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be occupied by the emperor of of their own, but wholly to those Russia, with the officers of his of their respective allies, there was household, and his body-guards. - nothing to be adjusted between Great were the mutual courtesies these powers on their own account, and expressions of kindness and re. farther than that there should be spect that ensued among French, henceforth perfect peace and amity Russians and Prussians of all ranks: between their imperial majesties; visiting, feasting, and all kinds of that all hostilities between them entertainment and festivity that should immediately cease at all could be thought of. Human na points by sea and land ; and, that ture gladly related from the mise. for this purpose, couriers should be rable rage of war, and indulged, and dispatched to their respective gene. was eager to ackuowledge, and rals and other commanders. The emphatically to express every sen. great sacrifice to peace, was, of timent of social and generous affec- course, the kingdom of Prussia, ton A magnificent dinner was which was reduced at once from the pivea by Napoleon's guards to those rank of a primary to that of a of Alexander and the king of secondary, at best, power of Europe, Prusia. At this entertainment they and all that had been done for the exchanged uniforms, and were to augmentation and aggrandizement be seen in the streets in a motley of the monarchy by the great kind of dress, partly Russian, Frederick in the course of twenty partly Prussiau, and partly French. years, undone in one day. The It is much in the same spirit that king of Prussia, by the peace of the chiefs of so many islands in the Tilsit, together with an immense South-seas exchange names for a territory, lost near the half of his time, with persons to whom they yearly revenues, and five millions wish to shew friendship, or pay a of his subjects. For particulars we compliment. A stranger to the must refer our readers to the ways of Enrope, witnessing at treaties between France on the one Tilsit, such ardent lore among those part, and Russia and Prussia sepa. diferent tongues and nations, from rately, on the other * On the the highest to the lowest, might whole, Prussia was bronght back here wondered what could possibly nearly to the state in which it was bare impelled such good.natured on the 1st of January 1772, before and tender-hearted people to the the first partition of Poland. The most horrid scenes of war and greater part of those provinces bloodshed.

which, on that day, formed a part A treaty of peace was concluded, of the kingdom of Poland, and bad between his majesty, Napoleon, since, at different times, been sub. Syling himself emperor of the jected to Prussia, were annexed to French, and king of Italy, and his his majesty the king of Saxony, Dajesty the emperor of all the Rus with power of possession and soses, at Tilsit, July 7th. As the vereignty, under the title of the contest between Russia and France duchy of Warsaw, and was to be Related not to any direct interests governed according to a new con.

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stitution or system of fundamental and the duchy of Warsaw, a certail laws, that should secure the liber territory, heretofore under the do ties and privileges of the people of minion of Prussia, to be for eve the said duchy, and be consistent united to the empire of Russia.with the security of the neighbouring This territory added two hundre states. - This constitution, framed subjects to those of the Russian em on the model of that of France, was pire. - Their royal highnesses, th presented, approved by Napoleon, dukes of Saxe Cobourg, Oldenburg by the grace of God and the con. and Mecklenburgh Schwerin, wer stitution, emperor of the French, each of them to be restored to th king of Italy, and protector of complete and quiet possession the confederation of the Rhine, their estates : but the ports in th and signed by him, and counter. duchies of Oldenburgh to remain i signed by his secretary of state, the possession of French garrison Maret, at Dresden, so early as the tilla definitive treaty should be signe 22d of July. The city of Dantzig, between France and England, fa with a territory of two leagues accomplishing which, the mediatio around itwas restored to her of Russia was to be accepted, on th former independence, under the condition that this mediation shoul protection of his majesty the king be accepted by England in one mont of Prussia, and his majesty the king after the ratification of the presen of Saxony, to be governed by the treaty. Until the ratification of a det laws by which she was governed at nitive treaty of peace between Franc the time when she ceased to be her and England, all the ports of Prussi own mistress. For a communica- without exception, to be shut again tion between the kingdom of Saxony the English. His majesty the empo and the duchy of Warsaw, his ma. ror of all the Russias, acknowledge jesty the king of Saxony was to the confederation of the Rhine; h have the free use of a military road majesty Joseph Napoleon, king through the states of his majesty the Naples; his majesty Lewis Napa king of Prussia : this road, the leon, king of Holland; and his im number of troops to be allowed to perial highness prince Jerome Na pass at once, and the resting places poleon, as king of Westphalia : with magazines, to be fixed by a kingdom to consist of the province particular agreement between the ceded by the king of Prussia on th two sovereigns, under the mediation left bank of the Elbe, and othe of France. Neither his majesty the states then in possession of his m king of Prussia, his majesty the jesty the emperor Napoleon. The king of Saxony, nor the city of were the most generally importa Dantzig, were to oppose any ob. articles in the treaties. There we stacles whatever to the free naviga. others relating to private estates at tion of the Vistula, under the naine other property, more interestin of tolls, rights, or duties. In order, no doubt, to individaals. The tis as far as possible, to establish a and manner in which the differe natural boundary between Russia stipulations in the treaties * wel

* Meaning always the treaty betweer: France and Russia, and that botween Fran and Prussia : both ia substance the same.

to be carried into execution, were degrading conditions on which he fised by a special convention be. was suffered to retain what remained; tween France and Prussia,

a military road across Silesia, for The Prussian fortresses in Silesia, opening and maintaining a communi. that held out the longest against the cation between the king of Saxony's besieging French, were Glatz and German dominions, and his new Silverberg. They capitulated at last duchy of Warsaw, and the shutting about the end of the campaign, bea up of all the Prussian ports against fun the 5th and ended on the 21st England : those very ports through of June. Graudenz and Colberg, which he had just received arms, and though rigorously besieged, still held other succours. The more atten. out when a negotiation for peace tively one considers the pacification vas entered into at Tilsit. The at Tilsit, the more he will perceive siege of this last place was fatal to the Machiavelian policy and deep. thousands of the French. If all the laid designs of Buonaparte : and governorsof Prussian fortresses, from farther designs in the formation of the 14th of October 1806, to the 14th that treaty than any yet seen or of June 1807, had been animated with suspected, may, probably, be un. the fidelity, and persevering courage folded by time. The fine duchy of of general Blucher, the issue of the war Silesia would not, it may be premight have been very different. It sumed, have been restored to Prus. was at this siege that colonel Schill, sia, if, ik the hands of the Prussians, whose heroism, loyalty, and patriot, it had not been calculated to serve isu shone forth so conspicuously in as a constant source of hostility be. the north of Germany in 1809, first tween the courts of Berlin and attracted the attention and admira. Vienna. The military high-way tion of his countrymen. He was in across Silesia, was in like manner cal. the situation of a Prussian captain culated to fomentjealousy and discord retired from service, when the mis. between the courts of Berlin and fortunes and dangers of his country Dresden; while it was to be at the called his courage and military skill same time wholly under the medias into action. He was extremely suc- tion, that is, the controul of France. cessfal, during the siege of Colberg, The confederation of the Rhine is harassing the French at the head strengthened by the creation of the of an irregular levy. It was this new kingdom of Westphalia, was officer that took general Victor pri. rendered too powerful to be shaken Soner, on his way to Dantzig; when by any aggression on the part of Ause he also intercepted a treasure of tria on the one hand, or of Russia 100,000 ducats belonging to the on the other. And this same kingdom enemy. The king of Prussia, as a of Westphalia, which it should seem reward for his services, raised him was intended to be pre-eminent to the rank of colonel, and gave him among the other members of the the command of a regiment. Neither confederation, was to receive fare the loss of so much and so fine ther accessions of territory, by the territory, nor of revenue, nor of annexation of any other states that population, was so severe a wound, might be thought proper by his at least a wound so severely felt majesty the emperor Napoleon. by the Prussian monarchy, as the And the emperor of all the Russias



engaged to recognize the limits- sally acknowledged throughout the whatever they might be - that should great European republic. A good be determined by his majesty the undärstanding and a constant regard emperor Napoleon in pursuance of for the individual interests and rights the foregoing article. The combi. of every kingdom and independent ination of this article with a passage state of Europe was the support and in Buonaparte's address to the senate security of the whole. But after the about a month thereafter, gave rise to treaty of Westphalia, when the grand very serious reflection and anticipa. Amphyctyonic league of Europe tion. « If," says he, 66 the house was broken through by the infamous of Brandenburgh, which was the partition of Poland, the affairs of first to conspire against our inde. the continent of Europe fell into pendence, yet reigns, it owes this confusion and ruin; one half of to my sincere friendship for the mankind being allured or driven to powerful emperor of the North *. arms for the purpose of subdoing A French prince shall reign on the and enslaving the other. One pre. Elhe. He will know how to con. ponderating power, operating on ciliate the interests of his new sub. the unprincipled and blind cupidity jects, with his first and most sacred of others, had no hesitation in admit. duties." - It was too late, after the ting them to a share of the plunder : battle of Jena, for the elector of but while the preponderancy of that Saxony, to refuse any thing that power was maintained, the temporaBuonaparte thought it politically ry boon'mightat any time be revoked. wise to offer him. But, it is, if not If the rulers of the French had perhaps, to be greatly wondered at, not taken care to retain the lion's yet deeply to be regretted, that so share for themselves, their overbear. many sovereign princes, after the ing power and influence would first partition of Poland, did not have been maintained by making take the alarm. By the peace of even equal divisions with the dupes Westphalia in 1648, there was a whom they made subservient to their kind of confederation among the boundless views of ambition. It is European powers, established on an axiom mathematically true, that a moral basis ; the laws of reason if equal things be added to unequal and justice which are immutable things, their wholes will be unequal. and eternal; not on private and Bat, the moral and political power partial interests, which are for ever of a great and preponderating goin a state of tluctuation. The sages vernment is not augmented, merely of antient Greece, which was di according to the augmentation of its vided into a vast number of co-ordi. physical force, but in a much higher nate states, considered politics as proportion. Every addinon of ter. intimately connected with moral ritory offered to the sovereigns of science. So also till about forty Prussia, Bavaria, Baden, and other years ago there was a public law, a states, ought to have reminded them law of nature and nations, unirer. of the precarious tenure, on which,

* This designation too, was much comment don. It was understood by many to insinuate that the eruperor of Ruest was not to extend bis dominions, any Murther to the west, or the south.

if the rights of nations were no considerations of right or wrong, longer to be respected, they held pursued only its own aggrandize. what they already possessed.-- ment, Prussia rushed into arms, It would seem, that nothing less and net her fate. The conduct of than ahsolute ruin is sufficient to the cabinet of Berlin, which had so bring back governments from ha. long been regarded with detestation, bitgal illusions, to serious reflection. became now, when followed by its The whole history of Prussia, for consequences, an object of contempt, the last 6 yaars, shews that her in. scarcely mingled with any degree of variable policy, unrestrained by any pity for the king or royal family, consideration of justice to other though there was a very general powers, was directed solely to her sympathy with the inhabitants of the Ow aggrandizement. The great Prussian states, who were bur. Frederic encouraged scepticism in thened with the maintenance of matters of religion, and made no 40,000 French troops, distributed scruple to acknowledge that he was in four or five different garrisons, " a robber by profession *." The besides an annual contribution of king was allowed to be a man of five millions of crowns, over and Fit and genius, as well as what the above all the taxes paid for the supe French call un esprit fort. But port and service of the Prussian go. he would bave shown greater wis. vernment, until all the demands of dom, if, instead of scotting, he had the French should be satisfied. But, revered the great moral law: through though the king of Prussia had fol. the “ precepts thereof he would loved the miserable system of his have got understanding. It would predecessors, and from a hatred of hare made bim wiser than his ene. Austria, and a short-sighted selfish. mies t." His house was not built Dess, connived at the encroachments. on a moral basis, the rock of ages. of France on her neighbours, till it * Like a foolish man, he built his was too late to resist them, he roused house upon the sand. And the rain himself at last from the lethargy into descended, and the floods came, and which he had fallen, perhaps, from the winds blew, and beat upou that the facility of his disposition and the house; and it fell, and great was indolence of his nature, and in which the fall of it 1." The Prussian he had been encouraged and kept by Donarchy had witnessed successive weak or wicked counsellors, and di-memberments of the Austrian em displayed in his real character when pire with pleasure, and been the he assumed the government of him. uniform friend of all the successive self, the sentiments of a patriot, and corernments of France since the the firinness of a hero. A confede. Freuch revolution. Provoked at racy had been formed between Rus. last to phrenzy by the insolent ag. sia and Prussia for opposing a gressions o! a power, whose policy, barrier to the continued torrent of unrestrained like her own by any French usurpation; and Prussia,

Speaking to the foreign anbassador, at his court of the first partition of Poland, at the time when it took place, he said, “ As for me, I am a robber by profession, But what will the world say of be pious empress-queep Maria Theressa?" + Psalm cxix. ver. 98. 104.

Mat. rii. 26. 27.
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