan name, and atti cied not only to fall in with all the 'reli

us prejudices and fouleries of the Turks, but to adopt the genius or tuin of their lanjuage. See Vol. XLI. HISTORY of EUROPE, 1799, pp. 7--14. A journalist wbo, now and then, seasuns bis Chronicle with agreeable sallies of wit and bu. mour, observes that the cmperor of Austria thus closely comhraced between we txo inseparable hands of Selim and Buonaparte, must have telt himself in an inkward situation. L'AMBIGU. No. 152. p. 617. tsee Vul, XLII. HISTORY 0EUROPE, 1799, p. 16.

without without reserve to his service, and extravagance of misrepresentation constantly sacrificed their own par. which restrains us from repeating ticular interests to his.

on all occasions, their gasconades o The secret history of the nego. this kind.- At the same time, also tiation for peace, the circumstances the Russian commander in chief that determined the Russians to general Bennigsen, with the gran avoid a general action before the duke Constantine, the imperia fall of Dantzig, and yet to make .guard, and three divisions of thi a vigorous attack on the French, other troops, attacked the position fifteen days after the capitulation of of marshal Ney, on the right win that place, time has not yet disclo. of the French line at Aldkirken ged. On the 5th of June, the grand Gutstadt, and Wolfsdorf. After French army was attacked by the al. severe contest, marshal Ney fel lies at different points of its line. On back, but in good order, to Ack the right of the allics, and the left endorf. of the French, twelve Russian and On the following day, June 6th Prussian regiments, forming two the allies attacked the 6th corps a divisions, attacked the tête du pont the French army, under the com of Spanden on the Passarge, which mand of marshal Soult, and genera was defended by a regiment of light Marchand, at Deppen, on the Pas infantry, strongly covered by en. sarge. The Russians in the action trenchments and redoubts. They of this day, lost according to thei were repulsed seven times, and as own acknowledgment, if we ma often renewed the attack. But im. credit the French bulletin, 2,001 mediately after the last assault, they killed, and more than 3,000 wound were charged by a regiment of dra. ed. The loss of the French, accor goous, that had come up to the as. ding to their statement, in kille sistance of the regiment of infan. and wounded, was extremely tri try, and forced to abandon the fling as usual. But they acknow field of battle with a great loss in ledged the loss of 250 taken pri killed and wounded. Two divi. soners, for the most part by th sions, belonging to the centre of the Cossacks, who, on the morning a allied army, attacked, at the same the attack, had got into the rear a time, the tête du pont of Lomitten, the French army. which was defended by a brigade of Buonaparte informed of the more the corps of marshal Soult. The ments of the allies, left Finkenstei Russian general, with 1,100, fell in on the evening of the 5th of June the action ; 100 were taken, and a passed the night of the 6th at Saal great many wounded. The loss of field, and that of the 7th in bivouact the French, according to their bul. with marshal Ney at Deppen, an letin*, was no more than 120 men. immediately took upon himself th This is incredible. And it is here command, and issued the necessary stated, only as an instance of that orders to the whole army. On th

•7a1b Bulletin de la grande armée.

+ Birourcis a guard at night performed by the whole army, which, either at sjege, or lying before an enemy, every evening draws out from its tents, or huts and continues all night in arms.

gth, the 4th corps marched to Wolfs. cavalry. Re-inforcement after re. dorf, where it fell in with the divi. inforcement, of both infantry and gion of Kamenskoy, on its way to cavalry, was sent to the rear-guard, rejoin the main body. The French from the main army, which was corps attacked and defeated it, and posted at Heilsberg: and many in the evening took its position at efforts were made by the Russians, Aldkirken. At the same time, who were defended by the fire of Buonaparte with the corps of the more than sixty pieces of cannon, marshals Ney, and Lasnes, his to maintain themselves in their po. guard, and the cavalry of reserve, sitions before that town, in vain. advanced to Gutstadt. Part of the Several of their divisions were rout. rear guard of the Russian army, ed, and at nine in the evening, the comprising 10,000 cavalry, and French found themselves under the 15,000 infantry, took a position at Russian entrenchments. The fusi. . Glottaw, and attempted to dispute leers of the guard, commanded by the way. The grand duke of Berg, general Savary, were put in motion after some very skilful maneuvres, to sustain the division of Verdier. drove the Russians from all their And some of the corps of infantry positions. Three brigades of light, of the reserve, under marshal Las. and a division of heavy cavalry, car. nes, attacked the enemy, at the close ried all before them. And the of the day, when it had begun to be French having taken 1,000 prison. dark, in order to cut off his com. ers, and ali the positions and re. munication with Lansberg: in which doubts, of the Russians, between he completely succeeded. The arthem and Gutstadt, entered that dour of the troops was such, that town, sword in hand, at eight o'clock several companies of the infantry of in the evening. On the 10th, the the line insulted the Russians in French army moved towards Heils, their entrenchments. A number berg, and on its march took several of them fell in the ditches of the of the enemy's camps. About a redoubts, at the foot of the palquarter of a league beyond these lisades. camps, it came up with the rear. Buonaparte passed the 11th on guard of the allied army, consist. the field of battle. He there drew ing of from 15, to 18.000 cavalry, up the different corps and divisions and several lines of infantry. It of the army in order of battle, that the was immediately attacked by a divi. war might be terminated at once by sion of French dragoons, the cuj. a decisive engagement. The whole rassiers of another division, and a of the Russian army was assembled brigade of light cavalry. The at Heilsberg, where the magazines French were repulsed again and were established, and it cccupied again, and as often renewed the at. a position strong hy nature, and tack. At two o'clock the corps under farther strengthened by the labour marshal Soult was formed. Two of four months. At four in the divisions marched to the right, afternoon, Buonaparte ordered marwhile a third marched to the left, shal Davoust to change his front, to seize on the edge of a wood, the and push forward the left wing of occupation of which was necessary, his corps; a movement which in order to support the left of the brought him upon the lower Alla,


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