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mencing at five in the morning and ending at children, io about ten. Many children, who run midnight. Between their rounds they examine away from their parents at a very early age, and sort the cargoes which they bring in, and take to this trade as a means of subsistence. which they term their merchandise : and, hav- The life they lead is almost savage: they are ing done so, go and sell the arranged treasures remarkable for the audacity and harshness of to the master or managing chiffonnier : for, like their manners. Some become so perfectly esall other professions, ihis has it gradations of tranged that they lose all recollection of their ranks, the higher of which are only reached father's abode, nay, even of his name. after long periods of subordinate labour. Many • As with all other classes of operatives, the of these chiefs keep furnished lodgings, which wine and spirit shop is the constant resort of they let out exclusively to those ambulatory these rubbish-hunters. To the aged chiffonchiffonniers who have no fixed residence; re- niers, still more to the aged females of the class, serving to their own use the ground-floor as a brandy has an attraction which nothing else can magazine for their wares. The important ope- equal. These women believe, and act upon the ration of sorting his booty, if the chiffonnier is belief, that spirituous liquors afford the same one of the better class, and desirous of a healthy nourishment as solid food : they conceive that lodging, is performed either in a separate room, the artificial tone which results from the use of hired for the purpose, or, when the weather will them is genuine strength; and the error is perpermit, in the open air; but the far greater sisted in, until the constitution is destroyed. No number possess only a single room, and in this, wonder that the rate of mortality in this class is surrounded and assisted by their children, they so high. spread out, examine, and sort the filthy produce * All the lower ranks display a certain pride and of each journey. The floor is covered with rags, ostentation in their expenditure at the cabaret, fragments of animal substances, glass, paper, but the chiffonniers more than any other. The and a thousand other things, some whole, some ordinary sort of wine will not suffice them; hot broken, and all begrimed with dirt; whilst the wine is their usual luxury, and they are vastly several selections fill all the corners of the room, indignant if the lemon and sugar be not abunand are heaped up under the bed. The stran- dant. The cabaret-keepers are greatly scanger who enters is almost suffocated by the stench, dalized by these extravagances-that is to say, which is rendered still more offensive by one, when a difficulty occurs, as it frequently does, in and sometimes two, large dogs, which form part making up the reckoning. The generous senof the domestic establishment of most chiffon-timents which animate the better class of operniers, and which they take out with them in atives are totally wanting among these people: their nocturnal rounds. It is matter of astonish- shunned and scorned by every one, they in rement that habit should enable these people to turn shun and hate all their fellow-creatures ; endure with impunity the putrid exhalations they affect a cynic tone and manner, and appear amidst which they live. The hotte of the chif- to pride themselves on proclaiming their degrafonnier is not merely the receptacle of his dation and their vice. A considerable propormerchandise, it is also his market-basket: among tion of the men have passed through the hands all the filthy trash which he collects, he takes of justice; and many of the women are prosticare not to neglect the luxuries of his table-tutes of the lowest order.' vegetables for his soup, pieces of bread, halfroiten fruit, everything which he conceives to the middle ranks, M. Frégier confines him
In speaking of the vicious portions of be eatable. It is not unamusing to watch the sorting of all this, and to listen to the profess-self to the writers, or copying-clerks, the ional talk which seasons the operation when students, and the shopmen: all the other the sorter is in good temper, as he generally is, divisions of society have their tainted spots, if his basket has been well filled and you ad- but it is in the three which he has selected, dress him with civility. Squatting down be more than in any other, that vice shows itfore it, he will show you, with a smile of exul, self in a special, distinct, and extended tation, a large beef-bone---a perfect beauty-and
form. other articles of equal worth; and as he arranges his several heaps on the pavement, he
The number of persons who gain their will tell you “competition kills trade--that bread by the use of the pen, in public officooks have become dead to all sense of humani- ces, banking-houses, law-establishments, ty, that they now make money of everything, and elsewhere, amounts, in Paris, to many bones and broken glass especially!" These rag- thousands : these, taken as a whole, are amuffins have their moments of good fortune not more immoral than the rest of society ; and joy—it is when, in breaking apart a mass of
nor is it of these that our author speaks, filth, they see glittering before their eyes a silver spoon or fork; and, thanks to the careless: but of the persons employed by the masterness of servants, these rich prizes are not of copyists, whose trade it is to prepare writrare occurrence. The happy individual forth-ings for attorneys, notaries, and the public with proceeds to the barrier with his friends, generally :generally in a hackney-coach, to celebrate the event by a copious repast: the coachman, who “There are about 150 such establishments in anticipates the dirty state of his cushions, being Paris, and the number of clerks employed in the only dissatisfied individual of the party. them exceeds 600. Most of the offices or stalls The daily gain of the lady-chiffonniers amounts in which the business is carried on are slight to, perhaps, fifteen or twenty sous; that of the and temporary erections in some of the busiest
streets, and around and within the Palais de, thirty sous a day, prefer to yawn away their Justice. Among these clerks indolence and time, and just cover a sufficient number of pages reckless and brutal vice are carried to a point to to keep themselves from sheer starvation.' Dowhich it is difficult to conceive that human being nothing is their supreme happiness; a dry ings possessed of some degree of talent and edu- crust and water for their breakfast, a dinner for cation could descend. The master-copyists give four sous, and a night's lodging for still less, to their writers two-thirds of the sums they re-suffice them. The rags worn by these men are ceive. The set attached to each establishment actually infectious; nor do they attempt to reis classed by numbers, so that the four or five place them by others until they will no longer highest on the list are sure of employment. hold together. They will then apply for work Their weekly gains range from eight to fifteen at some of the stalls where they are known, francs; but the more skilful, and especially gain a few francs, refit themselves in a set of those who write a fine hand, can gain forty better rags, and sink back at once into their francs. Some of these men work in the stalls state of torpid slothfulness. The master-copiof their employers, others at their own abodes. ers, utterly as they despise these men, are careThe class, with some few melancholy excep- ful not to offend them, as in the moments of tions of ingenious and well-educated young men pressure which frequently occur in their busiand meritorious fathers of families, who have ness they cannot do without them. This class, been driven into it by poverty, is a vile com- viewed collectively, is one of the most degraded pound of expelled students, dismissed mer- in Paris.' chants' clerks, bankrupt schoolmasters, cashiered officers, and liberated convicts. Their predomi
We appreciate the immense advantage nant vices are drunkenness, gluttony, gambling; of late given to heads of families resident and idleness; the whole accompanied and set off by a degree of filthiness and disregard of the in London, from the institution of superior decencies of life which almost surpasses belief. seminaries, where their sons may be trained It was from this crowd that Lacénaire stepped by ablo masters during certain hours of forth, eminent alike for his crimes and his ex- each day, returning to spend the evening
The favourite pursuits of this “felon under the paternal eye and roof; but we wit” were gambling and gluttony; all that escaped the one was lavished on the other. Eight which cannot now be adequately prosecut
are sure that, except as to medical studies, or ten francs for his breakfast or dinner were no ed in small places—where there are of uncommon expenditure with this man; and his consumption of coffee was unbounded. Fraud course no great hospitals, and where emiand robbery were his most usual modes of ob- nent surgeons can seldom be expected to taining funds for these indulgences; and it was fix themselves-young men whose parents only at intervals that he would condescend to live in the country should never be exhave recourse to his pen. Before he had entirely posed to the danger of education in a popushaken off all social restraint, and had devoted lous metropolis
. Paris is the great focus of himself
, soul and body, to crimes of the deepest all education for the youth of France; and dye, he was much sought after by the mastercopyists, in consequence of the beauty of his the consequences in respect of morality penmanship and his marvellous rapidity of exe- are most painful to contemplate. M. Frécution. Sometimes, tempted by the high rate gier gives some pleasing sketches of the of payment offered him, he would undertake a students from the provinces: their warmth long piece of writing, and labour at it, fixed at of friendship, their close union among his desk, for twenty-four or even forty-eight themselves as a distinct class, their kind hours, almost without intermission. His task offices to each other in the hour of need, was no sooner finished than the gambling-table, and the energy with which, after having or a glorious champagne breakfast, again rendered him penniless. Lacénaire scorned to be yielded to the
seduction of pleasure, they called a copyist; he only condescended to use again devote themselves to study. But à his pen in moments of pressing need, when no much darker picture follows. All the farobbery offered him an easier mode of filling his cilities to vice surround these young men. purse.
Women, gambling, extravagance in all its Many of these men are remarkable for the shapes, tempt them at every hour: and, ragged and offensive dirtiness of their dress. The soiled rags of the beggar are displeasing to
new as they are to the world, separated the “ nicer sense;" but the humble and care perhaps for the first time from their paworn appearance of him who wears them con- rents, frequent are the instances, not mereverts disgust into pity. It is far otherwise ly of a temporary falling away from virtuė, with the class of which I am speaking: their but of utter rủin. M. Frégier traces out insolent and boisterous manner, their sensual their progress from extravagance to dislook, and their brutal filthiness, combine to ren honesty. When they have no longer trinder them the most revolting objects that the kets or clothes of their own to pawn, they eye can meet; and, strange as it may appear, some of the most skilful of the class are of this borrow those of their companions; they description. Others, again, carry the vice of order others from the tradespeople, and all idleness to a pitch scarcely to be believed. alike travel to the Mont de Piété. Again Men, who could with ease obtain twenty or and again funds are asked to meet fictitious
booksellers' and doctors' bills, until the Little investigation takes place, little opparent's anxiety is aroused, and he resolves portunity for defence is given. It is held to ascertain the real state of things. All to be the safest plan to dismiss the fine manner of frauds are then got up to estab- gentleman, and he is thrown upon the world Jish the fact of sickness; and a due num- without character and without resourcesber of books are hired for the probable du- how rarely to escape from the gulf of ration of the parental visit: a regular train crime which yawns to receive him! of deception and falsehood is put into ac- An additional danger besets those young tion, and the bewildered senior returns to denizens of the counter who are cursed the country, half satisfied and half suspi- with the fatal gift of beauty. Kept miscious. These delinquencies lead on to tresses, ladies’-maids, nursery-maids, and
Among the students there never all the descending gradations of frailty fail to be found individuals who affect to which crowd the entre-sol and the kitchen, separate themselves from the rest of the select these handsome shopmen as the obworld, and to disdain all moral restraints. jects of their especial tenderness: they are These young men, frequently of high ta- led to do so partly by inclination, partly lent, are quarrelsome, enemies to all fag- from a calculating determination to obtain ging, perpetual frequenters of the coffee- by their means the materials for their toihouses, and pride themselves on their lets, without the disagreeable necessity of cynicism, and the open boldness of their paying for them. “A tall, well-made, silkvices. Their number is small; but, un mercer's apprentice, with bright eyes, fresh happily, one of their chief pleasures and complexion, white teeth, elaborately-parted pursuits is the propagation of their own hair, and redundant whiskers, stands on vicious habits and opinions amongst the in- the verge of a precipice every yard of ribcautious youths around them. To com- bon that he measures. If he ventures on plete the ruin of these striplings, and at the mustachios, and cherishes a tip, his doom same time to prey upon them, is their aim is fixed. In these cases two brilliant wardand their boast. It is among these aban- robes are to be furnished instead of one, doned parasites and their victims that near- and the descent to crime and ruin is more ly all the cases occur of students who are than doubly rapid.' * brought before the tribunals of justice. Our author, having indicated what he con
The shopmen form another distinct di- ceives to be the chief sources of aliment to vision of society. There is less of close crime, now enters upon the more direct and fellowship among them than among the immediate subject of his investigation, students, less esprit de corps. The ruling the dangerous class itself, its habits, and vices are the same; but the order of their the causes of its depravity. He commences intensity is reversed. With the student by an able sketch of the Moral Topograit is gambling, women, dress; with the phy of Paris.' Through this we have no shopman dress is tho supreme good, wo- space to follow him; nor is it necessary. men and gambling are subordinate. The The habits of a savage animal are of more employment of these young men, especially importance than its locality. One of the of those who serve behind the counter, chief haunts of the dangerous class is the renders attention to their personal appear- quarter of the City ;' it may be taken as a ance a matter of importance, nay, of ne- specimen of the whole. Its dark, dirty, cessity. With many this grows into a pas- and narrow streets are formed of lofty and sion, and leads them into expenses totally many storied houses, the gloomy entries to disproportioned to their narrow salaries. which are seldom guarded by a porter. Peity abstractions from the goods under These are crammed with prostitutes, vagatheir care, especially articles of male attire, bonds, and the more hardened class of are then had recourse to ; and these in the larger houses very often escape detection. Impunity renders the culprit bolder; the
* The English reader will be reminded of some
vivid sketches of London shop-life in the remarkathefts become gradually more important, ble novel of Ten Thousand a Year. Those sketchthe
appearance of the youth more splendid. es arc indeed excellent ; but it is in the portraitures He becomes the subject of conversation to of the attorney class that M:. Warren has displayed his fellow shopmen: the thoughtless laugh, the full strength and variety of his talents and his
observation. His work deserves more than a passthe grave shake their heads; and the sus ing note-it appears to us superior to any other picion reaches the master of the establish novel of familiar life recently produced in this counment, by whom this species of domestic try; we even think he might have secured for it a robbery is considered as one of the chief permanent place among our classics of prose fiction,
if he had, in revising it for separate publication, dangers of his trade, one which it is most struck out a large half of his sentimental details, important he should detect and punish. I and the whole of his temporary politics.
criminals. The lodging-houses in which or an unexpected plunder has put them in funds.
violent excitement. Play is at once the business
debauchery and gluttony follow as subordinates.
were placed there for some other purpose *Gamblers’—for it is with this class of crimi- than merely to remark the ardour of such nals that our author commences—are, from a patient ! the very nature of their pursuits, subject to such We believe there is no portion of their sudden vicissitudes of fortune, and are driven on social system 'on which our Gallic neighby such a reckless ardour, that they are not only bours more pride themselves than on their looked upon by the police as dangerous persons, code of erotic laws; and it is with somebut become objects of dread to all the well-dis- what of a flourish of trumpets—a pauloposed. Of all our evil propensities, the love of play is the most tyrannical, devouring, and majora-canamus sort of a tone-that M. Fréienacious ; and there are no excesses to which gier enters upon the subject :it does not lead. Among the professed gamblers there are many, especially of the lower and of
This vice," he exclaims, “begotten by one the educated but necessitous classes, who are of the passions the most imperious in man, and solely occupied by the craving appetite for play, to which the progress of civilisation has in vain the activity of which absorbs in them all other attempted to oppose any efficacious barrier, exwants. They retrench as much as possible ercises more especially its influence in mighty their food and clothing, to furnish the means of cities. It reigns—such is the recital of travelindulging this deadly passion. They frequent lers, such is the testimony of writers the most the lowest lodging-houses; and whilst they risk accredited-over the entire surface of the at the gaming-table every franc they possess, it globe! is with regret that they part with two or three sous to pay for a bed of rotten straw, or of rags In Paris, prostitution exists under two covered with mud. Such is their destiny, day distinct forms: it is public, and it is clanafter day; and it brings them to the level of the destine; the inscription of names in the robbers and cut-throats who inhabit the same dens. It is this community of abode, this close register of the police being the line of sepaapproach to criminals of the worst description. ration. Convinced of the necessity of the which so powerfully seconds the pernicious evil, the municipal authorities have eninfluences of the passion that controls them. deavoured to render it obedient to such Deprived by the cast of the die of their last crown, laws as should restrain its excesses to and urged to desperation, they throw them- organize it, as far as its nature will perselves into the career of crime in the train of the mit. robbers with whom they dwell. This extremity
. During the last five-and-twenty of guilt is sooner or later the fate of almost years, and more especially of late, the every gamester. These same men, who, when police have,' we are told,' evinced great neither fraud nor luck has befriended them, can
wisdom and firmness in the ameliorations submit to every privation, give way to the wild- they have introduced into this division of est extravagance when the chance of the cards the community; and Paris has become
distinguished among all the capitals of counsel of some early friend who is herself decivilized nations, as the one in which pub- voted to vice. In all these cases the police prolic order, morals, and health, are the best ceed with extreme caution. The cause of moguaranteed against the influence of this rality being the one object they have in view, it vice.'
is by no means unusual for them to refuse the In England prostitution is tolerated, in ing, and the girl is not suffering under disease.
inscription, if they see any remains of good feel. France it is sanctioned : advantages and They do more. To preserve her from the dandisadvantages result probably from both ger of clandestine prostitution, and to do away systems; but neither the pages of our au- with any pretext for remaining at Paris, they thor, nor the voluminous treatise of his give her a passport and funds to enable her to great authority, M. Parent-Duchâtelet, return home. Even in those cases in which the have convinced us that the cause of virtue police perceive that this course cannot be adoptis promoted by legalizing vice. This at inscribe the name: a communication is addressed
ed, they do not, in the first instance, definitively least is certain, that the proud supremacy to the mayor of the place in which the girl was of moral discipline, which these two politi- born, requiring him to furnish, free of expense, cal economists claim for Paris, exists only a certificate of her birth; and although the obin part : clandestine prostitution has re- ject for which it is demanded is not expressed, sisted
the researches which the local authorities are every attempt to bring it under control; nor can it ever be so brought, with obliged to make suffice to apprise the friends of out an undue and most dangerous infringe- she is placed. It rests with them to negotiate
the girl where she is, and the danger in which ment of the liberty of the subject. The her return either by the intervention of the obvious, the admitted result of this imper- mayor, or by a direct application to the police. fect, this half submission to the law is, that It is only when this document is transmitted the clandestine and ex-legal division of the without any accompanying remark that the ous than where there is no such separation ; case of a minor. If from the country, the local class is more depraved and more danger- provisional inscription becomes final.
• A different line of conduct is adopted in the and that this is the case the pages author abundantly prove.
magistrates are requested to ascertain the situa
tion of her parents, and what steps they are The two classes are so distinct, that he willing to take to secure her return to them. has deemed it necessary to treat of each During the period of this negotiation, she is put separately
in separate confinement in the prison of St. Laza
rus. If, which is very frequently the case, •The inscription has for its object to prove she is not claimed by her relations, the registhe individuality of the woman who surrenders tration takes place. When the parents reside herself to an immoral life; and thus to give the in Paris, the same solicitude is shown. They inspectors of the police the means of arresting are brought before the prefect of police, and her if guilty of disorderly conduct or crime. The urged to pardon their child. Sometimes the registered 'female, aware that she is thus sub- efforts of the civil authorities are successful ; jected to a constant surveillance, abandons her- but these reconciliations are seldom durable. self less willingly to those excesses which are The girl is again guilty, and again arrested : her almost inseparable from her vocation; and has relations break off all connection with her, and no hope, if guilty of crime, of escaping from the it becomes necessary to add her name to the pursuit of justice. The inscription declares the list. fact of prostitution; but it does not grant her the Each girl, when she is registered, is required authority to prostitute herself, as is commonly to sign, either with her name or her mark, supposed to be the case.
formal printed declaration, by which she engages *If the girl who presents herself and demands to submit herself to the sanatory regulations, her inscription, or who is brought by the police, and to the prescribed system of surveillance conis of age, and appears not utterly hardened in vice, nected with them. This is an important docuthe executive employs all its efforts to induce ment: it constitutes a sort of legal right in the her to return into the bosom of her family. The police to inflict, as they are perpetually compelinterrogation which she undergoes as to her led to do, the slighter kinds of punishment on previous conduct enables them to judge whether these unfortunate women, without control and anger or despair has driven her to take this step; without appeal. It is found, also, to have a nor is her name inscribed until, after a mature strong moral effect upon the girls themselves; investigation, they are convinced that there is they feel that by thus pledging themselves they no hope of reconciling her to her family. Many have entered into a kind of contract with the of those who apply for inscription are from the police : this tends to render them obedient, and provinces. Ensnared by a transitory attachment, to restrain their conduct within some bounds of they quit their native place; are brought to propriety.' Paris by the seducer, speedily abandoned by him, and compelled by actual want to add their names to the registry of infamy: or, willing to
Every trade and every occupation affords hide a first fault, they separate themselves from its contingent to this class; and, as with their family and seek concealment in the capital, us, the most productive of all are the manuand to do this they are frequently led by the factories and the workshops. Parent