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sation of time may be transmitted along; mighty sarcophagi of the brutes that with the elements of language; and the perish. great cerebellum of the metropolis may It was to be expected, therefore, that the thus constrain by its sympathies, and regu- sciences of Geology, Zoology, and Botany, late by its power, the whole nervous system should be most carefully and completely of the empire.

treated of in such a work as this. They In the other departments of the useful form, indeed, the key to the hieroglyphics arts where profound science is called into of the ancient world; they enable us to exercise, we have the articles on Arch, reckon up its almost countless periods ; to Carpentry, and Centre, River, Roofs, replace its upheaved and dislocated strata; Strength of Materials, and Water-works, to replant its forests; to reconstruct the by Robison ; Seamanship, by the same, products of its charnel-house ; to repeople with a skilful supplement by Capt. B. Hall; its jungles with their gigantic denizens; to Bridges and Roads, by Young; Architec- restore the condors to its atmosphere, and ture and Building, both very able papers, give back to the ocean its mighty leviaby Mr. Hosking, Professor of Architecture thans. And such is the force with which in King's College, London ; Breakwaters these revivals are presented to our judgand Docks, by Sir John Barrow; Ship- ment, that we almost see the mammoth, the building (by far the best Essay on the sub- megatherion, and the mastodon, stalking ject in the language,) by Mr. Creuze, of over the plains or pressing through the Portsmouth ; Cotton Manufacture, by Mr. thickets; the giant ostrich leaving its footBannatyne ; Weaving and Woollen Manu. writing on the sands; the voracious ichfacture, by Mr. Chapman, &c. &c. thyosaurian swallowing the very meal

Among the subjects that must enter which its fossil ribs enclose; the monstrous largely into the composition of an Ency- plesiosaurus paddling through the ocean, clopedia are those which constitute what and guiding its lizard-trunk, and rearing its may be called Terrestrial Physics, includ- swan-neck, as if in derision of human wising the structure and physical history of dom; and the ptero-dactyle, that mysteriour globe and of its atmosphere, and an ous compound of birds, and brutes, and account of the various organized bodies bats, asserting its triple claim to the occuwhich it contains or produces. This spe- pancy of earth, ocean, and atmosphere. cies of knowledge is, generally speaking, In the elegant and comprehensive hismost fascinating. It requires little previ- tory of the ANIMAL KINGDOM, by Mr. ous preparation of the mind; it is associat- James Wilson, he adopts, as the principle ed with our wants and amusements, and upon which the various articles of Natural finds frequent and useful application in all History are to be treated, the scientific clasthe various conditions of life. Carrying sification of Cuvier, who divides the Anius back into the depths of time long be- mal Kingdom into four great classes : Verfore the dawn even of fabulous history, tebrate Animals, or those which have backmodern Geology has acquired an interest bones; Molluscous Animals, such as shellexceeding, perhaps, that of any other of fish and snails; Articulated Animals, such the physical sciences. Though her conclu- as earth-worms, lobsters, spiders, and insions have not the evidence of demonstra- sects; and Radiated Animals, such as startion, and are opposed to many of our early fish, intestinal worms, sea-nettles, corals, prejudices, yet they stand before us in the sponges, and infusory animalcules. In virgrandeur of truth, and have commanded tue of this arrangement the vertebrated anthe assent of the most pious and sober- imals are described under the heads Ichminded of our philosophers. They have THYOLOGY, MAMMALIA, Ornithology, and lent, in fact, a new evidence to Revealed REPTILES; the molluscous animals under Religion; they have broken the arms of the article Mollusca, written by a most the skeptic; and when we ponder over distinguished naturalist, Dr. Fleming; the the great events which they proclaim,—the articulated animals under the heads of mighty revolutions which they indicate- ARACHNIDES, Crustacea, and ENTOMOthe wrecks of successive creations which LOGY; and the fourth class under the words they display--and the immeasurable cycles ANIMALCULE, ECHINODERMATA, Helminof their chronology—the era of man shrinks THOLOGY, and Zoophytes. The great body into contracted dimensions; his proudest of these valuable treatises we owe to Mr. and most ancient dynasties wear the aspect Wilson himself, and the rest were executed of upstart and ephemeral groups; the fa- under his immediate superintendence, in brics of human power, the gorgeous tem- order to give variety and symmetry to the ple, the monumental bronze, the regal whole system of natural knowledge. In pyramid, sink into insignificance beside the connection with this branch of science we


may here mention the popular article on has not yet taken its place within the doANGLING, written by the same author ;* main of positive knowledge. It is imposand the articles Horse, HORSEMANSHIP, sible to read the interesting details of its Hound, and HUNTING, from the pen of Mr. history, to follow its ingenious and varied Apperley (Nimrod, whose powers of speculations, and to weigh the conclusions blending amusement with instruction are at which its votaries have arrived, without well known to the readers of this journal. endeavouring to estimate the value and ex

Among the productions of the natural tent of its acquisitions, and without fearing world plants stand next to animals in their that a value too high has been placed upon relation to the purposes of domestic life. them, and an extent too wide assigned them. The great botanist of our age, the late Sir The learned and beautiful dissertation of James Edward Smith, drew up an interest- Dugald Stewart is peculiarly fitted to assist ing history of Botany and BOTANICAL the student in this inquiry. We gaze with SYSTEMS, which Dr. Walker Arnott has delight on the first dawnings of intellectual judiciously introduced into his valuable ar- truth; we admire it as it brightens amid the ticle on Botany; and the remarkable trea- clouds and storms of controversy ; we foltise on the anatomy and physiology of vege- low it with straining eye till it is eclipsed in tables (enlarged by Professor Balfour,) we the superstition and darkness of the middle owe to the late Mr. Daniel Ellis, whose ages; we trace its revival amid the congefine talents and philosophical cast of mind nial gleams of literature and physical scicharacterize this elaborate article.

ence; and we pursue it through all the lights The newest though not the least impor- and shadows of modern controversy, till our tant of the natural sciences, namely Geolo-labouring reason abandons her pursuit GY, with MINERALOGY as its handmaid, has amidst the cloud-capped metaphysics of been treated in a manner corresponding to the German school.' In this survey of its its importance. The treatise on GEOLOGY own powers the mind is bewildered among was composed by Mr. John Phillips, a geo- conflicting opinions. The truths of one age logist of the first rank, and whose general appear to have been the errors of the next; knowledge added a new qualification for the lights of one school become the beathe task. We regard this essay as one of cons of its rival; and amid the mass of inhigh merit, containing a systematic and phi- genious speculation, and the array of amlosophical view of the extensive subject of biguous facts to which the inductive process which it treats, while at the same time it is can scarcely be applied, we seek in vain for so perspicuous in its language, and so sober distinct propositions and general laws. If in its views, that the general reader cannot that only can be called truth which we can fail to peruse it with pleasure and satisfac- compel a sound and unprejudiced mind to tion. The recent discoveries of Cuvier, believe, we are driven to the conclusion that Smith, Buckland, Sedgwick, Murchison, our intellectual philosophy cannot yet boast Conybeare, Lyell, Hibbert, Elie de Beau- of the number of her achievements. Even mont, Fourier, and Agassiz, are all brought in that department which relates to the funcbefore us in a condensed form; and by tions and indications of the senses, where means of constant references to the origi- physical science comes powerfully to our nal works we can appeal to them for any aid, there is but little harmony among the further details which may be desired. Of opinions of our most distinguished metaMINERALOGY it is enough to say that it is physicians; and many of those points which treated by Professor Jameson.

Reid and Stewart were considered to have Under the head of terrestrial physics, placed beyond the reach of scepticism have already referred to, we may include Agri- | been lately assailed with the keenest ingeCULTURE, HORTICULTURE, Physical Geo-nuity by their own countryman, Dr. Thomas GRAPHY, and METEOROLOGY, articles con- Brown. How much more difficult, then, tributed by Mr. Cleghorn, Dr. Neill, Dr. must it be to establish incontrovertible truths Trail, and Sir John Leslie, and marked by when the phenomena are those of thought the same industry and talent which charac- and consciousness, and the sole instrument terize the more scientific department of the of research by which we take cognizanco general subject.

of them is the abstract power of reflection. From the physical sciences, the philoso- In support of these views we may adduce phy of matter, we must now turn to the the observation of Dr. Reid himself, that philosophy of the mind—that science which the system which is now generally receiv

ed with regard to the mind and its operaThis entertaining manual has been published tions derives not only its spirit from Desseparately, and was reviewed by us in connection with Mr. Colquhoun's 'Moor and Loch' about a

cartes, but its fundamental principles; and

that, after all the improvements made by 52


year ago.


Malebranche, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, placed it beyond a doubt that the Egyptian it may be called the Cartesian system.' In hieroglyphics were signs of sounds, and quoting this passage Mr. Stewart adds that had determined the phonetic signs of seren the part of the Cartesian system here allud- of the letters of the alphabet. Dr. Young, ed to, is the hypothesis, thal the communica- however, did not perceive the whole value tion between the mind and external objects of this step: in consequence of his having is carried on by means of ideas or ima- limited his principle to foreign sounds he ges.

was prevented from pursuing it to its reBut whatever estimate we may form of sults; and he thus left to M. Champollion the nature and extent of our knowledge of the honour of illustrating and developing mental phenomena, there can be only one the discovery. The English philosopher, opinion of the high interest and vast import. however, pushed his researches in a differance of the subject; and the treatises on its ent direction, and succeeded in constructvarious branches in the · Encyclopædia' will ing an enchorial alphabet, and presenting it be found extremely valuable and instructive. to the world in a state so complete, that but In Dr. Hampden's lives of Aristotle, PLA- few additions have been made to it by his To, and Socrates-(though we cannot ex- successors. These discoveries, with a full actly place them on the same very high level account of the labours of Champollion and with his article on Thomas Aquinas, in the others, are admirably expounded in the artiEncyclopædia Metropolitana)—the student cle HIEROGLYPHICS, which, with the excepwill obtain a clever and comprehensive tion of the 3d, 4th, and 5th sections by Dr. view of the ancient philosophy ; and in the Young, was written by the late Dr. Browne. articles on UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR, META- We owe to Dr. Young, also, the treatise on Physics, and Philosophy, the two last of the affinity of languages, which forms the which were written by Bishop Gleig and Pro- 2d section of the able article on Lanfessor Robison, he will find the general sub- guage. ject discussed in its most important bear- In the circle of human knowledge Hisings, while the preliminary dissertation on TORY and BIOGRAPHY form one of the largmetaphysical and ethical philosophy will est and most popular departments; and it place before him in ample detail an inter- is here that the peculiar advantages of esting history of the progress of opinion encyclopædic instruction most strikingly in these branches of knowledge.

appear. The histories of the various naThe subject of general literature, includ- tions of the world, both ancient and moding antiquities and the fine arts, has been ern, though written on different scales, and treated in the Encyclopædia Britannica' by a variety of hands, form, nevertheless, a in a manner not on the whole less satisfac- body of universal history which a hundred tory. The articles on CHIVALRY, DRAMA, separate volumes would not be able to supand Romance, by Sir Walter Scott, are ply. In this class of articles we find the worthy of that name. The last of those most recent information, and we are able to articles having been limited to romances of read the events of our own time with a cochivalry, it has been extended very ably by piousness and minuteness of detail which Mr. Moir, so as to embrace a critical ac- we should look for in .vain in the indepencount of the romances of the Great Novel. dent histories of European states. The ist himself, and others of anterior and sub- greater number of historical articles have sequent date. The treatise on Beauty by been composed by authors well known to Lord Jeffrey exhibits that intellectual pow. the public; and the History of Scotland, er, elegant taste, and brilliant diction, by by Mr. Tytler, is not the only one that prewhich so many of his productions have been sents in a condensed form the results of distinguished. The treatises on Music by years of study devoted to a particular subMr. Grahame, on PAINTING by Mr. Haydon, ject. on Poetry by Mr. Moore, and on Raeto- The biographical department has also ric by Mr. Spalding, are all skilful per- been elaborately prepared. Many very informances, not unworthy of being associ- teresting lives were written by Dr. Thomas ated with this masterly Essay.

Young; the greater number of the articles But there is another department of gene in classical and mythological biography ral literature almost of modern growth in were composed by Mr. Ramage ; and alwhich the 'Encyclopædia' may boast of its most all the Scottish lives were re-comexclusive superiority. The discoveries of posed by that well-read, modest veteran, Dr. Thomas Young respecting hieroglyphics Dr. David Irving. The memoirs of Schilhave been justly considered as among the ler, Shakspeare, and Pope, by Mr. highest achievements of modern learning Quincey, have been much admired as speSo early as 1818 our great countryman had 'cimeus of critical biography; and among

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the scientific lives, many are hardly inferior and tropical luxuriance of life. For instanceto that of Leslie, from which we have al- a single instance, indeed one which in itself is a ready given an extract.

world of new revelation--the possible beauty The • English Opium-Eater's' Life of of the female character had not been seen as in Shakspeare is a very curious performance, life the radiant shapes of Desdemona, of Imo

a dream before Shakspeare called into perfect and might well deserve to be made the sub-gene, of Hermione, of Perdita, of Ophelia, of ject of a separate criticism. We, in fact, Miranda, and many others. The Una of Spenintend to take the author to task by and bye ser, earlier by ten or fifteen years than most of on several points ; but in the mean time these, was an idealized portrait of female innowe willingly acknowledge that he has dis-cence and virgin purity, but too shadowy and unplayed much ingenuity and sharpness of real for a dramatic reality. And as to the Grecian logic in this singular tract

, and are sure the that any prototype in this field of Shakspearian

classics, let not the reader imagine for an instant specimen of it about to be quoted cannot power can be looked for there. The Antigone fail to interest our readers :

and the Electra of the tragic poets are the two •After this review of Shakspeare's life it be- leading female characters that classical antiquity comes our duty to take a summary survey of his offers to our respect, but assuredly not to our works, of his intellectual powers, and of his sta impassioned love, as disciplined and exalted in tion in literature, a station which is now irrevo the school of Shakspeare. They challenge cably settled, not so much (which happens in our admiration, severe, and even siern; as imother cases) by a vast overbalance of favourable personations of filial duty, cleaving to the steps suffrages as by acclamation; not so much by the of a desolate and afflicted old man; or of sistervoices of those who admire him up to the verge under circumstances of peril, of desertion, and

ly affection, maintaining the rights of a brother of idolatry, as by the acts of those who everywhere seek for his works among the primal ne consequently of perfect self-reliance. Iphigenia, cessities of life, demand them and crave them again, though not dramatically coming before

us in her own person, but, according to the eulogy openly proclaiming itself, as by the silent beautiful report of a spectator, presents us with homage recorded in the endless multiplication of a fine statuesque model of heroic fortitude, and what he has bequeathed us ; not so much by his of one whose young heart, even in the very own compatriots, who, with regard to almost agonies of her cruel immolation, refused to forevery other author, compose the total amount of get, by a single indecorous gesture, or so much his effective audience, as by the unanimous “All as a moment's neglect of her own princely dehail !" of intellectual Christendom: finally, not scent, that she herself was “a lady in the land.” by the hasty partisanship of his own generation, These are fine marble groups, but they are not nor by the biased judgment of an age trained in the warm, breathing realities of Shakspeare; the same modes of feeling and of thinking with there is no speculation” in their cold marble himself

, but by the solemn award of generation eyes; the breath of life is not in their nostrils; succeeding to generation, of one age correcting

the fine pulses of womanly sensibility are not the obliquities or peculiarities of another; by the throbbing in their bosoms. And besides this imverdict of two hundred and thirty years which measurable difference between the cold moony have now elapsed since the very latest of his reflexes of life, as exhibited by the power of creations, or of two hundred and forty-seven

Grecian art, and the true sunny life of Shakyears if we date from the earliest; a verdict speare, it must be observed that the Antigones which has been continually revived and re-open- of character, like the aloe with its single blos

of the antique put forward but one single trait ed, probed, searched, vexed, by criticism in every som : this solitary feature is presented to us as spirit, from the most genial and intelligent, down to the most malignant and scurrilously whereas in Shakspeare all is presented in the

an abstraction, and as an insulated quality; hostile which feeble heads and great ignorance could suggest when co-operating with impure concrete; that is to say, not brought forward in hearts and narrow sensibilities; a verdict, in relief, as by some effort of an anatomical artist, short, sustained and countersigned by a longer

but embodied and imbedded, so to speak, as by series of writers, many of them eminent for wit the force of a creative nature, in the complex or learning, than were ever before congregated system of human life ; a life in which all the eleupon any inquest relating to any author, be he ments move and play simultaneously, and with who he might, ancient or modern, Pagan or

something more than mere simultaneity or co-exChristian. It was a most witty saying with istence, acting and re-acting each upon the other, respect to a piratical and knavish publisher, who nay, even acting by each other and through made a trade of insulting the memories of de- each other. In Shakspeare's characters is felt ceased authors by forged writings, that he was whole and in the whole, and where the whole

for ever a real organic life, where each is for the “among the new terrors of death." But in the gravest sense it inay be affirmed of Shakspeare,

is for each and in each. They only are real inthat he is among the modern luxuries of life;

carnations.' that life is a new thing, and one more to be co- Who can read such a passage as this veted, since Shakspeare has extended the do. without asking why the author has written main of human consciousness, and pushed its dark frontiers into regions not so much as dimly so little ? descried or even suspected before his time, far Many of the names which we have alrealess illuminated (as now they are) by beauty' dy noticed would of themselves furnish a sufficient guarantee that no noxious or of-, sciences which have made such rapid and fensive strain of sentiment was to intermin- sure progress as those of Comparative ANAgle in the work to which they lent their tal- Tomy, Physiology, and MediciNE. The ents. The Editor is well known to be study of fossil remains, now the right hand strictly attached to the Whig side of poli- of geology, has given an impulse to comtics, but he had too much candour or saga- parative anatomy hitherto unknown. The city to think of making an Encyclopædia labours of Cuvier led the way in this spethe repository of party views. In the econo-cies of inquiry, which is now carrying on mical theories of some of his contributors, it with the most singular activity and success is impossible that we should concur—from in every part of the world. Comparative one or two of them we differ widely—but anatomy, which had previously been an obwithout exception they seem to have drawn ject merely of curiosity and of occasional an elevating and purifying tone of mind research, became in Cuvier's hands the bafrom just and manly consideration of the sis of natural history and physiology, and nature of such a work as this, and composed the mainstay of geology. In his 'Leçons their several disquisitions in a calm and d'Anatomie Comparée,' a work in five volphilosophic spirit. The articles on LEGIS- umes, he has given the details upon which 1.ATION and on the Laws and Government he formed the philosophical classification of England, by Mr. Empson, are equally which we have already mentioned; and in distinguished by their ability and modera- the splendid Museum of Natural History in tion ; and Mr. M'Culloch has condensed Paris he has preserved actual proofs of tho a great mass of knowledge, which men of facts upon which this great generalization all parties should be glad to see so put to is founded. Regarding every animated begether, in his POLITICAL ECONOMY, Ex- ing as destined for a special purpose, and CHANGE, INTEREST, Taxation, PAPER-MON- pursuing this fundamental idea, he drew EY, and PRINCIPLES OF BANKING. Mr. the general conclusion that every bone, Malthus drew up the skilful compendium and fragment of a bone, bears the mark of of his own views under the head of Popu- the class, order, genus, and even species, to LATION; Mr. Ricardo the lucid article on which it originally belonged. From these the FUNDING System; and Mr. Mill simple truths have sprung all those fine disbrought all his usual resources to the Es- coveries and noble views respecting the says on Colonies, ECONOMISTS, and Pris- successive creation and extinction of races on Discipline. To Professor_Napier we of animals which give interest and grand

an able article on the_Balance of eur to the science of geology. Nowhere Power. The subject of the English Poor have these researches been pursued with Laws, which will probably for many years more ardour and success than in England; to come be a subject of contentious interest and, if we except the gigantic charnelboth in England and Scotland, has been house of fossil remains in Paris already treated in a very useful manner by Mr. mentioned, nowhere have collections of Coode. The kindred subjects of General fossil osteology been more numerous and Law and Statistics, the last of which has ris- valuable. The splendid cabinet of the en into great popularity as a science through. Earl of Enniskillen and Sir Philip Egerton, out every part of Europe, have also occu- at Lewes, possesses a scientific interest pied a due share of attention. Three ela- which could only have been given to it by borate' treatises on the Canon, Civil, and the knowledge and talents of such proprieFeudal Law, have been contributed by Dr. tors. Irving ; the statistical article on the Navy The Essays on Human and Comparative was drawn up by Sir John Barrow, whose Anatomy, on Surgery, and on VETERINAofficial position gave him the best opportu- ry MEDICINE, written by Dr. Craigie, Mr. nities for the task; and to the same hand we Miller, and Mr. Dick, are copious and inowe many of the most valuable topographi- structive; and in the article Physiology, cal and geographical articles in the work, by Dr. Roget, the reader will find the eleamong which that on China may be spe- ments of the science, and a full account of cially mentioned. The greater number recent discoveries drawn up with admiraof the papers on European Geography and ble perspicuity. The articles on MEDICINE, Statistics were written by Mr. Jacob, and Practice of Physic, and PATHOLOGY, writthe Asiatic articles by Mr. Buchanan : to ten by Dr. William Thomson ; on MENTAL Mr. Jacob we also owe the notices of the Diseases, by Dr. Poole; and on Poisons, principal Counties, Cities, and Towns of by Dr. Christison, &c., complete the circle England, and to the Rev. Edward Groves of our knowledge on the healing art. the corresponding series for Ireland.

The last and the most interesting of the Thero are, perhaps, none of the practical (seiences which our limits permit us to no


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