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and completely blocked up the road In the mean time, the light corps of from Eylau. To every corps of the army advanced in various direc. the army, was assigned its proper tions, in order to pass the Russians, station. They were all of them re. and get between them and their haassembled except the first corps, which gazines, by cutting off their retreat continued to manouvre on the low. to Koningsberg. On the same day, er Passarge. Thus the Russians, at 5 o'clock P. M. the head quarwho had been the first to recom, ters of the Freneh army had arrived mence hostilities, found themselves at Eylau. Here the fields were blockaded in their entrenched camp, no longer covered with ice and show, and were offered battle on the ground but, on the contrary, presented which they themselves liad chosen. one of the most beautiful scenes in It was for a long time believed that nature. The country was every they would make an attack on the where adorned with beautiful woods, 11th. At the moment when the intersected by lakes, and en irened French were making their dispo. by handsome villages. On the 13th, sitions, the Russians. shewed them. while the grand duke of Berg, and selves ranged in columns, in the the marshals Souit, and Davoust, had midst of their entrenchments, for orders to manoeuvre before Roniags. tified with batteries. But at ten bergh, Buonaparte with the corps o'clock at night they began to pass of Ney, Lasnes, Mortier, the ima the Alla, abandoning the whole perial guard, and the first corps, country to the left, and leaving their commanded by general Victor, ad. magazines, and their wounded, to vanced on Friedland. On the same the disposal of the conquerbr. On day, the 9th regiment of hussars en. the 12th, at day-break, all the corps tered that town, but was driven out of the army were in motion, and of it a ain, by 3,000 Russian caval. took different directions In the ry. On the 14th, the Russians ad. different actions, from the 5th to vanced on the bridge of Friedland, the 12th, according to the French with the intent of persuing their accounts, the Russian army was march to Koningsberg, and at threein doprised of about 30,000 fighting the morning a cannonade was heardmen. The number of wounded “It is a fortunate day (said Buo. left prisoners in the hands of the naparte') it is the anniversary of the French amounted, to between 3 battle of Marcngo.” Different move. and 4,000. The loss of the French, ments and actions took place, by as stated by them, amounted to no which the Russians were stopped on more than 6 or 700 killed, 2,000, their march, and could not pass the or 2,200 wounded, and 300 prison. village of Postenheim. A mighty ers.-On the 12th, at four in the struggle was now unavoidable; and morning, the French army entered both armies prepared for a decisive Heilsherg, where they found in the battle. By five in the evening, the magazines, several thousand quin sereral corps of the French were tals of grain, and a great quantity at their appointed stations. Mar. of different kinds of provisions. A shal Ney was on the right wing; division of dragoons, and a brigade marshal Lasnes in the centre; and of light cavalry, pursued the Rus. marshal Mortier on the left wing. sians to the right bank of the Alla. The corps of general Victor and
the guards formed the reserve. right,' he commenced the attack The cavalry under the command of with the first part of that wing; general Grouchy supported the left 'the firing of twenty cannon from a wing: the division of dragoons of battery being the signal of battle. general La Tour Jaubourg, was sta. At the same moment the division taned as a reserve behind the right: under general Marchand supported and general La Housaye's division on the left by another division, of dragoons, with the Saxon cui. advanced sword in hand, on the rassiers formed a reserve for the cen- enemy, his line of direction being tre.- The whole of the Russian pointed towards the steeple of the army was also drawn up in the best town. When the Russians per order, that the place and circum. ceived that marshal Ney had left the stances seemed to the general to wood in which his left wing had admit. His left wing extended to been posted, they endeavoured to the town of Friedland, and his right surround him with some regiments ring a league ati a half in the other of cavalry, and a multitude of Cousdirection. The position taken by sacks : but general La 'Tour Mau. general Bennigsen on the left bank bourg's division of dragoons, rode of the Alla, was, apparently one up at full gallop to the right wing, continued plain ; but intersected by and repelled the attack. In the 1 deep ravin full of water, and al. mean time general Victor, who most impassable. This ravin ran in a commanded, as has been mentioned, line between Domnow and Fried. a corps of the grand army, erected land where it formed a lake, to the a battery of 30 cannon in the front left of that place, and separated the of his centre. And his works pushed right wing of the Russians from their forwards more than 400 paces, Ceatre. A thick wood at the dis. greatly annoyed the Russians: whose tance of about a mile and a half from various maneuvres for producing a Friedland, on more elevated ground, diversion were all in vain. Marshal fringed the plain of the Alla, nearly Ney was at the head of his troops in the form of a semicircle, except directing the inost minute move. at its extremity at the left, where ments with his characteristic intre, there was an open space between the pidity and coolness. Several Russian wood and the river. In front of columns that had attacked his right the wood about a mile from the town wing were received on the point of of Friedland, and nearly opposite the bayonet and diven into the to the centre of the army, was the Alla. Thousands were lost in that small village of Henrischsdorf. The river, and some escaped by swini. field of battle lay between the left ming. In the mean time, marshal of this village and the Alla to the Ney's left wing reached the raye. south of Friedland*.
line which surrounded the town of Buonaparte having reconnoitred Friedland. The imxrial guard of the position of the enemy, instantly Russia, both horge and foot, which determined to take the town of had been placed there in ambush, Priedland. Then suddenly chan- sushed suddenly on marshal Ney's ring his front and advancing his left wing, which for a moment
* Relation de la Campagne de Pologne par un témoin oculaire.
wavered. But Dupont's division, to 16,000 : and that of the dead on which formed the right of the re their own side, at less than 500. serve, fell on the Russian imperial But they admitted that the number guards, and defeated them with of their wounded amounted to 3000. great slaughter. Several other Eighty cannon, and a great number bodies were sent from the centre of of covered waggons and standards the Russian army for the defence of fell into the hands of the conquerors. the most important position of Fried. The Russians were pursued in their laną. But the impetuosity, the retreat towards Koningsberg till numbers, and the prompt and skil. 11 o'clock. During the remainder ful co-operation of the assailants of the night, the cut-off columns with an immense artillery, prevailed. endeavoured to pass, and part of Friedland was taken ; and its streets them did pass the Alla at several bestrewed with dead bodies. The fordable places. But next day co. attempts of the Russians on the left Fered waggons, cannon and harness wing of the French being defeated, were every where seen in the river. they made repeated attacks on their -" The battle of Friedland,” says centre. But all the efforts of both the French bulletin, " is worthy to their infantry and cavalry, to oh. be numbered among those of Maren. struct the progress of the French go, Austerlitz, and Jena. The enemy columns, were exerted in vain. were numerous, had fine cavalry, Marshal Mortier, who, during the and fought bravely,”-Next day, whole day, had «xhibited the greats June 15, the Russians endeavoured est cooloess and intrepidity, in sup. to re-assemble on the right bank of porting the left wing, now advanced, the Alla, while the French army and was in his turn supported by manquvred on the left bank to cut the fuzileers of the guard under the them off from Koningsberg. The command of general Savary. The heads of the hostile columns arrived French columns pressed forward on at Wehlaw, a town situated at the the Russians, chiefly along the sides confluence of the Alla and the Pre. of the ravin; which was, thus, gel nearly at the same time. The as advantageous to the French, as Russians at day-break, on the 16th disadvantageous to the Russians. passed the Pregel, and continued Victory, which had never in the their retreat to the Niemen.--The judgment of the French generals, French bulletin says, that “ having who drew up the bulletin, been for destroyed all the bridges, they took a moment doubtful, now declared advantage of that obstacle to pro. decidedly in their favour. The ceed on their retreat." If there French horse and foot guards, and were several bridges on the Pregel, two divisions of the reserve attached they must, however, have left one to the first corps, were not in the at least standing, till they had action. The field of battle pre. crossed the river themselves, though sented one of the most horrible the French gazetteers would insi. spectacles of wounded, dying, and nuate, that they escaped only by dead men and horses, that was ever means of the demolition of all the beheld. The number of the dead bridges. The consistent and true on the side of the Russians was account of the matter, seems to be estimated by the French at from 15, that which is given by the eye-wit.
ness of the campaign in Poland, French armies have seldom obtained abore quoted, who says that at such great advantages with so little “Wehlaw the Russian army passed loss," the Pregel, without any loss or even Over the conduct of this short annoyance, on a single bridge. A campaign, on the part of the Rus. detachment of 4000 French troops sians as well as its commencement watched their movements, but did after the reduction of Dantzig, there out oppose their retreat. The bridge still hangs a mysterious cloud. Af. was then burnt : and the Russians ter this important event, and the continued their retrograde move. addition that was made to the ment to Pepelken, where they were French army by the liberation of rejoined by the Prussian corps, between 30, and 40,000 fighting under general Lestocq, and a Rus. men, it was universally supposed, vian corps under general Kaminskoy, that general Bennigsen would play who had been detached to Konings. the part of Fabius. As the posses. berg on the 10th : for after the de. sion of Dantzig and the peninsula of feat of the main Russian army, Nehrung gare great facilities to the Koningsberg was untenable.” At French, while they presented so eight in the morning Buonaparte strong a front on the Passarge and threw a bridge over the Pregel, and from thence to the heights of the took a position there with the army. Alla, for turning the right flank of Almost all the magazines which the the Russian army on the north, it enemy had on the Alla, had been was supposed, that instead of ma. thrown into the river or burnt. At king an attack, he would fall back Weblaw, however, the French behind the Pregel and support his found more than 6000 quintals of right on Koningsberg; where he porn--possession was taken of would be nearer his resources, and Koningsberg by the corps under the French farther from their's. Darshal Soult. At this place were Thus, also, time would have been found some hundred thousand afforded for the execution of those quintals of corn, more than 20,000 military plans which were projected Founded Russians and Prussians, in Swedish and Prussian Pomerania. and all the ammunition that had But, if general Bennigsen wished been sent to the Russians by En. to put an end to the war, at once, gland, including 160,000 inuskets by a decisive action, why did he re. that had not been landed. The fuse to give battle in his strong po. Frencb bulletin (79) concluded as sition at Heilsberg ? The conduct follows: " It was on the 5th of of the Russian general, who had June that the enemy renewed hosti. been so much extolled when his Irties. Their loss in the ten days operations were supposed to have that followed their first operations been successful, was now, as com. may be reckoned at 60,000 men, monly happens to the unfortunate, Lilled, wounded, taken, or other. very much censured. The grounds wise put hors de combat. They of censure appear indeed to have have lost a part of their artillery, been, at least, very plausible. But almost all their ammunition, and the the world did not then know, nor whole of their magazines on a line do we now know, the whole of the of more than 40 leagues. The case. That the Russians should
have lost in the course of ten days, with the king in great haste. O 60,000 men, while the French had the 19th, an armistice was propose only about 1200 killed, and 5 or to the chiefs of the French army "6,000 wounded, appears so mon. by the Russian commander-in-chie
strous an exaggeration, that even the Io consequence of this propositio policy of it may reasonably be ques. an armistice was agreed on at Tili tioned. Yet, the losses and disasters on the 22d of June, by which it w of the Russians were admitted by settled that hostilities should no themselves to have been immense. be resumed on either side withot General Bennigsen did not attempt a month's previous notice of snc to conceal the real situation of affairs an intention. That a similar a after the battle of Friedland, as he mistice should be concluded betwee had done after that of Eylau ; and the French and the Prussian armi he did not hesitate to give it as his in the course of five days. Tha opinion, that any farther contest plenipotentiaries should be instant with the French in the field of battle, appointed by the different partie would be, at that time, a hopeless for the salutary work of pacification project. It was computed by the and that there should be an imme most dispassionate and competent diate exchange of prisoners. TI judges, that, the French commenced boundary between the French an this short campaign of ten days with Russian armies, during the armi 160,000 men, including all kinds of tice, was the Thalwag, or midd troops stationed between the Oder of the stream of the Niemen froi and the Alla; and that the allies had the Kurisch-half, where it falls int about 100,000 effective men, iusay), the sea to Grodno: and a lin try and cavalry, besides Cossacks, from thence to the confines Bashkins, and other irregulartroops. Russia, between the Narew an It was acknowledged by the French the Bug. Such was the formidabl officers, that from the 5th to the position of the French, while ng 14th June, the grand army had lost, thing remained to the king« in killed and wounded, at least Prussia but the small town an 20.000 men
territory of Memel. The first inter On the 19th at two o'clock P. M. view between Buonaparte, orth Buonaparte with his guards entered emperor Napoleon as he was not Tilsit. The Russians pursued after called, and the emperor Alexander the battle of Friedland by the grand took place on the 25th of June, o duke of Berg, at the head of the a raft constructed for the purpose greater part of the light cavalry, and on the Niemen, where two tent some divisions of dragoons and cui. had been prepared for their recep rassiers, crossed the Niemen, burned tion by the French. Alexande ti - bridge of Tilsit, and continued and Buonaparte landed from thei their retreat castward. The em.' boats at the same time and embrace peror of Russia, who had remained each other. It was settled tha othpie reeks with his Prussiạji, ma. half the town of Tilsit should I jesty at Tilsit, left that place along considered as neutral ground, an
* l le secansi town in Prussia, after Koning berg; containing ?0,000 inhabitant and cojoying a buisk compil'ce.