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Jus, known by the name of Mols troop- poft he set out in April 1654. Arriving at ors; and reducing Darlington, Roswell, Leith, he fent Col. Morgan with a large deBrochwick, and Tantallon, castles, where tachment againft the Royalists ; and having they used to harbour. He was also concerned afifted at proclaiming the Protector at Edinin settling the articles for the surrender of burgh, on the 14th of May, followed him. Edinburgh-castle ; and, being left Com- felf with the rest of the forces. Througla mander in Chief in Scotland, at the head of the General's prudent management this war 6000 men, by Cromwell, when be returned was finished by August, when he returned to England in pursuit of King Charles II, from the Highlands, and fixed his abode at he belieged and took Stirling, and carried Dalkeith, a feat belonging to the Countess of Dundee by storm ; where he behaved with Buccleugh, within four or five miles of great cruelty, putting Lunídaine, the Gover- Edinburgh, where he constantly resided dunor, and 800 men to the sword. Soon after ring the remaining time, which was five shis, St. Andrews and Aberdeen having also years, that he staid in Scotland ; amusing fuhnitted to him, he was seized with a vio- himself with the pleasures of a rural life, and lent fit of illness, which obliged him in beloved by the people, though his govern1652 to have recourse to the Bath for his re ment was more ablolute than any of their covery : Whence returning, he set out again Princes had dared to practise. The war in for Scotland, as one of the Commissioners Sc tland being put an end to thus fpeedily for uniting that kingdom with the new and happily for the Protector, he appointed erected English Commonwealth ; which a Council of State for that part of his gohaving brought to a successful conclufion, he vernment, confifting of the Lord Broghill, returned with the others ag in to London. General Monk, Col. Howard, created Ear)

The Dutch war having now been carried of Carlile after the restoration, Colonel Wil. on for some months, Lieutenant - general liam Lockhart, Col. Adrian Scroop, Col. Monk, on the death of Colonel Popham, John Whetham, and Major general Dewas joined with the Admirals Blake and borough ; who came to Scotland in SeptemDean in the command at sea ; in which fer- ber 1655, and began to exercise their authoyice he had made his first military essay, the rity, which was very extensive. The majo2d of Jur., 1653, and by his courage and rity of these Commissioners (three of whom, conduct greatly contributed to the defeat then Lord Broghill, Col. Howard, and Col. given to the Dutch fleet, and likewise to Whetham, were afterwards very inftrumenthe next on the 31st of July following. tal in the Restoration) concurred with Ge. While they were thus triumphing over the 'neral Monk in almost every thing he proponation's enemies, and increaling the honour fed, by which means the government of of the Commonwealth abroad, Cromwell Scotland still remained chiefly in his hands : was paving his way to the Supremacy at which, together with his affable behaviour · home, which, on the 16th of December, towards the better fort of all parties, made

1653, he obtained under the title of Protec- Cromwell begin to entertain some fufpicions tor. In this capacity, he foon concluded a of him ; and, in order to prevent his influpeace with the Dutch, who obtained much ence from growing too powerful, the Promore favourable terms from him than what tector used to make frequent changes in the the Council of State and Parliament had ap- forces under his command, by recalling fuch peared willing to grant. General Monk, regiments as were most trusted by the Genewho lay with

his teet on the Dutch coast, ral, and sending in their room those who remonftrated fo warmly againft this peace, were most violent and refractory at home ; and those remonftrances were fo well re- who gave him much trouble to bring them ceived by Oliver's own Parliament, and into order, and make them submit to that Monk, on his return, was treated to kindly discipline which he obliged all under him by them, that Oliver is said to grow jealous fri&tly to observe. Nor was this dikruft inof him to that degree, that he closeted him, tirely without some appearance of foundato fird whether he was inclined to any other tion. It is certain the King entertained interest ; but, receiving fatisfaction from the good hopes of him, and, to that purpose, General on this head, he not only took him wrote to him from Colen on the 12th of into favour, but, on the breaking out of fielh August 16şs. This letter was as follows : troubles in the north of Scotland, where the One, who believes he knows your nature Marquis of Athol, the Earl of Glencairne, and inclinatiops very well, affures me, that, Major-general Middleton, and several more notwithitanding all ill accidents and misforof the Nobility and others, had raised forces tunes, you still retain your old affection to on the behalf of King Charles II, fent him me, and resolve to express it upon the first down there Commandør in Chief, for which feafonable opportunity, which is as much as

I look

I look for from you. We must all pati. Clarges had informed him by Richard's or. ently

wait for that opportunity, which may der, that his late father-had expressly charged be offered fooner than we expect : When it him to do nothing without his advice, (which, is, let it find you ready; and in the neanas Campbell very justly observes, is not at all time have a care to keep yourself out of their likely to be true ;) the General recommended hands, who know the hurt you can do them to him to encourage a learned, pious, and in a good conjuncture ; and can never but moderate Ministry in the Church ; to perfiufpect your affection to be, as I am confi- mit no Councils of Officers, a liberty they dent it is, towards

had too often abused ; to call a Parliameni, Yours, &c. CHARLES, Rex.' and to endeavour to be mister of the army. Colen, Aug. 12, 1655.

It is well known a Parliament was called

by Richard Cromwell, and also, that by th: However, the General made no scruple of divisons arising in the Upper House thereof, discovering every ftep taken by the Cavaliers which spread their influence over the array, which came to his knowledge, even to the he was soon obliged to diffolve it. The fending the Protector this letter, and joined General, receiving advice of these tranfxcin promoting addresses to him froin the army tions, and of the deposition of Richard, readily in Scotland, one of which was inolt graci- abandoned him, and, his brother-in-law bé. oully received by the Protector, March 19, ing again sent to him from the Ramp-Par. 1657, and the same year he received a funi- liainent on their restoration, le acquiefced mons to Oliver's House of Lords.

in all they had done, (as the sureft way to About this time George, fecond son of preserve his own command) only recomGeneral Monk, died in his infancy, which mending Richard to their favour, and with was a great amiction to his father, who was his Officers ligned the engagement againg doatingly fond of him. From this period to Charles Stuart, or any other single person, the death of Oliver, the General maintained being admitted to the Government. But Scotland in absolute Yubjection, and lived free when their Committee, consisting of ten perfrom all disturbance, not intermeddling fur- fons, began, on the information of Person ther with the mad politics of those tintes, and Malon, two republican Colonels in his than to put what orders he received from army, to make considerable alterations thereEngland punctually into execution ; in pur- in, by cashiering of those Officers in whoir suance of which plan he proclaimed Richard he most confided, of which his brother-inCromwell Protector there after his father's law Clarges gave him information, he wrote death, Richard having dispatched Dr. (after- a letter to the House, complaining of this wards Sir). Thomas Clarges, then Commif- treatment in so warm a style, at the same Gioner of the Scotch and Irish forces, whose time engiging for the fidelity of his Offififter the General had some time before cers, that they ordered their Committee not owned for his wife, with letters to him, to to proceed farther therein till the General himwhich he returned a suitable and respectful, self was consulted. The Royalists were far answer, aiming only at fecuring his own from being idle on this conjuncture; there had command ; at the same time joining with the been a kind of secret Committee of that party, reft of the Officers and army under his com- for managing affairs in behalf of the Crown, mand, in an address to the new Protector, ever since the death of Charles I, among whose power he might easily foresee would whom was Sir John Greenvile, our Genehave but a Mort date, it having been his opi- ral's kinsman, who had lately given a very nion, that Oliver, had he lived much longer, good living in Comwall to Mr. Nicholas would scarce have been able to preserve lum- Monk, his brother ; and Sir John receiving felf in his station. And indeed Cromwell at this time tivo letters from King Charles began to be apprehensive of that great altera- II, then at Brussels, one directed to himself, tion which happened in the Government, and and the other to the General, together with fearful that the General was deeply en aged a private commikon to treat with the latter ; in those measures which procured it; if we the success of that overture ended, as is well may judge from a letter wrote hy him to known, in the restortion of the King. General Monk but a little while before his . On the 8th of May, the General assisted death, to which was added the following re at the proclamation of King Charles II, and markable poffcript : There be that tell me, having received advice by Sir Thomas Clarthat there is a certain cunning fellow called ges, that his Majesty intended to land at George Monk, who is said to lie in wait Dover, on the 23d the General set out for there to introduce Charles Stuart; I pray that place, (being the same day the King you use your diligence to apprehend hiin, embarked for Holland) and lying at Roand send him up to me." However, as chelter that night, aniýed the next day-at

Dover, where the King landed the 25th of the Commiffioners for trying the Regi; The interview between the King and the cides, and acted accordingly under it, but oba General was conformable to every one's served great møderation. Soon after his expectaticr, full of duty on one side, and Grace was made Lord Lieutenant of the favour and elteem on the other ; the King counties of Devonshire and Middlesex, and permitting the General to ride in his coach of the borough cf Southwark; and, the Pare iwo miles out of the town, when his Ma- liament voting the disbanding of the army, jesty took horse, and, with General Monk the Duke joined very heartily with Lord on his left hand, and his two brothers on his Chancellor Hyde in promoting that hep, and right, procecled to Canterbury, where he took great pains, by changing of Officers, to conferred the Order of the Garter on Gene- bring it to be submitted to quietly ; in ral Monk, the Dukes of York and Gloucef which he succeeded, all but bis own regiter inverting him with the honourable badges ment of foot, and a new-raised regiment of of that dignity. From Canterbury the King horse for the King's guard, being paid off removed to Rochester, where he lay on Mon- and dilinisid, as some time before had been day the 28th, and, the next morning being the Commissioners for Scotland, by a letter his birth-day, set out for Blackheath to re. from the Duke of Albemarle, signifying ta view the army which the General had caused them, that it was the King's pleasure not to be drawn up there, and from thence pro- to have them intermedde any more in the ceeded to his capital, into which he made his government of that kingdom. public entry with much magnificence. Ge In January following, while the King neral Monk was now sworn one of the was accompanying his mother and Mter og Privy-council, made Master of the Horse, their retuin to France, the Duke was em: and one of the Gentlemen of the Bed-chain- ployed at London in quelling an infuitce. ber, and had apartments in the Cockpit, and cion made by fome Fifth-Monarchy men, was in a little time made Firft Lord-com- under one Venner, a wine - cooper: who mifsioner of the Treafury, and in about a were with forme difficulty reduced by the month afterwards was created a Peet, being Duke of Albemarle's regiment, after repule made Baron Monk of Potheridge, Beau- fing some detachments of the city inilitia, champ, and Tees, Earl of Torrington, and and the new raifed horse. This gave rise to Duke of Albeinurie, with a grant of 7000l. a proposal for keeping up some standing 2 year efate of inheritance, besides other forces, but the Duke was averse thereto, penlions; and received a very peculiar ac- saying, “That his endeavouring to continue knowledgment of regard on being thus cal- any part of the army would be liable to fo led to the Peerage, almoft the whole House much misinterpretation, that he would by of Commons attending him to the very door no means appear in it : But, being mucha of the Houic of Loris, whither, Dr. skin- follicited to countenance the scheme, he taner obferves, he carried the fame temper, citly consented not to hinder their endeamoderation, filence, and humility, that he vours thercin, and fairly infinuated, that the had thewn in the House of Commons. By keeping his regiment on foot (the first model the income of his grants and places, he was of a ftanding army in time of peace in Eng, inabled in eight years time to amass a for- land) was owing to his want of opposition.. tune of 400,000l. in lands and money; The 22d of April, 166, the Duke, as yet, it mult be owned, he was not overpaid Master of the Hirse, attended the King in for the share he had in this glorious revolu- his procession (leading the horse of state) tion : So great a service, that his Majesty from the Tower to Whitehall, and te next Rused to całì him his political father; and he day carried the sceptre and dove, and was behaved so modefly after it, that the King one of the supporters of the canopy during faid of him,' The Duke of Albemarle de- the royal unction at the Coronation ; after meaned himself in fucà a manner to the which, he and the Duke of Buckingham Prince he had obliged, as never to feem to did homage for themselves, and the rett of overvalue the fervices of General Monk.' their degree. The latter part of this yeu he And we are told, that Sir Edward Nicholas, was attacked with a dangerous iilness, from who had been Secretary of State to two which he was recovered by the King's phyKings, fail, “That the industry and Yer- fician, Sir Robert Frazer ; after this, every vice which the Duke of Albemarle had paid thing being in full peace, he enjoyed himself to the Crown lince the King's restoration, for some time in retirement ; till, on the without reflecting upon his Tervice before, breaking out of the first Dutch war, in deserved all the favour and bounty which his 1664, he was, by his Royal Highness the Majesty had been plased to confer upon Duke of York, who commanded the fleet, him. In Catobur, ile Duke was made one intrufted wil the care of the Admiralty, re

ceiving

citing at the fame time a very obliging let-' 36th of May, 1667, his Majesty, after the ker froin his Royal Highness.

peace, put the Treasury in commiftiun, at I he plague broke out in London the ibe bead of which was again placed his fame year, and, the King removing from Grace the Duke of Albemarle. This was thance to Oxford, the Duke of Albem:rle's the last testimony of the royal favour his vigilance and activity made his Majesty re. Grace received ; for, being now in the both gard him as the fittelt Nobleman to intrust year of his age, the many hardthips and fawith the care of his capital city in that time tigues he had undergone in a military life of imminent danger and dittreis ; which ad began to thake his constitution hitherto reditional burden he chearfully underwent, markably healthy, he being about this time and fas greatly affifted therein by the Arch attacked with a droply, the tirit fyımptoms of bishop of Canterbury and the Earl of (ra which were too much neglected. In this ven. About Michaelmas the King fent for declining condition, he withdrew from pubhim to Oxford, whither he went post, and lic business, as much as his poft and the on his arrival found his Majesty had ap state of affairs would permit, and retired to pointed Prince Rupert and himfell joint Ad. his seat at Newiiall, in the county of Esex, mirals of the fleet for the ensuing year ; where he was prevailed upon by the imporwhich dangerous poft, though many of his tunity of friends to try a pill then in voguc, friends ditiuaded him, he readily accepted, being a preparation of one Doctor Sennon, and immediately fet himte!f diligently about of Bristol, who had formerly served under his his new employment, wherein all the care of Grace, as a common foldier ; from which he finishing those new thips which were on the at first received such confiderable relief, that ftocks, repairing the old ones which had towards the luier end of the year he returned been much damaged in an action with the to town. But, foon after falling into a reDutch that fummer, rigging, victualling, lapse, with the addition of an althmatic comand manning the whole fleet, fell chietly to plaint, he fet about finishing the latt great his lot, and was so effectually and expedi- temporal afair, the m:riage of his only siously pursued by him, the seamen offering fon with the Lady Elilabeth, eldest daughter in crowels to the service, because they faidh to Henry, Earl of Ogle, only fon to Charles, they were fure honest George (as they com the then Duke of Niwcastle : Which being monly called him) would let them well fed fettled, the nuptial ceremony was performed and juftiy paid, that on the 23d of April, in his own chamber, Dec. 30, 1669; and, 1666, the Prince and he took their leaves of on January 3, four days after, he died fitting the King, and repaired on board the fleet; in kis chair, wiilout a single groan. where the former hoisted his dag, having Sir 7 hus, in the entrance of the 62d year of George Ascough under him, as Admiral of his life, died this noble and valiant Comman the White on board the Royal James ; and der (for, whatever disputes there have been athe latter, as Admiral of the Red, on board bout his civil cap city, his military skill or the Royal Charles.

his courage was never called in question) The particulars of his bravery against the beloved by mott, adinired by many, and enDutch in this ftation are, properly, the sub- vied but by few. In his last year, many ject of general history, to which we therefore differences arising between the persons in refer. He retumej home in the beginning power, and especially between the two Houof September, and lay with the fleet at an les of Parliament, he en leavoured, almoft to chor in the bay of St. Helen's, near Spit- his latest minute, to recommend unanimity head During that interval, broke out the to the Itudy of those who visited him, which terrible fire in London, which beginning on were the greatett men in the nation ; partithe ad of Septeraber, 1666, burned with un- cularly the Earl of Bath and the Lord Arparalleled fury for three days, and laid the lington, as well as several of the Members of greatert part of the city in aihes ; this unex both Houses ; whom he conjured to prepested accident occafioned the Duke of Al serve always a good understanding hetween bemarle to be recalled from the feet, to af- the two Houses, and to prevent his Mahipio quieting the minds of the people, who jesty's Crown and Government from fufferexprefied their affection and esteem for hin, ing any inconvenience by the passions or proby crying out publicly, as he palled through judices of thole who were fo nearly oblige.l to the ruined itreets, that, if his Grace had been take care of it. That he died in the etteem there, the city had not been burnt ; than of his Sovereign and his brother the Duke of which they coull scarce give a more extrava. York is rery clear, not only from the high gant mark, in what high opinion they held posts he enjoyed under, and the great trust rehis abilities.

posed in him hy both ; but also from the tender The Earl of Southampton dying on the concem thorn by them, in a constant inquiry

aftos

after his fate during the latter part of his ill- temperance, he made himself liardy to fuch : nels, and by tire public and princely regard degree, that he was inabled to march at the paid to his me nory after his dece sfé, by ho- liead of his regiment every day on horseback, nouring his funeral folemnity with all the under the finall-pox ; and, by a constant perpomp such forrowful pageantry is cap.ble of; severance in the faine virtue, he could lupand admitting his aines to mingle with those port fatigue longer than molt men, without of the ancestors of that King whom he had ileep. His countenance is said to carry in it fixed in their throne. Extraordinary merit, much military grandeur and affability"; his wi ether real or imputed, must always rub- fight was rather short, but his hearing remit to pay the tax of envy, and, frequently, markably quick, and both continued good the greater the desert, the heavier the impoii- to the last. He was ever an early riler, and, tion of calumny; luch the Duke of Albe- baving dispatched all his domeftic affairs by marle found it while living, such the treat- feven in the morning, he applied himself to ment his name has met with tince his decease. the public business of the day, giving audiIlis loyalty has been termud felf intereit, his enice to all that cume; and, if poffible, difvalour' ralhness, his æconomy avarice, and patched the requests of the poor instantanehis closeness and taciturnity want of capacity; outly. He constantly discouraged opprefand, not content with thus depreciating his sion, laying it down as a maxin, that those worth as a man, they have brought some in cominand under him ought to exert their very heavy accusations againit him as a power rather in protecting, than in pillaging Count Hor of State : The titt is his occa. those who did their duty, for the neglect of fioning the death of the Marquis of Argyle, which, he admitted no excufe ; being very by betraying a private correspondence ; the strict in discipline, and a punctual obferver fécond was his proposing the King's match of his word, a remarkable inftance of both with Catharine of Portugal ; and the third being told of him, at the clofe of the firft his not only consenting to, but advising the Dutch war under Cromwell. The failors, fale ef Dunkirk. All three have been growing very importunate for their prizebrought against him only by Bishop Burnet, money, afienbled in great numbers about which is almost fufficient to overthrow them; the Navy-office to demand it : He spoke to but whoever is not of that opinion may find them, telling them there were 1500 Thips to him fully justified from each in Campbell's be disposed of, and as soon as thnle were told Lives of the Admirals.

they Mould be paid ; upon this, they all We Mall here close his public character dispersed : But, in the afternoon, they are by observing, that he had abilities fufficient to sembled again, to the number of near gooo, carry all his deligns into execunion, and to with arms, and c me towards Whitehall, defeat the attempts of trole who opposed near which they were met by Cromwell and him ; and was fortunate enough to have it other Officers, accompanied by General in his power, and in his only, to do more Monk; who, reproaching them with dirthan ever any lubject did, recall his Sove- trusting his word, which he had never broke, reign, from a 12 years exile in poverty and he drew his sword, and, wounding some of distress, to the full and peaccable pollestion the foremost, the rest were fo-alarmed at his of the dignity, wealth, and potency of his intrepidity, that they inftantly retired, and progenitors. The means and motives which waited patiently for his promise, which was induced him to undertake, or were used by in a short time punctually performed. His him to perfect this great incideni in his life, courage was truly great, he being as cool and have been varioully treated by various wri- fedate in the midlt of the hottelt lervice, as at ters, nor have there been wanting competi- any other period, as his behaviour on the tors for the fole honour of the action ; but, death of Admiral Dean, who was killed by upon a strict examination of the several bare his fide, fufficiently thews : And when fome facts, it will appear, that, if General Monk about him in the action at Chathair, where had not readily and heartily thrown his he exposed himself to the thickest of the weight into the scale, faction would have enemy's shot, advised him to retire to fome .continued to outweiga loyalty ; and the great fafer place; he only answered, Sir, if I change for the worse, which happened foon had been afraid of bullets, I thould have after his death, is the grcatest compliment quitted this trade of a soldier long ago. that can be paid to the memory, counsels, And we are told, by no lels authority than and conduct of the Duke of Albemarle. that of the Duke of Buckingham, an eyt

His perion was of the middle stature, and witness, that in King Charles the Second's every way well proportioned, which, with a Dutch war, in the engagement on the firit remarkable good conttitution, rendered him of /une, before he began, le declarer!, . He buth (trong and active, and, by an early was fure of one thing, that he would rarbe

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