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the shore to the vessels happening to over their hands. That profound and amazing turn, he fell into the sea, whisit he hurried for- fecrely with which the conspiracy had been 'ward too precipitately. Being loaded with concerted, and which had contributed hiheavy armour, he funk to the bottı m, and therto so much to its success, proved now the perished in the very moment when he chief cause of its miscarriage. The leader muft have taken full possession of every thing was gone, the greater part of those who acted that his ambitious heart could desire. Ver- under him knew not his confidents, and rina was the first who discovered this fatal were strangers to the object at which he accident, and, foreseeing, at once, all its con- aimed. There was no person among them sequences, concealed it with the utmost induf- whosc authority or abilities intitled him to aftry from every one but a few leadeřs of the fume Fiesco'splace, or to finith his plan; after conspiracy. Nor was it difficult, amidst the having lost the spirit which animated it, life darkness and confufion of the night, to have and activity deserted the whole body. Many kept it feeret, until a treaty with the Senators of the conspirators withdrew to their houses, should have put the city in the power of the hoping that amidst the darkness of the night conspirators. All their hopes of this were dif- they had passed unobserved, and mightreniain concerted bythe imprudence of Jerome Fiesco, unknown. "Others fought for safety by à who, when the Deputies of the Senate in- timely retreat; and, before break of day, quired for his brother, the Count of Lavag- all of them fled with precipitation from na, that they might make their proposals to a city, which, but a few hours before, was him, replied with a childish vanity, 'I am ready to acknowledge them as masters, now the only person to whom that title be Next morning every thing was quiet in longs, and with me you must treat. I hele Genoa ; not an enemy was to be seen ; few words discovered both to his friends and marks of the violence of the former night enemies what had happened, and made the appeared, the conspirators having condu&ted impression which might have been expected their enterprise with more noise than bloodupon both. The Deputies encouraged by thed, and gained all their advantages by furthis event, the only one which could occasion prise, rather than by force of arms. Tofuch a sudden revolution as might turn to wards evening, Andrew Doria returned to their advantage, assumed instantly, with ad- the city, being met by all the inhabitants, mirable presence of mind, a new tone suita- who received him with acclamations of joy. ble to the change in their circumstances, and Though the disgrace as well as darger of made high demands. While they endea- the preceding night were fresh in his mind, voured to gain time by protracting the nego- and the inangled body of his kinsman still ciation, the rest of the Senators were busy in before his eyes, fuch was his moderation and assembling their partisans, and forming a magnanimity, that the decree iflued by the body capable of defending the palace ot the Senate againit the conspirators did not exRepublic. On the other hand, the conspi- ceed that just measure of severity which was rators, astonished at the death of a man whom requisite for the support of Government, and they adored and trusted, and placing no con was dictated neither by the violence of reIdence in Jerome, a giddy youth, felt their sentment, nor the rancour of revenge. courage die away, and their arms fall from

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Observation on a CITRON, contained in a Citron, by John Daniel Major, Professor of Anatomy and Botany in the University of Keil. From the Ephemerides of the Curious.

OT long since, a friend of our town Sachs Gammarol, L. 1. cap. 8, has given

of Keil bought some citrons or an account of several examples of like Spanish lemons, which the Hamburgh mer- impregnations in citrons, taken from the chants told at the fair, and he had them laid works of Wormius and Bartholine; and, in np in his cellar to be used occasionally. the appendix to this chapter, he fays he was Some time after opening one of these citrons, credibly informed that citrons of a limilar be found in its center another citron about nature are often found in Italy, the bigness of a chesnut, the peel of which was of a fine yellow, and most agreeable Extract from the Notes on this Obfervaimell, but its figure irregular. This little tion, by Henry Vollgnad, Secretary to citron weighed three drachms and a half, and both were without pippis ; an appearance

the Academy of the Curious. only of them being perceptible is the finaller. John Baptist Ferrarius (lib, ij. de malor.


aure. Cultur.) fays that this fort of fuperfeta- are likewise perceived the germina of other tion is peculiar to one of the best kind of small lemons. These fruits, continues the lemons, which is called in Italy cedrino, and author, open frequently of themselves on the grows in all parts of Tuscany,

but particu- tree, to give birth, as it were, to those they Tarly in the fertile territory of Pietra Santa, contain ; and he next obferves that this species 'where it never freezes by reason of the warm of lemon has a more fragrant smell than any winds that blow from the Tea, and where other, and that its pulp is also more delicate, reigns a perpetual spring; fo that blossoms and more agreeable to the taste. The rind are always found on these shrubs. Their of some of them is quite smooth, and of fruit, says this author, is sometimes longifh others it is diseminated with tubercks. and pointed, and sometimes rounder. If They have few pippins, which are often llit in several portions either longitudinally empty and without kernels, and the leaves of or transversely, another lemon is found with the thrubs are of a deep green, large, and in, and that often contains a third, in which ject to cockle. We bere give our Readers the LIFE of WILLIAM LAUD, fuccefively Bishop

of St. David's; of Bath and Wells; of London; and Archbishop of Canterbury; in the last Century. There ever hardly was any Person, whose Charaller has been so differently represented, and of whom so much Good and so much Evil have been said. For our Part, we shall endeavour to avoid both Extremes, and, for that Purpos, abide only by Facts, which speak for themselves, and carry with them their own Praise, or Reproach.-See a well-engraved Head of Archbishop Laud, in our Magazine for October, 1752.

HE Prelate, whose life we undertake person whom he looked upon as his inferior; William Laud, a clothier of Reading, in dice against Mr. Laud, which no time could Berkshire, by Lucy, bis wife, widow of either lessen or abolith; and to give afterJohn Robinson, of the same place, and lister wards this unfavourable character of him, as to Sir William Webbe, afterwards Lord appears in Rushworth's Collections : His Mayor of London. He was born within life in Oxford was to pick quarrels in the the parish of St. Lawrence, in Reading, Oc- lectures of the public readers, and to advertober

7, 1573 ; and educated in the free tise them to the then Bishop of Durham, that school of that town till July 1589, when he he might fill the ears of King James with was admitted into St. John's-college, in Ox discontents against all the honest men that ford, of which he was chosen Icholar in took pains in their places, and settled the June, 1590, and fellow in June, 1593. He truth (which he called Puritanism) in their took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in June, auditors. He made it his work to see what 1994 ; and that of Mafter, in July 1598, in books were in the press, and to look over which year he was Grammar-reader. And epistles dedicatory, and prefaces to the reader, being ordained Deacon the

4th of January, to see what faults might be found.' 1600, and Priest the 5th of April 1601, he In the year 1603, he was one of the Proco read, the year following, a Dwinity lecture tors of the University ; and on the 3d of in his college, which was then maintained September, the same year, was made Chap by Mrs. Maye.

lain to Charles Blount, Earl of Devonshire, It was, either in reading this lecture, or whom he inconsiderately married, the 26th of fome other chapel exercise, that he maine December, 1605, to Penelope, then wife of tained the constant and perpetual visibility of Robert Lord Rich ; an affair that caused the church of Christ, derived from the Apos- him afterwards great uneasiness, and exposed tles to the church of Rome, continued in that him to much censure. This Charles Blount Church, (as in others of the east and south) was a younger brother of William Blount, till the Reformation. Dr. Abbot, Mafter Lord Mountjoy; and had, in Queen Elifa. of University-college, and Vice-chancellor, beth's reign, greatly distinguished himself bý traced it, on the contrary,

from the Berenga- his bravery and conduct in the wats in Irerians to the Albigenses, from the Albigen. Jand; particularly at the battle of Kinsale, ses to the Wicklefifts, from these to the Huf- wherein he defeated the rebellious Irish, útes, and from the Hussites to Luther and broke their whole force, reduced that king. Calvin : And, he being a very rigid Puri- domn to the obedience of that Crown, and san, and perhaps thinking it a derogation to brought Tir-Oen, the arch rebel, prifoner his parts and credit to be contradicted by a with him into England. Before the year


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1588, he made his addresses to the Lady James did for many years take fo.ill, that he Penelope, daughter of Walter Devereux, would never hear of any great preferment of Earl of Efex, a Lady of great wit and Mr. Laud, insomuch that Dr. Williams, beauty ; and the had so far complied with Bishop of Lincoln, who took upon himself to his desires, that some assurances passed be- be the first promoter of him, many times tween them of a future marriage.' But her faid,

That, when he made mention of Laud to friends, lookinglon Mr. Blount as a younger the King, his Majesty was fo averfe from it, brother, considerable only in his dependences that the Bishop was constrained oftentimes to at Court, chofe to dispose of her in marriage fay, He would never desire to serve that to Robert, Lord Rich, a mán of an indepen- master, who could not remit one fault uuto dent fortune, and a known estate, but other- his servant. However, it made so deep an vife of an uncourtly dispolition, imfociable, impreflion upon Mr. Laud, that he ever after auftere, and of no very agreeable conversation kept the 26th of December as a day of fastto her. Against this marriage Mr. Blounting and humiliation. He took the degree of had no:hing fufficient to plead, the promi- Bachelor of Divinity, July , 1604. The Yes that had passed between them having exercile he performed upon that occafion been made in private without any witnesses, gave offence to the Calvinists, the questions and therefore not amounting to a pre-con- he then disputed upon being,

"The Netract in due form of law. The Lord Rich'cessity of Baptism. 2. That there could be had by her three fons; one of whom was no true church without Diocesan bishops." Robert, afterwards E. of Warwick; another For which last he was fhrewdly rattled by Henry, Earl of Holland; and four daugh- Dr. Holland, the Divinity Profeffor, as one bers. But they had not lived many years that did endeavour to cak' a bone of discord together before the old fames of her affection betwixt the church of England and the Reto Blount began to kindle again in her formed churches beyond the feas. And, for breaft; so that, having first had their private the first, it was obje ted, That he had takch mectings, they afterwards conversed more the greatest part of his fupposition out of Bel, openly with one another, than might stand larminé's works, as if every thing contained with their mutual honour ; especially when, in that Cardinal's works, though never 16 by the death of his elder brother, the title of true, was false, because it was laid by him. Lord Mountjoy, and the estate, had de- 'A ttrong inltance of foolith prejudice i jcended to him; as if the alteration of his A fermon le preached at St. Mary's on *Fortune could lesen the offence, or stop poo- the 26th of October, 1606, afforded likewise ple's mouths. Finding her, at his return matter of offence. What fubject it was From the wars of Ireland, freed legally from upon, or what the exceptionable passages in Lord Rich, by a divorce, and not a volun it were, is not recorded any-where in print. tary separation only " a toro & menfa ;' he But, however, Dr. Airay, the then Vicethought himlelf obliged to make her fome re chancellor, a man intirely oppolite to him paration in point of honour, by taking her with regard to Calvinistical notions, quef. into his bosom as a lawful wife. Belides, le tioned him for that fermon, as containing in had some children by her, before she was it sundry scandalous and Popish passages : actually separated from Lord Rich (one of the good man, as Heylin expresies-it

, takwhich, Mountjoy Blount, afterwards attained ing all things to be matter of Popery, which to the title of Earl of Newport) whom he were not helu forth unto him in Calvin's Inconceived he might have put into a capacity stitutes ; conceiving that there was as much of legitimation, by his fublequent marriage, dolatry in bowing at the name of Jesus, a according to the rule and practice of the civil in worshipping the brazen ferpent. But laws, in which it passeth for a maxim, That Mr. Laud fo fully vindicated himself, that subsequens matrimonium legitimat pro he was not obliged to make any recantation. lem. And to that end he dealt fo power- Dr. Abbot likewise, taking advantage of this fully with his Chaplain, that he disposed sermon, fo violently persecuted Laud, and so him to perform the rites of matrimony; openly branded him for a Papist, or at leaft which was accordingly done at Wanitead, very Popishly inclined, that it was almoft Dec. 26, 1605.. The chief 'reason Mr. made an berely, as he himself told Dr. Hey. Laud grounded himself upon, in that extra- lin, for any one to be seen in his company; ordinary proceeding, was, That, in case of a and a milfrision of heresy to give him a civil divorce, as here, both the innocent and the falutation as he walked the streets. Strange guilty party may laivfülly marry, if they instance of intolerance and want of due mopleale ;' which Maldonate makes to be the derati n! general opinion of the Lutheran and Calvi The first preferment he had was the vicanian ministers, as also of fome Catholic Doc- rage of Stanford, in Northamptonshire, into bors. But this inconsiderate action King which he was inducted November 13, 1607;


and in April, 1608, he obtained the advowson yond the seas can say they are wholly theirs ; of North-Kilworth, in Leicestershire. On and the Recufants at home make tbeir brags the 6th of Jupe following, he proceeded of them.-Might not Christ say, What art Doctor in Divinity. At the recoinmenda- thou, Romish or English ? Papift or Protion of Dr. Buckeridge, he was made Chap- teftant ? or, what art thou ? A mongrel, or lain, August 5, 1608, to Richard Neile, Bi- compound of both : A Proteftant by ordinakrop of Rochester. And, that he might be tion, a Papist in point of Free-will, inherent near his patron, he exchanged North-Kil- Righteousness, and the like. A Protestant worth for the rectory of Welt Tilbury, in in receiving the Sacrament, a Papist in the Elsex ; into which he was inducted October docuine of the Sacrament.' So that Dr. 28, 1609. Tlue Bihop gwe him, shortly Laud's not having the fame sentiments as after, May 25, 1610, the living of Cuck- Calvin's or Augustin's followers, about Freestone, in Kent. Whereupon, resigning his will, inherent Righteousness, &c. were the fellowship the ad of O&tober following, and mighty arguments of his being a Papift. leaving Oxford the 8th of the same month, The Lord Chancellor carried those com he went and resided at Cuckstone. But the plaints to the King, which had like to have unhealthfulness of that place having brought destroyed at once Dr. Laud's credit, intereft, an ague upon him, he exchanged it soon for and advancement, if his constantand immove. Norton, a benefice of leis value, but in a bet- able friend Bifhop Neile had not effaced ter air. About the same time, viz. the 29th those ill impressions. Notwithstanding, of December, 1610, Dr. Buckeridge, Presi- therefore, those indirect means, he was ele&. dent of St. John's-college, being promoted ed President of St. John's, the 10th of May, to the bishopric of Rochester, in the place of 1611, by a maiority of the Fellows, though Dr. Neile, translated to the fee of Litchfield he was then fick in London, and unable eiand Coventry; Dr. Abbot, newly made ther to make interest in person, or by writing Archbishop of Canterbury, retaining his old to his friends : And some of his competitors grud,e against Dr. Laud, complained of him having appealed to King James, his Majesty to the Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, Chancel- not only confirmed his election, the 29th of lor of the University, in order to prevent his August, 1611, but, in further token of his being elected President of the foresaid college. favour, caused him to be sworn one of his

The substance of his complaint was, " That Chaplains the 3d of November next enfu: Dr. Laud was at the least a Papist in heart, ing, upon the recommendation of Bishop and cordially addicted unto Popery ; that he Neile. kept company with none but professed and ful Our ambitious and aspiring Doctor having pested Papists; and that, if he were suffered thus set foot within the Court, Aattered to have any place of government in the Uni- himself with hopes of great and immeverlity, it would undoubtedly turn to the diate preferment. But Archbishop Abbot great detriment of religion, and dishonour of standing always an obstacle in his way, no his Lordihip.'. What Archbishop, Abbot preferment came; so that, after three years meant by Dr. Laud's being addicted to Po- fruitless waiting, he was upon the point of pery may be explained from these few passa- leaving the Court, and retiring wholly to his ges, in a fermon of his brother's preached be- college, had not his friend and pation Bishop fore the University, and directly levelled 3- Neile, newly translated to Lincoln, advised gaint Dr. Laud. - S. me, says he, are him to stay one year longer. In the mesa partly Romih, partly Englih, as occafion time, to keep up his fpirits, the Bishop kerves them, that a man might say unto them, gave him the prehend of Bugden in Nofter es, an adverfariorum ? Who, under the church of Lincoln, the eighteenth of pretence of truth, and preaching against the April, 1614 ; and, the ist of December, Puritans, ftrike at the heart and root of the 1615, the archdeaconry of Huntingdon. faith and religion now established amongst Upon the Lord Chancellor Ellefinere's deus. If they do at any time speak against the cline, in 1616, Dr. Laud's interest began to Papists, they do but beat a little about the rise at Court; fo that in November that buth, and that but softly too, for fear of year, the King gave him the deanery of waking and disquieting the birds that are in Gloucester ; a dignity indeed of no great vait; they fpeak nothing but that wherein one lue, but which established his reputation. Papift will speak against another ; as against He then resigned the rectory of West-Tilequivocation and the Pope's temporal autho- bury. As a further inftance of his being in nity, and the like ; and perhaps fome of their favour, he was pitched upon to attend the blafphemous speeches : But in the points of King in his journey to Scotland, which he Free-will, Juftification, Concupiscence being began the sth of March, 1616-19. But a fin after baptism, inherent Righteousness, before he set out, by his procurement fome zod Certainty of Salvation, the Papilts be- royal directions were sent to Oxford, for the


ter government of that University. The de- mother, in order to confirn them both in the din of King James s jourxey was to bring Protestant religion, wherein they were then the church of Scotland to an uniformity

with wavering : Which conference was printed in that of England ; a favourite ichime of Dr. 1624. That brought an intimate acquaintLaud and some other divines. But the ance between him and the Marquis, whose Scots were Scots, as Dr Heylin expresses its special favourite and confesor he became ; and resolved to go their own way, whatever and to whom, it is feared, he made himfelf was the consequence. So that the King too much fubfervient. So that the Marquis gained nothing by that chargeable journey, left him his agent at Court, when he went obut the negleet of his commands, and a con. ver with the Prince into Spain ; and fr3tempt of his authority.

quently corresponded with him from thence. Dr. Laud, on his return from Scotland, About October, 1623, the Lord Keeper the ad of Auguit, 1617, was inducted to the William's jealousy for the Duke of Buckrectory of Ibitock, in Leicestershire, belong- ingham's fpecial favour towards Bishop Laud, ing to the patronage of the Bithop of Rochet or misunderstandings and mifrepresentations ter, of whom he had it in exchange for Nor on both fides from tale-bearers, and busyton. And January 22, 1620-21, was in- bodies, occasioned such violent quurels and ftalled into a prebend of Westminster, of enmity between those two Prelates as were whith Bishop Neile had procured him a grant attended with the worft consequences. Arch ten years before. About the fame time, bishop Abbot resolving also to keep Bifhop there was a general expectation at Court, Laud down as long as he could, left him out that the deanery of that church would have of the high commillion, of which the Bishop been cnferred upon him. But Dr. John complained to the Duke of Buckingham, Williams, then Dean, wanting to keep it November 1, 1624, and then was put in. in commendam with the bishopric of Lin. in September, 1624, he opposed the facrilecoln, to which he was proinoted, got Dr. gions design formed by the Duke of BuckLaud put off with the bishopric of St. ingham, of appropriating the large endowDavid's ; which was become vacant by the inent of the Charter-house to the maintetranslation of Dr. Richard Milbourne to mance of an army, under pretence of its beCarlisle; though Archbishop Abbot ob- ing for the King's advantage, and the ease of ftructed his rife as much as poisible. Being the subject. And on the 23d of December therefore nominated Bihop of St. David's following, he presented to him a tract drawn the 29th of June 1625, he was elected Oc- up at his request about doctrinal Puritanifm, tober 20, and consecrated, the 18th of No- in len heads. He corresponded also with ven.ber, by the Bishops of London, Worc him, during his voyage into France, about cefter, Chichester, Ely, Landaff, and Ox the marriage of the Princess Henrietta Maria ford; the Archbishop being then under fome with King Charles I That Prince, foon kind of disability, on account of the cafual after his accession to the throne, wanting to homicide of the keeper of Bramshill-park. regulate the number of his Chaplains, and to The day before his

confecration, he religned know the principles and qualifications of the the Prelidentship of St. John's, by reason of most eminent divines in the kingdom, our the strictness of the college-itatute which he Bishop was ordered to draw a liit of them, would not violate, nor his oath to it, under which he distinguished by the letter O. for any colour. But he was permitted to keep Orthodox, and P. for Puritans. At that his prebend of Westminster in commendam, King's coronation, February-2, 1625-6, he through the Lord Keeper's interest ; who, officiatod as Dean of Westminster, in the about a year after, gave him a living of 1201. roon of Bishop Williams, who was then in a year in the diocese of St. David's, to help disgrace ; and is said to have altered the cohis revenue. And in January 1622-3, the ronation-oath, which was an invidious and King gave him also in commendara the rec groundless accufation, the book of King tory of Creek, in Northamptonshire. James's coronation, and the other urged

The preachers of those times meddling against him concerning King Charles, being with the abstruse doctrines of predestination i en and compared openly in the House of and election, and the royal prerogative, more Lords, and found to be the same oath in hoch, than was agreeable to the Court ; his Ma and no interlining or alteration in the book jesty published, on the 4th of Augutt 1622, charged against him. directions concerning preachers and preach In 1628, he was translated from St. Das ing, in which Bithop Laud is faid to have vid's to the bishopric of Bath and Wells; had a band. This year alfo, Bishop Laud and in 1628, to that of London. October had a conference with Finli't the Jefuit, be 3, 1676, the King appointed him Dean of fore the Marquis of Buckinghain, and his his royal chapel, and one of his Privy-coun


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