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tice is that of Theology—a branch the the venerable prelate. One of the most least studied and the least appreciated of important articles connected with this suball our knowledge. Forming an element in ject is from the pen of a layman. In this the early training of us all, memory some- Mr. Douglas. of Cavers, well known to the times retains amidst our secular pursuits a literary world by the eloquence and power slight trace of the meagre alphabet which of his writings, but more affectionately by it has learned ; and the faint impressions his labours of love among the erring and of domestic example, and the associated the ignorant, has given us a deeply interestfragments of divine truth, may sometimes ing account of the religious missions which have power to direct and restrain the will characterize and honour the age in which when interest or passion are its assailants. we live. Another article equally striking But the great truths of theology are through is that by Dr. Gilly, under the head of out the busy world in general neither ob- Valdenses,-an eloquent account, from perjects of study nor grounds of action: the sonal observation, of that small community gaiety of the social circle is neither enli- of Protestants, who, in the secluded valvened by their joys, nor disturbed by their leys of the Cottian Alps, have for many terrors, and if men's breasts are ever touched centuries maintained the purity of their with a holy influence during the brief hour faith and worship, and kept up the vestal which they weekly dedicate to eternity, it fire of their mountain church in the midst is but the ripple of the summer breeze, of privations and persecutions not yet exwhich subsides as it advances, and leaves tinguished. no under-current either of feeling or of We are tempted to quote part of this thought. It is fortunate, then, for beings paper, which ought at least to possess a thus constituted—thus indifferent to the very lively interest at the present time :highest and most permanent interests of their nature—that a few of the mustard- • The reigning King of Sardinia, Charles Albert, seeds of divine truth should be scattered is disposed to show them kindness, and to place even in the uncleared forests and the path them on a level with his other subjects

. He has less jungle of accumulated knowledge. In proved this by numberless acts of favour: but the the pursuit of frivolous amusement or of

tiara and the mitre are too strong for the crown

in Piedmont, and the baneful influence of the lucrative science, some passing hand may Papal authority, so late as September 1837, be induced to crop the salutary blade, or wrung from the reluctant King two articles in he who reads to scoff may by reading still the new code of Sardinia, by which the intolefurther have learnt to pray. It may be in rant edicts of the 16th and 17th centuries are the moral as it is in the physical world, that renewed, and may be put in force as soon as the we only learn to appreciate the value of the Roman hierarchy' shall feel itself strong enough

to do so. condiment when we have discovered its

In the mean time another engine is virtues among our daily food ; and those rich order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus has

employed against the hapless Valdenses. The who are the salt of the earth, and that contributed 95441,, and an income of 6801. which is the salt of knowledge may display, a-year, towards the establishment of a fraternity their highest qualities only when in a state of missionary priests at La Tour, whose busiof association with what is wicked, or of ness it will be to make proselytes from, the decombination with what is poisonous. It is scendants of a race which has never yet swerved in the energy and force, indeed, of their from its faith, but which will now be exposed

more than ever to the threats and artifices of an re-agency that the moral and material ele adversary who knows well how to turn opportuments exhibit their strongest affinities and nities to advantages. their highest powers.

• The Protestants of England have not been We hold it, then, to be a peculiar ad- inattentive to the condition of their brethren in vantage to readers of all ages and ranks the valleys of Piedmont Public collections that in most of our current encyclopædias have on several occasions been made throughout articles of sound theology are interspersed tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts is the trustee

the kingdom, and the Society for the Propagawith those of secular learning, and we are of considerable funds raised in their behalf; a confident that in no work of the kind has committee in London, consisting of the Archthis been more judiciously done than in that bishop of Canterbury, several Bishops, and other before us. The primary article on Theology persons of distinction, has also been employing was written by Bishop Gleig; and neither contributions in aid of the clergy, hospitals, and in the additions since made to that, nor in schools of the Valdenses, and watching over any of the subsidiary essays—though di- their interests, since 1825. vines of various denominations appear in have now to contend are poverty and reduced

• The difficulties with which the Valdenses the list of contributors—do we find any numbers, being confined to limits which do statement of doctrine on any leading point not produce subsistence for more than a very inconsistent with the orthodox exemplar of' limited population. They also labour under the disadvantage of having to learn three languages , rial, of that too from quarters hitherto inbefore they can receive competent instruction. accessible, must, like every other advanTheir national language is Italian; their verna- tage, have had its concomitant evils. The cular tongue is a provincial dialect peculiar to labour of control and superintendence must their district: and the language of instruction is French, because in that only they can obtain have been proportional to the standing of books of devotion used by Protestants.

the workman ; and it must have required “If the Government of Great Britain should temper and decision of no ordinary qualicease to exercise its good offices at the court of ty to enforce unity and symmetry of execuTurin in behalf of the Protestants of Piedmont, tion, and to combine such various elements or if the people of Great Britain should become in anything like just and definite proporindifferent to the moral and spiritual wants of tions. Great, however, as these difficulthis impoverished community, the religious liberties of the Valdenses will be no more, and

ties are, there are others still greater, the lamp of this little mountain church will be which analogous experience only can enaextinguished for ever.'

ble us to estimate. In the case of a jour

nal like our own, or almost any other speSuch is a very general account of the na- cies of periodical work, if the editor is disture and character of the different classes appointed in receiving an article, he must, of articles which compose the Encylopæ- indeed, but he also can, immediately redia Britannica.' Those who have explored, place it with another, whether on the same as we have done, many of its departments, or on some different subject. The mechanwill, we trust, regard our estimate as nei- ism of the press goes on with a few inapther partial nor exaggerated. To those preciable pauses ; the work issues with its who have not had this advantage, or who wonted regularity, and the public can disare unacquainted with the work, we can cover nothing more, if they discover anyoffer but the guarantee of illustrious names. thing at all, than that an article of slender But however great be the merits of the merit, or on some rather obsolete topic, has leading contributors to a work of this kind, found its way into the number. But the there is one individual—the editor-who case is very different with an encyclopædia. must be the mainspring of the undertaking, If the illness of an author, or the sudden and to whom a very great share of praise call of business, or any other cause, premust be due. In editing this work, Pro- vents him from fulfilling his task at the fessor Napier brought to the task all the pointed time, the whole machinery is experience which he had acquired during stopped. The alphabetical arrangement the publication of the Supplement which must be adhered to; and a treatise on preceded it. From his extensive literary Chemistry, or Medicine, or Political Econconnexions he succeeded in commanding omy, cannot be written on the spur of the the services of authors who had never be- moment. The printers and engravers and fore written for similar works, and who bookbinders are thrown idle, and the ediwere prompted by no other motives but tor is left to consider whether he will wait, those of friendship. When men of the for months perhaps, for the article of which very highest reputation were the avowed he has been disappointed, and which is contributors to an encyclopædia, authors of haps half-finished, or call in the aid of inferior name, though of equal fitness for another writer, who may take a still longer their respective tasks, were not likely to time to complete his task. No less harasswithhold their aid. In fact, it was deemed ing must be the case, which we can easily an honour to contribute to a work thus sus- suppose to be equally common, when an tained; and we have no doubt that one of author produces an article three or four the many difficulties encountered by the times longer than the allotted space.

Thinkeditor was to select the best qualified from ing his own subject the most important, he the numerous recruits that flocked to his treats it fully, and perhaps admirably, but standard. This facility of obtaining the on such a scale as to render its admission best qualified assistants was, no doubt, in- impracticable. To cut it down, or to allow creased by the liberality of the publishers. another to cut it down, is wormwood and The authors of articles of profound science, bitterness; and the editor must either rewhich, commercially speaking, had no vaject it altogether and give mortal offence to lue but in an encyclopædia, were, we are his friend, or by the compromise of a assured, remunerated as handsomely as slight abridgment introduce the still giganthose who communicated the most popular tic production and destroy the symmetry articles; and the labours of men of high his undertaking. But, notwithstanding talent, were thus, as it were, created by the these difficulties, to which the present work work.

must have been peculiarly exposed, there But this ample supply of literary mate-l is less appearance of disproportion in its

ap

per

of

parts than in any other encyclopædia that weary voyage, and become a well-informed we have had occasion to examine.

man before he reached his destination. In a work of such magnitude as this, the Considering the imperishable nature of liberality of the proprietors is best seen in books, the cheapness with which they are the number and nature of the maps, en- now produced, and the rapidity and extent gravings, and woodcuts. At the commence of their production, we are convinced that ment of the publication the geographical some great revolution must soon take place articles were illustrated only by quarto in their manufacture and use. Libraries, maps, but these were afterwards cancelled, both public and private, are now extending and a new series of a folio size substituted themselves beyond reasonable bounds. in their place. These maps form a com- Apartments cannot be found to contain plete and excellent atlas. The engravings, them; and there are many libraries where upon steel, are numerous and well execut- the volumes stand three feet deep, and thus ed; and the introduction of woodcuts into become inaccessible to their owners. In the text, a plan new in encyclopædias, has the progress of accumulation wing after given a peculiar value to many articles. wing must be added to the storehouse of In those of STEAM, STEAM-Engine, and learning, and librarian after librarian, till Steam NAVIGATION, though almost every space, as well as funds, are exhausted. But page is illustrated by numbers of the most if this be the case at present, with our recorrect and beautiful woodcuts, yet the pro- stricted trade and limited communication prietors have given no fewer than twenty- with foreign states, what must be the conTwo splendid engravings-five of them in dition of our libraries when railway interfolio-to illustrate these articles alone, course shall have made the nations of The plates, too, are executed with the min. Europe one family, speaking each other's uteness of working drawings, and in the languages, and creating a new demand for present predominance of civil engineering, each other's intellectual productions ? Unas connected with locomotive and steam- fortunately for authors there is no epidemic boat engines, they must be an invaluable among books, to thin their ranks, and present to all who pursue that interesting render necessary a new supply; and the profession

fire-proof inventions of the present day exFrom the observations which we have tinguish the hopes which were sometimes already had occasion to make, our readers realised from the timberboards of our books may have drawn the inference that an en- and the wooden carpentry of our libraries. cyclopædia like this must be a work of There is, therefore, no law of mortality by great utility, even to those who possess, or which the number of books is regulated have access to, ample libraries. With an like that of animals; and, since we cannot index enumerating every article in the control their accumulation, we should enwork, and also the leading topics which deavour, as soon as we can, to reduce those articles contain, we can at once direct their magnitudo and increase their portaour attention to any subject upon which we bility. require information; and if we do not find The compression of many hundred all that we desire, our attention will be volumes into an encyclopædia, forming a turned to sources from which it can be ob- complete library of itself, has been a great tained. But if the mature cultivator of step towards the accomplishment of this letters and science finds such a companion desirable object, and it is probably the only almost indispensable, of what value must it one of which in our time we shall reap

the be to the young, perhaps narrowly provided advantage. But it is only a step; and and obscurely situated student, in the years though we cannot foresee the extent to when the foundations are to be laid ! How which the principle of compressing knowabsolutely inappreciable must such a reposi- ledge, not only in its corporeal but in its tory of knowledge be to the unlettered intellectual phase, may be carried, yet we reader of all ranks, to the humble artisan as clearly recognize certain steps in the prowell as to the country gentleman and the cess which may be immediately taken, and opulent manufacturer and merchant! Oc- certain consequences flowing from them cupying only four or five cubic feet of space, which cannot fail to excite our highest exit would not encumber either the traveller pectations of ultimate success. or the emigrant; and an Australian or New Zealand settler, who left his home with no Smith, is a delightful improvement of human

· Railroad travelling,' says the Rev. Sydney other accomplishment but that of being life. Man is become a bird : he can fly longer able to read, write, and count, might with and quicker than a Solan goose. The mamma such a companion beguile his long and rushes 60 miles in two hours to the aching finger of her conjugating and declining grammar-boy. I of these changes authors might be led to The early Scoichman scratches himself in the think more closely, and to express their morning mists of the North, and has bis por- thoughts in the shortest and the fewest ridge in Piccadilly before the setting sun. The Puseyite priest, after a rush of 100 miles, apo modate the Waverley Novels in one of our

words. By these means we might accompears

with his little volume of nonsense at the breakfast-table of his bookseller. Everything pockets, with Shakspeare and the British is near-everything is immediate: time, dis- drama in the other; while the literature of tance, and delay are abolished."*

our own sixty volumes occupying one panIf the steam-boat and the railway have nier might be balanced with the science of thus abridged space and time, and made a the Philosophical Transactions in the other. large addition to the available length of human existence, why may not our intellectual journey be also accelerated, -our knowledge more cheaply and quickly acquired, its records rendered more accessible and portable,—its cultivators increased Ant. III.-La Petite Chovanerie ; ou, in number,—and its blessings more rapidly

stoire d'un College Breton sous L'Emand widely diffused? We shall endeavour

pire. Par A. F. Rio. Paris et Londres, to state very briefly some means by which

1842. 8vo. these objects may be effected, and the consequences to which they are likely to lead. An eminent literary man was recently We have now before us an Svo. volume,t complaining to us that the rising generation containing about 1150 pages of double seemed to know nothing of books published columns, and printed on paper so thin that more than fifteen or twenty years ago. 'I the thickness of the volume (though not

was not understood yesterday,' said he, beaten) is only two inches, and in so small · when I talked to a budding legislator a type that the quantity of matter which it about Sir Andrew Freeport; and here is a contains is equal to above TWELVE NUMBERS young lady who evidently supposes Seged of this Review, supposed to be all printed Emperor of Ethiopia to be one of the in its ordinary type. Now, if the type were tawny potentates discovered by Bruce.' diminished to one-half its present size, or In this state of things it would be idle to to one-fourth, which is quite practicable, take for granted that everybody is familiar and if the margin were somewhat dimin- with the Memoirs of Madame de Larocheished, we should have an 8vo. volume two jaquelein; and the utmost we can hope for inches thick equal to FIFTY NUMBERS of this M. Rio's sake is, that some half-buried Review, or TWENTY-FIVE volumes. Such associations will be resuscitated in the a work would require a reading-glass, but memories of our older readers, when we this would not affect its utility at all for the name his book as a not unworthy pendant to purposes of consultation, and indeed the her noble and inspiring picture of the couryoung student would have no more diffi

age, piety, disinterestedness, and unshaken culty in perusing it page after page than loyalty, of the most virtuous and truly pathe Doctor of 50 already has in getting triotic portion of her countrymen. Well through the columns of his Times by help might Sir Walter Scott say that the country of spectacles.

of which La Vendée forms a part, and the A bookcase might thus contain a large court in which Madame de Larochejaquelibrary, and a moderate one might be packed lein was educated, could not be so corrupt in the traveller's portmanteau. Books now

as we had been taught to believe ; for hisforwarded by tardy conveyances might be sent by post. A number of this Journal, sacked without finding parallels to nume

tory, ancient and modern, might be ranupon which the postage is now half-acrown, might be sent for fourpence, and suffering, and cheerful self-sacrifice re

rous instances of high daring, patient large pamphlets would have the privilege corded by her. Above all Greek, above of half-ounce letters. These processes, too, all Roman praise—the finer spirit and might be aided by a stenographic repre purer motives of modern chivalry may be sentation of the terminations of

many

of

seen blended with the stern resolve and our long words, and even by a contraction stoical contempt of life which distinguish of the words themselves; and in the spirit the heroes of antiquity: Cato and Brutus

look like vulgar suicides; and the dying Morning Chronicle, June 8. + Biographie Portatif des Contemporains, vol. i., Bayard leaning against the tree with his

, Paris. It contains three plates with thirty portraits,

cross-hilted sword held up before him as a ten in each plate.

crucifix, or even Sidney on the fatal field

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of Zutphen, still wants the cause to raiso «"Each weapon point is downward sent; him above the martyrs of La Vendée.

Each warrior to the ground is bent, A few passages from their annals will

The rebels, Argentine, repent! form a fitting introduction to our notice of

For pardon they have kneeld.”

Ay, but they bend to other powers, M. Rio's work.

And other pardon sue than ours: When an expedition was meditated, a See where yon barefoot abbot stands, requisition in the following terms was for- And blesses them with lifted hands! warded to each parish :- In the holy name Upon the spot where they have kneeld, of God, and of the King, this parish is in- These men will die or win the field.”' vited to send as many men as possible to The Vendean peasants scarcely ever such a place, on such a day and hour, and omitted saying their prayers before engagto bring provisions with them.' Not merely ing, and most of them made the sign of was the requisition obeyed with cheerful- the cross each time they fired. The ferness, but the privilege of going was eagerly vour of the religious sentiment was well contended for. When the whole force exemplified at the battle of Fontenay: was assembled, they were divided in an equally primitive manner.

• Before the attack the soldiers received absoIt was said :

lution. The generals then said to them, “ Now, (a chief) goes such a way; who follows him ?' Those who liked ranged these cannon with clubs.

friends, we have no powder: we must take

We must recover themselves about him, until the column Marie-Jeanne! Let us try who runs the best !" was complete. In maneuvring they were the soldiers of M. de Lescure, who cominanded not told, “To the right,' To the left,' &c., the left wing, hesitated to follow him. He adbut 'Go towards that house;' • That great vanced alone thirty paces before them, and then tree,' &c. In battle, like all Frenchmen, stopping, called out “Vive le Roi !" A battery they expected their leaders to set the ex- His clothes were pierced, his left

of six pieces fired upon him with case-shot.

spur

carried ample. . Thus at the assault of Thouars :

away, and his right boot torn; but he was not * About eleven o'clock the powder of the Ven- wounded. “You see, my friends," ied he indeans beginning to fail, M. de Larochejaquelein stantly, "the Blues do not aim well.” The went for a supply, leaving M. de Lescure alone peasants took courage, and rushed on. M. de to command. A moment after, M. de L. per- Lescure, to keep up with them, was obliged to ceived the republicans less steady, and as if be put his horse to the full trot. At that moment, ginning to give way: he instantly seized a mus- perceiving a large crucifix, they threw them. ket with a bayonet, and calling to the soldiers selves on their knees before it. M. de Baugé to follow him, descended rapidly from the height, wanted to urge them on.

“Let them pray," and gained the middle of the bridge amidst said M. de Lescure calmly. They soon rose, showers of balls and case-shot. No peasant

and again rushed on.' dared to follow him. He returned, called, exhorted, and again giving the example, returned beautiful workmanship, taken by the repub

Marie-Jeanne was a twelve-pounder of upon the bridge, but remained alone. clothes pierced with balls, he made a third ef- licans from the Château de Richelieu, fort. At that instant MM. de Larochejaquelein where it had been placed by the famous and Forêt arrived, and flew to his assistance: cardinal. It was captured in the first enhe had been followed by one only of the pea- gagement at Chollet by the Vendeans, who sants. All four crossed the bridge. scure leaped the entrenchment; the peasant was

M. de Le regarded it as endowed with miraculous wounded; but Henri and Forêt got over it also ; power, and were wont to adorn it with flow

The Highlanders of the men then rushed on to their assistance, and ers and ribbons. ihe passage was forced.'

Prince Charles Edward's army attached a

superstitious reverence to an old iron gun, Napoleon, according to the most partial which they insisted on dragging about with version of an apocryphal story, did no more them. There are numerous other points of at Lodi.

analogy, but there is one remarkable differAs Major Allan observed to Cornet ence. In the Vendean ranks the pride of Graham, “a man may fight never the worse birth was kept in strict subservience to the for honouring both his Bible and psalter ;' sentiment of loyalty, and the peasants were nor need we refer to Cromwell's Ironsides, urged on by their own genuine impulses, or any other fanatics, for illustration of the instead of being dragged to death or exile maxim. The nights before the battles of by their hereditary chiefs. Their first comAgincourt and Poictiers were spent in mander-in-chief, Cathelineau, was a peaprayer by the conquerors; and the striking sant, and he was put in nomination by the incident which preceded the closing of the Marquis de Lescure. So far, however, English and Scottish hosts at Bannockburn was this from being one of the consequenshould be familiar to all lovers of romance ces of the growing fashion for inequality, or poetry :

that Madame de Larochejaquelein tells us VOL. LXX:

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