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Royal Horse Artillery, and as I can prove by other testimony. They were not placed in the "Sandbag" Battery for the purpose mentioned, but to prevent the Russians from completing a battery in which they had placed one gun, and from which they never shelled the 2nd division camp at all.

4. As shewn in the previous paragraph, and Lieut. Arbuthnot's letter, the 18-prs. given tome on the 21st of October remained in my charge only thirty-six hours, and were returned to the Siege Train fourteen days before the battle of Inkermann. This fact should have been known to Lieutenant-Colonel Adye, but it would appear that he was totally ignorant of it, and being so, he misled Lord Raglan.

I subsequently ascertained that the two 18-prs. I had had in my charge were, soon after I gave them up, placed in Canrobert's Redoubt, and that these guns were never at the battle of Inkermann at all.

5. My answer certainly was as stated, but I pointed out at the same time, and as rapidly as I could, that all my horses and men were engaged, which was the reason that made it so. I dared not at the moment, without an express order, which was not sent to me, have withdrawn any of them.

6. It was Lieut.-Col. Adye's duty to have informed Lord Raglan where the guns were, and to have explained to his Lordship that I had nothing to do with them, and that I was in action with my two batteries. It was either gross ignorance, unjustifiable in his position, which prevented him from doing this; or he was anxious to put himself foolishly forward as superior to all difficulties at the expense of the reputation of a brother officer.

7. Lieut.-Col. Adye says, the 18-prs. were no more in Col. Dickson's charge than in mine. How then was it that Captain Gordon found he had packed the ammunition in wagons, and was ready for a move before any order had arrived? How could he have done this if he had no charge of them? Were they on the plateau, with all their stores, ammunition, tfc., with no one in charge of them, and for any one to move them that pleased? If Colonel Dickson was not in charge of them, who was, and how came it the former was able to get everything connected with them ready? Lieut.-Col. Adye tries to prove too much. He knew nothing of the 18-prs. which he should have done, and tries to screen his ignorance under a mixture of praise and blame to others—of praise to Colonel Dickson, and of blame to me.

8. The annoyance of the Commander-in-Chief was certainly very natural. Lieut.-Col. Adye contrived toturnthat annoyance from himself to me, at all events for the moment. Lord Raglan must have seen more clearly subsequently, for no expression of his displeasure ever reached me. I was mentioned in his despatches quite as much as Lieut.-Col. Adye was, and I continued in command of the artillery of the 2nd division for eleven months after. It was strange if Lord Raglan knew of my having had two 18-prs. in my charge during thirty-six hours, that he was never informed during the subsequent anxious fortnight that I had given them up.

J. W. Fitzmater, Lieut.-Colonel, R.A., and Colonel. Letter From Lieutenant Arbuthnot, R.H.A., To Colonel


March 14th, 1857.

My dear Colonel,—I received your letter this morning. The 18-prs. were first given into your charge about the 21st or 22nd of October; I cannot be positive as to the day, but I know it was two or three days before the battle of Balaklava. Markham took them from the siege train to the Sandbag Battery early in the morning, and I brought them away in the evening to our camp, where they remained all night and part of the next day, so they were in your charge about thirty-six hours. The object of your getting them was to silence a gun which the Russians had put in position near the ruins of Inkermann, to fire on our parties which went to the valley of the Tchernaya for hay. One shot was fired from this Russian battery during the day, when I was in charge of the Sandbag Battery—this shot went some way over our heads, and fell between the Sandbag Battery and the 2nd division camp. I know for certain that this was the only shot that the Russians fired.

You are perfectly at liberty to make what use you like of this letter. Believe me, faithfully yours,

H. T. Arbuthnot.

Letter From Lieut.-colonel Gambier, C.B., R.H.A., To Colonel


Dublin, 31st March, 1857.

My dear Fitzmayer,—Calthorpe has sent me your correspondence with him, relative to the two 18-prs at Inkermann, and as you requested him to shew it to me, J think it but right to let you know my answer to him. I wrote to him yesterday, and said that every word of your statement as regards those two guns was perfectly true, whilst Adye's was entirely incorrect. I also enclosed a letter from Dickson to me, for Calthorpe's perusal, corroborating all I said as regards the point at issue between you and Calthorpe—it is not anybody's business, but entirely lies between you and the late Lord Raglan, in my opinion. Believe me, yours very truly,

G. Gambier.

Second Letter From Lieut.-colonel Gambier, C.B., R.H.A., To Colonel Fitzmayer.

Dear Fitzmayer,—You are welcome to show my letter to any one you like, because it's the truth. I enclose you also Dickson's letter to me upon the subject, which, if you want to prove the truth, will do so further.

I enclose you Calthorpe's note also, which you may as well read and put in the fire. When you have quite done with Dickson's letter, let me have it back. Yours very truly,

G. Gambier.

Letter From Col. Dickson To Lieut.-col. Gambier, C.B., E.H.A.

Royal Artillery Office, Dublin, 28th March, 1857.

My dear Gambier,—I send you back the papers relating to points at issue between Adye and Fitzmayer, about the two 18-prs. at the battle of Inkermann.

I can corroborate what Fitzmayer states respecting the time that the two 18-pr. guns were in his charge, the purpose for which they were employed, and the date of their being given up by him; and I know they were subsequently placed in Canrobert's redoubt, prior to the 25th October, under charge of Lieut. Hope, of D'Aguilar's Company, in the right attack.

The 18-prs. used at the battle of Inkermann were two other guns that were in the Right Siege Park, and under your charge, with their ammunition, stores, &c, as guns belonging to the siege equipment, and by your orders they had been kept in constant readiness for action from the date of the battle of Balaklava; and on the 26th Oct. 1854, when the 2nd division repulsed the Russian attack in front of Inkermann, the men of the siege train, and the two 18-prs., were in perfect readiness to be moved wherever they might have been wanted, but on that day their services were not required.

On the morning of the battle of Inkermann the whole of the officers and men of the right siege train, excepting those on duty in the trenches, turned out the instant the alarm sounded; and so little hurry or confusion was there, that the men appeared on parade with their belts, side arms, and chakos on, and were quietly told off by your orders into two parties to drag and work the 18-prs. should they be required, and you then decided to await orders from Lord Raglan, or General Strangways ; and when an order came to bring the guns up to the scene of action, you procured the horses from the guns that had been spiked, and put them to one of the 18-prs., and marched the whole party with guns, ammunition, &c, yourself from the park, and so little time was lost, that in a few minutes after Gordon brought you the order they were moving off.

I had nothing whatever to do with the command until you were wounded, a little beyond the windmill, and then I succeeded you as next senior officer, and took the guns into action.

I could not have been busy packing ammunition, &c, when the turn-out took place, as the ammunition and stores for these guns had already been packed and in readiness for any emergency for days previous, and Assistant-Commissary Hayter, in charge of the stores, &o., of the right attack, under you, had plenty of drag-ropes always ready for issue at a moment's notice, and these were quite prepared.

Pending the receipt of orders for the probable employment of the lS-prs., I went to the park, (close to my tent) as in duty bound, and ascertained from Mr. Hayter that everything was provided and in good order for instant use that might be wanted for these guns, and I only had to point out to him some slight additions to the quantities of small stores supplied.

The above will show that you had charge of the 18-prs., and were moreover well aware of the probability of their being required at very short notice, from the constant state of preparation in which they were kept.

I trust the above will enable you to correct any erroneous impressions that have arisen about the guns employed at Inkermann, and will also bear out Fitzmayer's statement about them.

Believe me, yours very sincerely,

C. Dickson.


From Aeab And European Memoirs, Oral Tradition, And Searches On The Spot.

By Andrew Archibald Paton.

If we survey the four quarters of the globe, Africa is, as a whole, unquestionably the least favoured with the physical advantages of fertility of soil and temperature of climate; and, as a necessary consequence, her habitual contributions to the civilization of the globe bear no proportion to those of Europe and of Asia. In the former of these favoured regions a variety of circumstances happily concur towards the moral, physical, and intellectual development of human nature. The climate is more temperate, and freer from deteriorating extremes, than any other region under the same latitude. The convenient mixture of sea and land invite and even compel commercial intercourse. The heats are neither so enervating as to exhaust the vital force, nor, excepting in Lapland, is nature bound up as in the northern part of Asia and America with those long-continued and severe frosts that dwarf both mind and body.

Asia strikes us by the hoary antiquity of its civilization; and even to this day, the vast agglomerations of inhabitants in India and China, forming one-half of the inhabitants of the earth, speak for the almost boundless productiveness of those regions; but the individual animal, man, shows the same inferiority as in the time of Hippocrates. "If the enervated Asiatics," says he, "are less warlike than the Europeans, it is due to climate. Powerful commotions, as in Europe, augment the animal heat, foment the choleric dispositions, and sharpen the intellect ; qualities that a monotonous permanent state does not develop to the same extent. Monotony engenders weakness, variety excites the mind and body to labour."

America lives in the present and future rather than in the past. Her fertile soils—her mineral wealth—her great navigable rivers— and her seaboards conveniently situated for intercourse with both the eastern and western shores of the old world, mark out her capacities for becoming, in the hands of the Anglo Saxon and other races, a vigorous rival to the older hemispheres.

Africa, in contrast to these other continents, is covered with great tracts of parched and inhospitable desert. Even in those wide-spread countries where the voluminous Niger and its mysterious tributaries pour their waters on fertile districts, we find an abundant and rapid vegetation, but, at the same time, a climate that offers mortal obstacles not merely to permanent settlement but even to fugitive surveys by those high and progressive white races whose province it is to carry on the business of civilization. In these inhospitable territories we find that man has a correspondence with the physical conditions of his existence. Here, where the animal and vegetable world flourish in such perfection, we find the negro with pearly teeth and smooth and sable skin, with the muscular and osseous systems sound and healthy; but the subtle elixir of nervous sensibility which raises the Europeans to that sense of Law and power of generalization—which enables mind to dominate matter—is here deficient; and the negro appears to be, in intellectual capacity, not only below the Asiatic, but even below the red races of the new world; while if we go to the extreme south of Africa, we find that, whatever civilization there is, is of foreign introduction.

Egypt is the grand and signal exception to the average incapacity of the African as compared with the other continents of the world. Here the especial bounty of nature has rendered this singular region, from dim and distant ages, a favoured seat of human arts and hivelike populousness ; nor do any political circumstances seem likely to degrade Egypt from being one of the most important countries in the world. France, England, and Germany were barbarous in the time of the Romans, but all these wide-spread countries, from the Adriatic to the Persian Gulf, were civilized: now France, England, and Germany are the mainsprings of civilization, but Turkey in Europe and Turkey in Asia are depopulated, but it is difficult to conceive any conjunction of political circumstances that could throw Egypt into the shade ; and so long as the Nile flows in this wonderful valley, Egypt will be one of the great provision producers of the world; and so long as Asia and Europe—the east and the west—cultivate reciprocal intercourse, Egypt must be the gate of the Indies.

Neither has Egypt been merely imitative, nor is she in any way to be classified with other countries in her neighbourhood. Distinct and peculiar, she belongs by her features to herself alone. There is the long river without a tributary for so many hundreds of miles. There is the fertilizing humidity that falls not from the heaven, but from a periodical inundation. Egypt's next neighbour is Syria, and their political fates have often gone together; but she is as distinct from that country in vegetation as in population, for the tropical character of the one, and the dusky complexion of the other, diverge much more in Egypt from the men and plants of Syria than the slight difference of latitude would lead us to expect.

With these preliminary observations, we will now leave contrast and generalization for considerations appertaining exclusively to the interior of Egypt; and the first observation which her history and geography suggest is, that two localities have been marked out by

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