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gagement, but lay at anchor be treaty was, by the 23d article tween the outer and inner castles that of Tilsit, to be concluded unde of the Dardanelles, until he should 'the mediation of his majesty, ti receive some reinforcement. Two emperor of the French, and king additional ships of war, and three Italy, on terms honourable an corvettes, did not raise the Turkish advantageous for both empires. 1 fleet to more than eleven ships of conformity with these articles, the line, one frigate, and some cor. the treaty of Tilsit, an armisti Tettes, and other sinall craft ; yet was concluded between Russia ar with this force, so great were the the Ottom.241 Porte, on the 240 exigencies of the metropolis, Seid August. If in the course of a 7 Ali determined to risk an engage. gotiation for a definitive treaty ment with the Russian fleet, con. peace, difficulties should unfort sisting of 22 ships of war, ten of nately arise, so as to obstruct which were of the line. The action - definitive arrangement, hostiliti took place on the 1st of July, were not to recommence befoi near the isle of Tenedos, and was next spring; that is to say, befo continued for seven hours, with the 21st of March, 1808, new styl great obstinacy on both sides. of the Christian æra. Four of the Turkish ships were the failure of our attempt on th carried, by the wind, out of the capital of the Turkish empire seen line of battle. Seid Ali, who, at ed for sonie little time to hay one period of the action, was sur. been, in no small degree, comper rounded by five Russian vessels, sated by the possession of Alexar fought his ship with admirable bra. dria. On the 6th of March, very and skill, and, though wound. military force of about 5,000 mer ed in the action, made his way including three companies of arti through them. But the contest, lery, with two erigineers, was sel after the accidental separation of against that city, by general Fo the four ships, was altogether un. from Messina, under the comman equal. Four ships of the line were of major-general Mackenzie. O taken, one of which was the vicc. the night of the 17th, the Apoll admiral's, three were burnt, and frigate, with 19 transports out above 1,000 Turks were killed, or 33, which conveyed the troop otherwise perished. The Turks parted company, and the other fou were relieved from the overbearing teen, with the Tigre, came to a pressure of the Russians at sea and anchor, to the west-ward of Ale land, by the 22d article of the trea. andria, on the 16th. When ou ty of T'ilsit, by which it was agreed squadron approached the land, that the Russian troops should re. vessel was dispatched by maja tire from the provinces of Wallachia Misset, who appears to have reside and Moldavia ; but that the same at Alexandria, in the character provinces should not be occupied British consul, and with whom th by the troops of his imperial high. general was directed by his instruc Dess, the sultan, until ratifications tions to consult as to the best pla should be exchanged of a definitive of operations, with a letter to him treaty of peace between Russia, stating, that the major had not com and the Ottoman Porte : which off himself, thinking his presence il
Alexandri Alexandria absolutely necessary, to Pompey's gate, where they found counteract the intrigues of the the garrison prepared to receive French consul, who was endeavour. them, the gate barricadoed, and the ing to prevail upon the government, walls lined with troops, and armed to admit a body of Albanians from inhabitants. This, added to the Rosetta, to assist in the defence of smallness of the British force, not the place. And he earnestly re. much exceeding 1,000, determined commended to the general, to land the general to proceed to the west. the troops immediately, as the inha. ward. In the morning of the 19th, bitants were well affected to the he took up his position on the Engliab, and expressed his sanguine ground which the British troops hopes that they should be able to had occupied in the action of the get possession of the city, without 21st of March, 1801, immediately firing a shot. The general stated sending detachments to take pos. the diminution of his force, in con. session of Aboukir castle, and the sequence of the separation of the cut between the lakes Maadie, and 19 transports. The major still Mareotis, by which communication urged his immediate landing. The the re-inforcement of Albanians troops were landed, part on the was expected in Alexandria. In 17th, part on the 18th. The ge. both these designs they succeeded. Deral finding his situation now, The next day, the 20th, the general from the increased height of the sent in by a friendly Arab, that had surf, and appearance of the weather stolen out of the town, and joined to be very precarious, both with re. the Euglish, a manifesto addressedto spect to getting provisions or stores the inhabitants, warning them of the on shore, or having any communica. danger of an assault, in the horrors tion with the transports, determined of which, friends would be involved at all hazards, to force hisway to with fors, and urging them to force the western side of the city, where he the government to capitulate. This could receive supplies from Aboil had the desired effect. A flag of kir bay, at the same time to advance trace was agreed to and signed. into the town with the small force The religion, the laws, and the pro. he had, and push his way, if possi. perty of the inhabitants were reble, into the forts that commanded spected.--The vessels belonging to it. lle therefore moved forward, government, and al public proper. about eight o'clock in the evening ty, to be given up to the British of the 18th. In their way, the fri. forces. The crews to be sent to a tish forced a pallisadoed entrench. port of Turkey, with the arms and ment, with a deep ditch in front of baggage of individuals, but to con. it, that had been thrown up as a sider themselves as prisoners of defence against the Mamalukes war, and not to take up arms and Arabs, on the western side, a ainst the British forces of their stretching from Fort des Lains, on allies, until exchanged. The gar. its right flank, mounting thirteen rison of Alexandria, before its sur. guns. This they effected with very render, consisted in 467 men; sol. little loss, though under a heavy diers, gunners, sailors, and ma. fre of cannon and musketry, and rines. The loss of the British, in proceeded within a few yards of this reduction of Alexandria, was no
more than one officer, six rank and for the reduction of this important file killed; one officer, one sergeant, place, under the command of the eight rank and file wounded. The honourable brigadier-general Stew. Apollo, with the 19 missing traps. art, and colonel Oswald. Thi ports, came to anchor in Aboukir force took post opposite the Alex bay, on the morning of the 20th ; and andrian gate of Rosetta, on the 9ti sir John Duckworth's squadron of April, and after a summons to the arrived there on the 22d.
town to surrender, was treated In consequence of a strong re, with defiance, began to form thei presentation, by major Misset, our batteries. Great stress had been resident at Alexandria, as just men. laid by the British commander, on tioned, that the inhabitants of assistance promised by the Ma. Alexandria san a risk of being star. malukes, and their appearance wa ved, unless Rosetta and Rhamanie now daily, or even hourly, expected were not occupied by British troops, Lieutenant-colonel Macleod, with general Fraser, with the con. a detachment from the main body a currence of admiral sir John our little army, was sent to seize an Duckworth, March 27th, detached important post, at the village of E the 31st regiment, and the chasseurs llammed, for the purpose of facili, Britanniques*, amounting together, tating a junction with the expected to about 1,500, under major succour. No succoui, after an general Wauchope, and brigadier. anxious expectation of many days, general Meade, for that purpose. nor intelligence of any succour was Our troops took possession of the received. Early on the morning ol heights of Abermandour, which com. the 22d of April, 60 or 70 vessels mand the town of Rosetta, without were seen sailing down the Nile, any loss. But the general, instead of and there could not be a doubt tha keeping his post there, penetrated, this was a re-inforcement sent to with his whole force into the town, the enemy, from Cairo. Order without any previous examination were immediately dispatched to co. of it, when our men were so briskly lonel Macleod to retreat from his fired on, and otherwise annoyed, position to the main body ; but from the windows and tops of bou. these orders were unfortunately in. ses, without ever seeing their cremy, tercepted. The detachment at El. that after a loss of about 300 men, hammed was completely cut off. its killed and wounded, they re. General Stewart, overpowered by tired, in good order to Aboukir, so large a force, retreated, fighting without molestation, from whence all the way, to Alexandria. Our they were directed to return to loss in this unfortunate enterprise, Alexandria. Apprehensions of fa. was not less than 1,000 mez, in minc being still strongly declared killed, wounded, and missing. This both by our resident, major Misset, rash enterprise was deeply regret. and the sorbagi, or chief magistrate, ted, when it was afterwards found in the name of the people, without the that the apprehensions of famine occupation of Rosetta, another were altogether groundless. There corps, about 2,500 strong, was sent was no scarcity of provisions al
Or British hunters, officered almost wholly hy French emigrants,
Alexandria. Great quantities of, was more generally censured, as rice, so great was the plenty, had silly and childish, than even that beco lately exported; while, at the against Constantinople. It tended same time, a quantity equal to a manifestly to throw the Turks into year's consumption of rice, and six the hands of the French. The res Donths of wheat for the inhabitants, tention of Alexandria would have six months for the army, and four given a pretext to Buonaparte to for the nary, "remained on hand. send an army to Egypt, in conjuncIndeed, while the British garrison tion with the Turks, for our expul. remaiaed in Alexandria, provisions sion: and it would have been of all kinds became every day, madness to attempt any permanent more and more plentiful.
conquest and advantageous esta. Had this expedition against Egypt blishment in Egypt, in spite of both heen planned by the new ministry, the French and the Turks. As to they would, no doubt, have support. the prevention, by the possession of ed it, by re-inforcements from Alexandria, of Buonaparte from Messina, or Malta. But they did going to India, if such a design was not approve of it: and their dis- ever entertained, a great French approbation of it was not, it may army' would be employed so much be presumed, kept a secret from better for us, in garrisons in Egypt, generals Slackenzie and Fraser, who, and the deserts of Arabia, than on threatened with expulsion, by the the shores of the Baltic Sea, and disaffection of the inhabitants, and German Ocean, or in the west of a formidable force of infantry and Ireland, that it would be madness cavalry, on its march from Cairo, to oppose him in his oriental enter.
ainst Alexandria, abandoned the prises.-It was said on the other idea of making any defence. On hand, that though it might have the approach of the enemy, he sent been unwise, in a comprehensive oat a flag of truce, announcing that, view of things, to surprize Alexan. on the condition of the delivery of dria, while we were at peace, and British prisoners, the army under courting the Turks, it would have kis command should immediately been better policy, and more to the Evacuate Egypt; which condition national honour, having once seized was accepted without hesitation. it, to have supported general StewThe British troops, setting sail from art with re-inforcements from Mesa Alexandria, on the 23d of Septem. sina, or Malta, and have made a ber, returned to Sicily: where merit. of giving it back voluntarily, they set free a part of our troops than to relinquish our recent constationed there for the protection of quest, through intimidation. Though that island. The troops thus libe. the bravery, the discipline, and the rated, were brought to Gibraltar, perseverance of the British troops, with a view to co-operate in secu. were as conspicuous as they had ring the retreat of the royal family ever been, yet the capitulation of of Portugal, from Lisbon: an object, Alexandria, a defeat "in Egypt, however, which, as will by-and-by where the achievements of our coun. be related, was happily effected with. trymen redounded so much to the out the necessity of employing them. glory of the nation, was a source of The expedition to Alexandria, melancholy impressions. The ig.
norance of general Fraser, respect. During theyears 1806, and 1807 ing the state of provisions; the and perhaps for some time before, madness of general Wauchope in there was an obvious want of system rushing into Rosetta, even without connection, and dependency amon artillery; the smallness of the force some of the measures of the British sent from Messina, by Mr. Fox's government: an air of improvidence ministry; and the neg ect to re- unsteadiness, and vacillation. I inforce it by succours, on the part sufficiently appears from document of that which succeeded it, suffi. published in an edition of sir Home ciently explained, but did not di. Popham's trial, authenticated by minish, the effects of our disasters bimself, that his design on Bueno on the public mind, throughout the Ayres was countenanced by Mr British empire, nor, it may be pre. Pitt and lord Melville. Yet the sumed, in other countries.
same ministers had very nearly al Another expedition, still more un. the same time, encouraged the de fortunate than those against Con. sign of general Miranda, as we have stantinople and Alexandria, had been had occasion to notice above +, con undertaken, no by orders of go. ceived in quite a different spirit; 1 Ternment, but by individual com. spirit of conciliation, concord, and manders on their own responsibility, consociation.-Works that tread su against a nation bearing no small re. hard, as Annual Registers, on the semblance in their political state and heels of time, are liable to many relations to the subjects of the Otto errors in the statement of facts an man Porte: a nation in its decline, circumstances, as well as the secre prone to peace, and above all, though springs of action. But, it is a the government had been brought un. small advantage in a continuou der the influence and power of Buo. work of this kind, that the error naparte, peace with England. A which creep into one, may be cor combined military and naval force rected in a subsequent volume. Th under the command of general Be. account given of general Miranda' resford, and commodore sir Home expedition to Caraccas, in our las Popham, proceeding from the Cape volume I, is in some respects de of Good Hope to the great river of fective, in others erroneous. The La Plata, took the town of Buenos following, after more recent, am Ayres, the capital of a great province ple, and accurate information, i or government, without much resist. given as the true account. Genera ance. It was soon retaken. But Miranda, with the knowledge and a reinforcement of British troops a good understanding between hin from the Cape, towards the close of and the British government, set ou 1806, took post at Maldonado. from England for the purpose o Farther reinforcements were ex. carrying into execution, if possible pected ; and farther operations on his long-cherished project of eman the Rio de La Plata projected *. cipating Spanish America. He pro
• Vol. XLVIII, 1806. HISTORY of EUROPE, p. 299.