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'Gainst him whose wrongs give edge unto the swords
That make such waste in brief mortality.
1 Under this conjuration, speak, my lord :
For we will hear, note, and believe in heart,
That what you speak is in your conscience wash'd
As pure as sin with baptism.

Cant. Then hear me, gracious sovereign; and you peers,
That owe yourselves, your lives, and services,
To this imperial throne : 2 There is no bar
To make against your highness' claim to France,
But this, which they produce from Pharamond-
• In terram Salicam mulieres ne succedant,'
'No woman shall succeed in Salique land :'
Which Salique land the French 3 unjustly gloze
To be the realm of France, and Pharamond
The founder of this law and female bar.
Yet their own authors faithfully affirm
That the land Salique is in Germany,
Between the floods of Sala and of Elbe :
Where Charles the Great having subdued the Saxons,
There left behind and settled certain French ;
Who, holding in disdain the German women,
For some 4 dishonest manners of their life,
Establish'd then this law-to wit, no female
Should be inheritrix in Salique land ;
Which Salique, as I said, 'twixt Elbe and Sala
Is at this day in Germany callid Meisen.
Then doth it well appear, the Salique law

1 Under this conjuration.—The quartos of 1600 and 1608 read

' After this conjuration.' 2 There is no bar, etc.—This speech, together with the Latin pas

sage in it, is taken from Holinshed's Chronicle. 3 Unjustly gloze.—Explain, expound. Anglo-Saxon glesan, to ex

plain. Another interpretation is misinterpret, put a false construction on. The words of the old Chronicle are as follows :

• In terram Salicam mulieres ne succedant; that is to saye, lette not women succeede in the land Salique, which the French glosers expound to bee the Realme of France; and this law was made by King Pharamond, whereas yet their owne authors, affirme that the land Salique is in Germanie, between the rivers Elbe and Sala, and that when Charles the great had overcome the Saxons, hee placed there certaine Frenchmen, which having in disdeine the dishonest manners of the Germain women, made a lawe, that the females should not succede to any inheritance

within that lande.' 4 Dishonest.-Capell has introduced the word unhonest from the

original edition of Holinshed, 1577.

Was not devised for the realm of France ;
Nor did the French possess the Salique land
Until four hundred one-and-twenty years
After ? defunction of king Pharamond,
Idly suppos'd the founder of this law;
Who died within the year of our redemption
Four hundred twenty-six ; and Charles the Great
Subdued the Saxons, and did seat the French
Beyond the river Sala, in the year
Eight hundred five. Besides, their writers say,
King Pepin, which deposed Childerick,
Did, as heir general, being descended
Of Blithild, which was daughter to king Clothair,
Make claim and title to the crown of France.
Hugh Capet also-who usurp'd the crown
Of Charles the duke of Loraine, sole heir male
Of the true line and stock of Charles the great-
To find his title, with some shows of truth
(Though, in pure truth, it was corrupt and naught),

Convey'd himself as th' heir to 3 th’ lady Lingare,
Daughter to Charlemain, who was the -son
To Lewis the emperor, and Lewis the son
Of 4 Charles the great : 5 Also king Lewis the tenth,
Who was sole heir to the usurper Capet,
Could not keep quiet in his conscience,
Wearing the crown of France, till satisfied
That fair queen Isabel, his grandmother,
Was 6 lineal of the lady Ermengare,
Daughter to Charles the foresaid duke of Loraine :
By the which marriage, the line of Charles the great
Was re-united to the crown of France.
So that, as clear as is the summer's sun,
King Pepin's title, and Hugh Capet's claim,
King Lewis his satisfaction, all appear
1 Defunction.-Death, from defunct ; Latin, defunctus.
2 Convey'd himself.-Derived his title. This expression is found in

Holinshed. 3 Th’lady Lingare.—No such female is to be met with in any French

historian. 4 Charles the great.-The Emperor Charlemagne. 5 Also king Lewis the tenth.--This should be Lewis the ninth.

Shakespeare adopted the error from Holinshed. 6 Lineal.-Allied by direct descent. Compare:

The father had descended for the son ;

For only you are lineal to the throne'-Dryden. 7 King Lewis his satisfaction.- His is here used for 's, the sign of the possessive case ; Lewis is a monosyllable.



To hold in right and title to the female ;
So do the kings of France unto this day :
Howbeit they would hold up this Salique law,
To bar your highness claiming from the female ;
And rather choose to hide i them in a net,
2 Than amply to imbar their crooked titles
Usurp'd from you and your progenitors.

K. Hen. May I, with right and conscience, make this claim ?

Cant. The sin upon my head, dread sovereign !
For in the book of Numbers is it writ-
When the man dies, 3 let the inheritance
Descend unto the daughter. Gracious Lord,
Stand for your own; unwind your bloody flag ;
Look back into your mighty ancestors :
Go, my dread lord, to your great-grandsire's tomb,
From whom you claim; invoke his warlike spirit,
And your great-uncle's, Edward the black prince;
Who on the French ground play'd a tragedy,
Making defeat on the full power of France ;
* Whiles 5 his most mighty father on a hill
Stood smiling, to behold his lion's whelp
6 Forage in blood of French nobility.
O noble English, that could entertain
With half their forces the full pride of France ;
And let another half stand laughing by,
All out of work, and ? cold for action !

Ely. Awake remembrance of these valiant dead,
And with your puissant arm renew their feats :
You are their heir, you sit upon their throne ;


1 Them is often used in Elizabethan English for themselves. ? Than amply to imbar.—The folio has imbarre; the first two quartos imbar, and the third embrace.

It appears to mean expose, lay bare, or lay open. 3 Let the inheritance descend unto the daughter. (See Numb.

xxvii. 8.)-_'If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause

his inheritance to pass unto his daughter.' * Whiles.-Genitive of while, meaning 'during the time.' Compare:

· He shall conceal it Il'hiles you are willing it shall come to note.'-Twelfth Night, • His most mighty father, etc.-An allusion to Edward III. stand.

ing on a windmill hill during the battle of Crescy, as related by

Holinshed. Forage in blood of French nobility.-Ravage, feed on the spoil.

The is thus often omitted before a noun already defined by

another noun. 7 Cold for action.-For here appears to mean .for want of.'




The blood and courage, 1 that renowned them,
Runs in your veins ; and my thrice-puissant liege
Is in the very May-morn of his youth,
Ripe for exploits and mighty enterprises.

Exe. Your brother kings and monarchs of the earth
Do all expect that you should rouse yourself,
As did the former lions of your blood.
West. They know your grace hath cause, and means, and

2 So hath your highness ; never king of England
Had nobles richer, and more loyal subjects ;
Whose hearts have left their bodies here in England,
And lie pavilion'd in the fields of France.

Cant. Ò, let their bodies follow, my dear liege,
With blood, and sword, and fire, to win your right :
In aid whereof, we of the spirituality
Will raise your highness such a mighty sum,
As never did the clergy at one time
Bring in to any of your ancestors.

K. Hen. We must not only arm to invade the French,
But lay down our proportions to defend
Against the Scot, who will make 4 road upon us
With all advantages.

Cant. They of those marches, gracious sovereign,
Shall be a wall sufficient to defend
Our inland from the pilfering borderers.

K. Hen. We do not mean the coursing snatchers only, But fear the main 7 intendment of the Scot, i That renowned them.--Made them famous. French renommer. 2 So hath your highness.--Your highness hath indeed what they

think and know you have.'-Malone.
3 We of the spirituality.-We bishops and clergy.
4 Road. - Inroad, incursion. French, rade. Compare:

• The Volscians stand
Ready, when time shall prompt them, to make road

Upon 's again.'—Coriolanus. • They of those marches.-The borders, the limits, the confines.

Anglo-Saxon mearc. French marche. Compare :
"The English colonies were enforced to keep continual guards

upon the borders and marches round them.'--Davies. 6 The pilfering borderers.-In the quarto of 1600, the materials for

which were probably obtained from notes taken during the representation at the theatre, it reads:

The Marches, gracious sovereigne, shalle sufficient

To guard your England from the pilfering borderers.' 7 Intendment.-Intention; a word which in Shakespeare's time meant extreme exertion,



Who hath been still a giddy neighbour to us ;
For you shall read, that my great-grandfather
Never went with his forces into France,
But that the Scot on his ? unfurnish'd kingdom
Came pouring, like the tide into a breach,
With ample and brim fulness of his force ;
3 Galling the gleaned land with hot essays ;
4 Girding with grievous siege castles and towns ;
That England, being empty of defence,
Hath shook and trembled at th' ill neighbourhood.

Cant. She hath been then more fear'd than harm’d, my liege ;
For hear her but exampled by herself, -
When all her chivalry hath been in France,
And she a mourning widow of her nobles,
She hath herself not only well defended,
But taken, and impounded as a stray,
The king of Scots ; whom she did send to France,
To fill king Edward's fame with prisoner kings ;
5 And make your chronicles as rich with praise
6 As is the ooze and bottom of the sea
With sunken 7 wrack and 8 sumless treasuries.
West. 9 But there 's a saying very old and true,-

*If that you will France win,
Then with Scotland first begin;'



1 Still is used by Shakespeare for constantly, in accordance with the derivation of the word 'quiet,'' unmoved,' Compare : • Thou still hast been the author of good tidings.'

Hamlet. The folio of 1632 alters giddy to greedy. 2 Unfurnish'd kingdom.-Unsupplied, left in a defenceless con.

dition. 3 Galling.-Harassing, working mischief. 4 Girding with grievous siege. - Investing. 5 And make your chronicles.—This is the reading of the quartos ;

some modern editions read “And make their chronicle. It

means the chronicles of that time. 6 As is the ooze.—Soft mud, mire ; probably derived from French

eaux, water. Compare :

• Therefore my son i' the ooze is bedded.'-Tempest. 7 Wrack. The pronunciation of the word wreck in Shakespeare's

time. In the Authorised Version of 1611 the form of the word is shipwracke in 2 Cor. xi. 25 ; 1 Tim. i. 19. Compare

•The direful spectacle of the wracke.'-- Tempest (folio). 8 Sumless treasuries.—The quartos read ‘shipless treasury.' • But there's a saying.—This saying 'very old and true' is in

Hall's and Holinshed's Chronicles, and is also quoted in an anonymous play of 'The Famous Victories of Henry V.'

also :

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