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introduced another class, perfectly dis-, himself with a somewhat vague approxitinct in its position and in its nature mation to the truth. The system of livrets, -the literary dangerous class.' How- books analogous to the pocket-ledgers of ever interesting this division of society our soldiers, afforded him little or no assistmay be, however great the danger to be ance; the possession of such books is not apprehended from it, and the necessity compulsory upon the working classes; and therefore of studying it with care, still its of the men who come to Paris from the connection with the real and direct object Departments, bringing their books with of the prescribed work was not such as to them, a large proportion merely have them have rendered its introduction either ne- examined by the Prefecture of Police, and cessary or expedient; and it is evident that cannot be induced to exchange them for the propounders of the question were of Paris books. The returns, therefore, of this opinion. It is less ably treated than the number of livrets issued afford no data the other divisions of the subject ; less by which to ascertain the actual number of philosophically and profoundly understood operatives resident in the capital. The by the author; and—the natural conse- approximation at which M. Frégier arrives quence of this less fully and clearly is as follows: brought out to the reader. We think also There exists in Paris, of male operathat some of the other parts of the book tives, a number varying from 75,000 to where interpolations have taken place-all 105,000. Of these 50,000 are married, or of which are carefully noted by the author live with female companions. Of female -are, comparatively at least, deficient in operatives the number is about 60,000 : of interest and importance.
these 40,000 are the wives or domesticated The one great principle, to the illustra- companions of workmen. Of apprentices tion of which M. Frégier has addressed the number is about 100,000, being ashimself, is this : that in society, and amongst sumed at the rate of two to each of the its lower classes more especially, vice leads 50,000 workmen who live as family men. to crime, and crime lo danger. This sub- The number of chiffonniers is about 4000, ject he treats under a fourfold division. 1st. one half of whom are men, the other half The statistics of the vicious and dangerous women and children. The above numbers classes. 2d. Their manners, habits, and give a total, varying according to the season modes of life. 34. The preservatives against of the year, the activity of work, especially the “invasions of vice. 4th. The remedies of building, and other causes, of from 239,to be employed to lessen and control it. 000 to 269,000 persons; and on this numThe author fixes his point of view at Paris. ber M. Frégier bases his calculations.
We cannot but demur as to the validity • The causes of crime and its effects are,' he of this mode of procedure. Almost every says, 'everywhere the same; the mode of committing it and the characters of those who com semblance between the vices and crimes of
page of his volumes proves the close remit it vary with every country and every place: but if its nature and effects, as developed in full London and Paris ; and certainly we perfection in Paris, be carefully and fully ana- should consider as radically defective any lyzed, the information thence resulting will, by calculations regarding our metropolitan easy induction, be rendered applicable to the population which were limited to its operaother great towns in France; and also, in a con- tives only, even taking that appellation in siderable degree to all the principal cities of its most extended sense. In all great cities other nations.'
there are numerous sections of the lower M. Frégier having assumed, as an ad population, whose employments do not mitted fact, that it is from the poor and vi- come under that category. To instance a cious of the operative classes that the crimi. few only: persons employed about public nal portion of the community is chiefly re- vehicles of all descriptions, or with horses ; cruited, it was necessary for him, in the boatmen ; soldiers ; the ranks of the pofirst place, to ascertain the total numerical lice; the extremely numerous classes of strength of those classes. Notwithstand- servants, male and female, and more espeing the numerous and well-organized police cially male servants out of place--a diviof Paris, and its elaborate system of civil sion of society which, we conceive, furadministration, the functions of which are nishes a contingent to crime larger in profar more searching and extensive than with portion to its numbers than any other. All us, there appears to be great difficulty in these, and many others, should have been exactly ascertaining the numerical value of included; and the fallaciousness of not dothe different classes of society; and indeed, ing so will at once be apparent, when we after all his exertions to accomplish this ob- consider that the total population of Paris ject, M. Frégier was compelled to content exceeds 900,000 persons; and that couse
quently the classes to which M. Frégier extrêmes par leur nature, se touchent dans restricts himself are considerably less than leurs effets : elles aboutissent toutes deux one-third of the whole.
au crime.' Of these classes of society, thus arbitra- Many of the individuals of the dangerous rily selected, M. Frégier supposes that the class belong to several of its divisions : the portion habitually devoted to the two kin- same man is often gambler, bully, smugdred vices of idleness and intemperance is gler, sharper, pickpocket, and robber-the about one-third; viz. 35,000 men and 20,- receiver of stolen goods is frequently a pro000 women-he takes no account of the fessed sharper; and many loose women are apprentices—and that of these numbers, also robbers and receivers of stolen goods. again, one-half of the men and two-thirds It is this multiplicity of functions which has of the women are thoroughly vicious; as baffled every attempt to ascertain the nuare also one-half_2000—of the chiffon- merical strength of the several departniers, men, women, and children ; making ments of vice. One thing only is certain, altogether a total of about 33,000 persons, that the gamblers, including not merely who constitute the very dregs of the popu- those who are such by profession, but the lation. Omitting any enumeration of the other bad characters who addict themselves contingent of vice afforded by the remain to this vice, are the most numerous division der of the lower classes, those which, as of the whole. The contingent which the he expresses it, ' are strangers to the in- middle and higher classes furnish to the didustrious arts,' he next proceeds to state vision of sharpers and gamblers is estimatthat the criminal part of the middle and ed at 100. upper ranks—' les classes aisées'- may be The number of registered prostitutes is taken as about equal to one-tenth of the 3800—of unregistered or free, about 4000. above, that is 3300 persons. At this num- One in twenty of these women is a foreignber he arrives by a different process. The er. Paris and its environs give one-fourth; annual average of criminal prosecutions in the rest are from the provinces ; and the Paris is 3500, and about one-half of these proportions which they furnish decrease as end in convictions. The average annual they are more remote, except in the case number of convictions in the middle and of some of the northern manufacturing upper classes is ascertained to be 157, districts, and certain garrison towns, the which is very nearly one-eleventh of the supply from which is disproportionally whole; he therefore assumes that the total large. numbers of the thoroughly vicious in the lower and upper classes bear to each other On ne désigne pas des localités qui alimenthe same proportion of ten to one; and tent le libertinage plus particulièrement que consequently that, as the former amount to malheureuse Irlande, décimée par la misère, au
d'autres, comme cela existe à Londres, où la 33,000, the latter may be taken at 3300: profit de la débauche, envoie un si grand nombre All this appears to us to be very vague and de prostituées qu'il est hors de toute proportion arbitrary; and the more so from the pal- avec les contingens fournis par les autres parties pable error which we have pointed out in de la Grand Bretagne.' the first element upon which it is based.
Such, however, being assumed as the We are sorry to see the universal prejunumerical strength of the vicious class, the dice of the French against England peepauthor next proceeds to estimate the
com- ing out in the statistics of such a book as ponent parts of the dangerous class. These this. Every magistrate in London well are the gamblers, the prostitutes, the men knows that what is here said as to Ireland whom they attach to themselves either as is not only untrue, but flagrantly and dialovers or bullies—souteneurs—or in the dou- metrically opposed to the truth. ble capacity; the mistresses of the houses The number of the mistresses of houses of ill-fame; the vagabonds, smugglers, of ill-fame is about 372, one-half only of sharpers, pickpockets, robbers of both whom have licensed houses. Each prostisexes; and the receivers of stolen goods, tute having, as an invariable rule, her lover of both sexes also. The predominant vices or souteneur, these men—and they are the of all these are idleness and debauchery-vilest of the vile-amount to 7800. Nearly the power which puts them in motion is all of them belong to one or more of the greediness of gain. Some of these per- other categories of vice, being sharpers, sons follow useful occupations, and many thieves, or pickpockets, and gamblers also, of them with especial ability ; but they as a matter of course. labour only to obtain the means of indulg- From a similar blending of professions, ing their vices.—La fainéantise et l'acti- it is impossible to ascertain the number of vité vicieuse,' says M. Frégier, quoique vagabonds who come within the dangerous
class. Adults and children, they may be sick. The proportion of cases is very large in taken_limiting the title to its strictest sense which a long period of cohabitation takes place —at about 1500.
before marriage. If a young couple find that The receivers of stolen goods are about they live happily together, sooner or later their 600. Adding to these specific divisions the ever is made between the children born before
union is rendered legal, and no distinction what. Protean mass of gamblers, smugglers, and after marriage; all alike are sent to school sharpers, pickpockets, and robbers, the au- until the age of iwelve, and then are bound apthor fixes the total amount of the danger- prentices. The operatives in Paris are generally ous class at 30,072; making, with the 33,- paid once a fortnight; the more orderly give 000 previously ascertained as being the over at once to their wives the whole of their thoroughly depraved portion of the work- wages, with the exception of a trifling sum for ing class, a total of 63,072 persons of both the half; whilst others retain to themselves the
their own personal expenses; some give them sexes and all ages, composing the entire control of the whole of their earnings, and mass of Parisian crime and vice. But in allow their wives to dispose as they please of this statement he omits to include the vici- their own wages. The exhausting nature of ous of the middle and upper classes, which the work to which many are exposed demands he has previously fixed as amounting to
a liberal diet, and still mure a sufficient but 3300. Îf these be added, the total number moderate portion of wholesome wine, which to of persons either criminal or utterly vicious, of life: it not only repairs his strength, but it
a French artificer is one of the chief necessaries and therefore dangerous or tending to dan- renders him cheerful-it chases away his ger, is 66,372; being somewhat more than cares.' one-fourteenth of the entire population of Paris. Such are the numerical results to This is the bright, but, alas! the smaller which our author's calculation leads us. We division of the picture. The proportion of must again remark, that they appear to pro- the entire class which adopts and maintains ceed on a very partial basis. The total popu- this regular and orderly course of life is lation of Paris in 1836—the period to which sadly limited. The attraction of the pubthese volumes refer-was 909,126 : the only lic house is one of the most fatal to'the laclasses of which he treats are the operatives, bouring classes, and more than anything 265,000, the dangerous class, 30,072, and a else decides their lot. portion of the middle classes, say 33,000, in all 328,072. If we estimate that the mid- • The operative,' says M. Frégier, ‘rises bedle and upper classes amount altogether to fore the day; he goes to his workshop, on his 200,000—a number probably far above the route he meets an old companion, whom he has truth—there will remain no less than 381,- ing takes place; and “ Let us have a glass to
not seen for some time; an affectionate greet054 persons in the lower walks of life, to-gether” are among the first words which they tally excluded from our author's calcula- both utter, for the idea is always uppermost in tions.
their minds. They talk of work--of their masThe second division of the work commen- ters—the conversation goes on, glass in handces with a general view of the operative class- again their masters are criticised—their several es, for it is of the operatives only that he still and peculiar bad qualities-how little they continues to speak :
know how to conduct their trade their stinginess--their irregularity in paying their work
men-their severity, which is declared to be be• Those,' he says—we shall abridge rather yond all bounds. As a matter of course each of than translate his pages—those who study ihe orators deems it a point of honour to "stand them minutely and without prejudice will find his turn." The philippics continue—from the among their ranks many examples of virtue, masters they descend to the overseers and foreThey are good-natured, anxious to serve their men ; and from them to their fellow-workmen. comrades, devoted to the interests of their em- The hour of labour arrives; one of the two ployers; and charitable, narrow as their means friends fears the reproaches of his master if he are, not only to their fellow-workmen when out enters the workshop too late, and prefers losing of employment or sick, but to all who are near
a third of his day; he seeks to entice his comthem, to all especially who lodge in the same panion to tarry with him, and proposes a third house. They labour' to reclaim their vicious round of glasses; the prudence of the other by comrade; they visit and console him in prison. degrees gives way: they settle themselves at taWhen a manufacturer or a master artisan has ble; they breakfast; they become heated with the skill and good judgment to obtain the love wine; and not the third part, but the whole of of those whom he employs, there is no exer- the day is lost; and they may deem themselves tion they will not make io serve him. The fortunate if they are in a state of work on the warmth of heart of the operative, renders him morrow.' always eager to give his aid and to expose himself to danger, when accident occurs in the street, or casual tumults arise. There are no
We have given this scene, not because it bounds to the sacrifices which they make to pro- is painted in a lively manner, and is characcure comforts for their wives and children when I teristic of the gay, talkative disposition of
the French mechanic, but because it is one wish of every girl's heart in the lower of never-ceasing recurrence. From such ranks of life; and the good conduct which casual beginnings of indulgence and idle- accompanies this effort often secures its ness, the author traces up the career of the success. The fate, however, even of these operative, who gives way to intemperance, young women depends greatly upon the until he becomes an habitual drunkard, re- continued guardianship of their parents. gardless of his wife and children, lost to if left to themselves, they must possess a all self-respect, selling everything he pos- rare degree of good sense and prudence to sesses, even bis garments, to supply the resist the temptations and ill examples by means of gratifying his passion for wine ; which they are surrounded. The influence and frequently labouring for days together, of such examples may also be powerfully half-clothed, with no other aim or intention checked by the character of the master and than, when he obtains payment for his work, those in authority under him. If they do again to abandon himself to unrestrained their duty, there is external decorum, at debauchery. These are
the men-and least, within the establishment; and in this many of them are eminently skilful work- case the greatest danger which the young men—who gradually become entangled in workwoman incurs is in her out-of-doors the meshes of crime. • Drunkenness leads to connections with her fellow-labourers. But all other vices; and in the end conquers if the master is occupied solely by the arand absorbs them all.'
dour of gain, and either does not regard or The most efficient checks to this course does not understand the important moral of ruin are to be found in the good sense situation which he fills, the case is far and good management of the masters and otherwise : the unfortunate girl will find their foremen. The kindness and paternal herself at once, and without any power of admonitions of the one, the good example retreat, in an atmosphere of avowed guiltand strict discipline of the other, can con- amid companions who make it a task and a trol and keep down the passions and hab- pride to render each new-comer as depraved its of those under their charge, to an ex- as themselves. At first she is shocked and tent which could scarcely be believed, were depressed by this; but too frequently, as it it not proved by the wide difference which becomes familiar to her, it undermines her exists in the characters of the workmen-not principles. It is at this crisis, this dangerone, but all, or nearly all—belonging to ill ous entrance into life, that the vigilance of or well-conducted establishments.
her parents is most necessary; they should If a strong sense of the moral duties at- study the slightest indication of melancholy tached to its situation is important in the and alarm; they should labour to confirm master who has men under him, it becomes her virtuous intentions, and at any sacrifice still more so on him on whose prudence to themselves they should remove her from and paternal solicitude the virtue, the re- a region of guilt to one of decency and spectability, and the happiness of the female good morals. If they neglect to do this, she artisan depend. Far more than with men is lost. does the well-being of women in the lower The avarice of parents is a frequent walks of life depend on their strict regu- source of ruin to their children. Many of larity of morals. In many families among them appropriate to the payment of the dothe working classes order and economy mestic expenses the whole of the daughform the rule of action. The daughters learn ter's wages, and leave her without the to place all their moderate hopes of happi- means of clothing herself as well as others ness in a life of unintermitting but tranquil of her class. Smartness of dress is, labour; as much as possible they perform amongst the female working-class, as
; their work at home, and under the eye of amongst all other classes of women, one of their parents : if it be necessary that they the first necessaries of life. If unduly curshould labour in a crowded workshop, they tailed in this, the young person gets discarry with them their good habits; they are satisfied with her condition : she feels huconstant in their attendance, and exact in miliated, and takes an aversion to her home. the performance of their daily task. The Whilst her mind is in this state she falls young girls, whose characters have been an easy prey to the addresses of the first formed by such domestic training, seldom young man-her fellow labourer-who apon festival-days leave their homes except pears to compassionate her situation-acunder the protection of their parents. cepts his proposal to live with him ; and at Following the example of their mother, once, and without a single word of intimathey hoard up by dint of assiduous exer- tion, quits her parents' house. These tion a little marriage-portion, which is to separations of parents and children are of aid them in obtaining a busband, the first very frequent occurrence; and it is the
harshness and injustice of the parents which together-and at that age when the spirit lead to the greater portion of them. of imitation is the strongest, a very few
There are two marked divisions in the days suffice to fix the character of nearly female operatives at Paris—those who all of them. Their older companions, tobelong to shops and workrooms, and those tally uneducated, and unrestrained by any who are employed in manufactories. The moral influence, make it their pastime, by latter class are far inferior in education, laboured and exaggerated impurity of lanmanners, and language to the former.
guage, to corrupt the children who work The wages of the young women em- by their side. It is seldom the master of ployed in shops and workrooms seldom the establishment and his deputies pay any exceed twenty-five or thirty sous a day. attention to all this, engrossed as they are Those who reside with their parents, and in their one great aim, the execution of a are properly treated by them, are com- certain quantity of work in a certain space fortably off; and it is they who form the of time; and blind to the fact, self-evident virtuous portion of the class. But those as it is, that morality is the best foundation who are harshly used at home, and those of order and discipline. In nearly all these who, having no parents, must look to their establishments, • le vice,' says M. Frégier, own slender resources alone for lodging, siège à côté du travail.' food, and clothes, are sadly pinched by Among these girls chastity is almost poverty. It is this deficiency of means, unknown ;' many of them become mothis actual want, which wrecks the virtue thers at a very early age. Without shame of so many of them. A young and inex- or repugnance they enter the lying-in hosperienced girl, placed in this position, feels pital; the maternal feelings are scarcely the necessity of assistance and support : known to them—they separate themselves her heart expands towards any one who from their infant without a pang, and readdresses her with kindness : if it be a enter the manufactory with the full deteryoung man of her own class, she readily mination of resuming the same guilty attaches herself to him as to a friend and course. Of those who have families, not protector, and, as a matter of course, a more than one-third are married. It is lover : they swear eternal fidelity, and an only necessary to watch the exit of the illicit connection is formed, which very fre- gangs from the manufactories : boisterous, quently lasts for many years, and not rarely grossly indecent, insolent, ready to overends in marriage. Immoral as are these whelm with abuse any modest woman who unions, they are looked upon with indul- may pass near them, disgust and compasgence and kindly interest, as having their sion must fill the mind of every well-disorigin in real affection on both sides; and posed person who observes them. Many this at least is certain, that in the great are drunkards; and it is in ardent spirits majority of instances a far worse course is that they indulge more frequently than in pursued. Pressed by penury, a casual wine. On Sunday and on idle-Monday, temptation or few deceitful words are all nothing is more common than to see young that is required to turn many such girls cotton spinners, half-clothed and emaciated, from the path of virtue : again and again coming out of the brandy-shop completely they are deluded and deserted; many of drunk; often hanging on the arm of their them become mothers; and, when aban- half-intoxicated mothers. Whilst these doned by their lovers, are driven by the densely-peopled nurseries remain as they combined pressure of actual want and ma- are, the ranks of vice and crime will conternal tenderness to throw themselves into tinue crowded to overflowing. the abyss of degradation. It is well known It is in Paris only that the chiffonniers, also that many do this to procure the means or rubbish-hunters, form a distinct and speof existence for their sick and aged pacific class :rents. It is of the better class of female opera- thirty years has added to the dignity of this pro
"The extension of industry during the last tives that M. Frégier bas hitherto spoken : fession, which is alike followed by men, women, those who belong to manufactories are a and children. It requires no apprenticeship, no far less fortunate class. A large proportion previous course of study, no expensive outfit : of workmen, including even those who are a large and compactly-shaped basket, a stick the most regular, when their families be- with a hook at the end of it, and a lantern, are come numerous, have no other resource
the entire stock-in-trade of this singular species than to send their daughters, at the age of of labourers. The men gain, on an average,
and according to the season of the year, from seven or eight, to the manufactory. Once twenty-five to forty sous a-day; but to do this admitted into these crowded establish they are obliged to make three rounds, two by ments—in most of which both sexes work day and one during the night; their labour com