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with young, and yeans towards the end of found. Though common in Scotland, there April, or beginning of May. Hinds go with are none in England and Ireland ; there are young upwards of eight months; and this but few in Italy; and they are more feldom. difference alone would be fulficient to prove; met with in Sweden, than they were formertlsat these animals are of a species renicte e- ly. This may happen, either by the dimi-, nough from each other to exclude approaches, nution of foreits, or the effect of some fevere. of commixture, or the proriuction together winter, as that of 1709, and 40, when alof an intermediate race. In this respect, as most all of them perished; so that several well as by figure and size, they approach the years paffed before the species was re-ettabfpecies of the goat, as much as they are di- lished : Besides, they do not equally delight tiant from the fpecies of the stag ; for the in all countries, because in the fame they will goat goes with young nearly the same time, affect particular spots ; they love hills or and the rou-buck may be conlilered as a plains on the top of mountains ; they do not wild goat, which, living only on wood, resort to the depth of forelts, nor the middle carries a wood on his head instead of horns. of woods of a vast extent ; they more wilThe fernale, in yeaning - time, separates lingly occupy the skirts of woods surrounded from the male, concealing herself in the with ploughed lands, thin coples, and on bad clofeft and thickelt part of the woods, to a- ground, where there is plenty of bruinbles, void wolves, which, in countries infested thorn, and the like. by them, are her most dangerous enemies. The fawns reinain, in the whole, eight or In ten or twelve days, the young fawns have nine months with their fire and dain ; and, already strength enough to follow her: when they are separated, that is, towar's the When she is threat ned with danger, the end of the first year of their age, their first hides them in some bye-place, and, facing head begins to appear under the form of two aboot, fuffers herself to be hunted for them; brochets or shoots much less than those of the but all her cues cannot hinder men, dogs, stag ; but what still makes a great difference and wolves robbing her aften of her young. between these animals, is that the stag does This is the most critical time, and that of not cal his horns till spring, and is not rethe greatest destinction of this species, which, cruited in that respect till limmet ; whereas indeed, is not otherwise numerous. More the robuck cafts his at the end of antumn, of them are destroyed in the month of May, and recovers them in winter. Several caufes than in all the ielt of the year; and it may concur to produce those different effects. he remarked, that, as if in all things there The stag feeds abundantly in summer, and was a perfect æquilibrium between the causes grows excceding fat; afterwards he exhansts of destruction and renovation, their number hinself by rutting, so as to require the whole is always very nearly the same, in the fame winter for recovering and recruiting his tračls of ground. It is not difficult to rec- strength : Far therefore from his then havkon them, because they are no-where very ing any superabundance, he labours under a numerous, go together in families, and deficiency of substance, and consequeutly his each family has a separate habitation ; fo head cannot bud till spring, when he has fed that, for instance, in a cople of an hun- sufficiently to afford a superfiuity. The roedred acres, there will be one family, that is, buck, on the contrary, who does not exhauft three, four, or five; for the female, which himself so much, does not require fo much commonly produces two fawns, sometimes repair ; and, as he is never loaded with fat, geaus but one, and sometin:es three, though he is always almost the fame : Rutting makes but very rarcly. In another tract of no alteration in his state ;' he has at all times ground of double extent, there will be the same fuperabundance ; fo that, even in leven or eight, that is, two families ; so winter, and shortly after rusting, he cafts, that the observation may hold good con and is reinstated in his head. Thus, in all stantly as to the fame number, except in these aniinals, the superfuity of organic food, years when the winters have been too rigo.. before determining towards the feminal resous, and the snows abundant and of long servoirs, and forming the feminal liquor, duration. It often then happens that the proceeds towards the head, and manifests itwhole family becomes extinct; but the year ielf externally by the production of horns, following another family takes up its refi- the same way as in man hair and beard andence in the same piece of ground, and the nounce and precede the feminal liquor ; and parts they love preferably to others are nearly it appears, that these productions, which are, equally peopled. It is, however, pretende:l, as it were vegetable, are formed of an orgathat in general the number of thele aninals nic matter, fuperabundant, yet still imperis diminished, and it is true, that there are feet, and mixed with brute parts, as itin provinces in France wiere none are now preferving, in their growth and fubitance, the


qualities of the vegetable; whereas the semi- the burs, in an old ftag, or roebuck, lean nal liquor, the production of which is more pretty rear on the frontal bone, whole emiss tardive, is a matter purely organic, intirely nences are become very large, and vet divested of brute parts, and perfectly afsimi- short: This is the fureit indication for know lated to the animal's body. 7

ing advanced age in all these animals. It When the roe-buck has repaired his head, feems, that a reason may be easily afsigned he rubs it against wood as the stag to strip it for this effect, which a first appears tinguof the skin it is covered with ; and this helar, but which ceafes being to, upon coafcommonly does in the month of March, be- dering, that the horns which bear upon this fore the trees begin to bud. It is not there- eminence press it down, during the whole fore the fap of the wood that tinges the roe- time of their growth; that, consequentiya buck's head ; yer it becomes brown rubbed they compress it with a great force every yez against trees of a brown rind, and yellow a. for several months together ; and, as this gainst those that are red; for there are rie- bone, though hard, is not harder than other bucks distinguished by these two colours ; bones, it cannot help yielding a little to the and, consequently, that calour of the horns compressing force, lo as to be conftandy proceeds. only, as heretofore observed in re- broader, lower, and Hatter by the forming of gard to the itag, from the animal's nature, every pair of horns : And this is the cause, and the impresion of the air. On the second (though the burs and roots always grow head the roebuck has two or three antlers at larger in proportion to the animal's age) each fide ; on the third, he has three or four; that the height of the horns and the number on the fourth, four or five; it is rare to find of the antlers diminish to fuch a degree, that roebucks with more ; and they are then at length, when they attain to great age, they known to be old, by the thickness of the root, have but two large brochets. the breadth of the burr, and the largeness of The female going with young but five the curlings. As long as their head is soft, months and a halt, and the growth of it is extremely sensible. A roebuck, having the young rocbuck being more rapid than received a musket-ball that cut off clean one that of the Itag, the duration of his life is of the fides of his horns that began to bud, shorter, extending to twelve or fifteen years was fo ftunned by the slot that he fell down at moft. They are very delicate in the as derd. The huntsman threw himself upon choice of their food ; they require a deal of him in this ftate, laying hold of one of his mction, a free circulating air, a large extent legs ; but the roebuck, having fuddenly re- of ground; and this is the reafon that they covered both sense and strength, dragged himn cannot resitt beyond their first youthful years along upwards of thirty paces into the wood, the inconveniencies of tame life. They though the man was very strong; then dif- stand in need of a female, and a park of 100 patched by being stabbed with a knife, it was acres, to be at their ease. feen that he had no other wound but in his They may be tamed, but not made obedibudding hom. It is likewise well known ent, or familiar ; they always retain fomethat flies are great plagues to the Itag. thing of their favage nature ; they are easily When his head is beginning to be repaired; frightened, and they precipitate themselves he then withdraws into the thickers of the against walls with so much force, that they woods where there are few,flies, being infup- often break their legs. How tame foever portable to him when they falten upon his they may be, they thould be guarded abudding horns. There is thus an intimate gainst; the males, especially, are subject to communication between the soft parts of the dangerous caprices ; they conceive an averlive homs and the whole nervous system of fion for some persons, and then they dart and the animal's body: The roebuck, who has butt at them with their head, and with force nothing to apprehend from flies, his head enough to knock down a man, whom they being repaired in the winter, does not seek afterwards trample upon, on being thrown out a retreat, but he goes about with precau. down. The roebucks do not bray fo fretion, and carries his head low, not to touch quently, nor withi so strong a cry as the Rag; the branches.

the young have a linall voice, short and In the ftag, the fallow-deer, and the roe- plaintive, as mi .... mi, by which they buck, the frontal bone has two eminences, on express their want of food. That found is which the horns bear ; these two bony emi- eaily imitated, and the dain, received by it, nences begin to appear in five or six months, comes quickly within the huntsman's shot. and in a short time assume their intire growth; In winter, the roebucks abide in the clos and, far from continuing to rise farther as the feft cople, and live upon brambles, broom, animal advances in age, they become lower heath, the catkins of the hazel, and the and diminish in height every year ; fo that like. In spring, they repair to more open


coples, and there brouse upon the buds, and are too young, is flabby, but perfect when gender leaves of almost all trees : This warm they are a year or eighteen months old. The nourishment ferments in their stomach, and roebucks of moist grounds are still worse ; intoxicates them to as to then make it very those reared in parks have little taste; in easy to surprise them. They do not know fine, there are no very good rocbucks but where they go ; often they proceed out of those of dry and high countries, interfected the wood, and sometimes they approach cat, with hills, woods, ploughed lands, and fal, kle and inhabited places. In summer, they low, where they have as much air, room, remain among the higher copses, and feldom food, and even folitude, as they require ; for leave them but for drinking at some spring those which are often disturbed, are lean; in a great drought ; for, if the dew is in any and the flesh of athers, that have been bunted plenty, or the leaves of trees are wetted by by dogs, is insipid and will not keep rain, they do without drinking. They seek This species, which is less numerous than after the niceft food; they do not eat gree- that of the stag, and which is also very rare in dily as the fag ; they do not brouse indiffe- fome parts of Europe, feems to abound more rently on all sorts of herbs ; they eat deli- in America. Here we know but two vari. çately, and go but rarely to standing crops, eties, the red, which are the larger ; and the preferring brambles and the tender thoots of brown, that have a white spot behind ; and, frces and their buds to grain and pulse. as they are found in the northern as well as • The flesh of these animals is well known the fouthern countries of America, it may to be excellent eating, yet great choice is to be presumed that they differ from one an. be made ; the quality depends principally on other perhaps more than they differ from the country they inhabit, and in the best those of Europe : For instance, they are ex. countries bad and good are equally met tremely common in Louisiana ; and they with. The flesh of the brown is finer than are larger there than in Europe. They are that of the red. All the male roebucks that found again in the Brasils; for the animal, exceed two years are hard, and in some mea. called Cujuacu-apara, is no more different fure ill-tafted; the females, though of the from our roebuck, than the Canada ftag is fame age, or older, are more tender in their from ours; and the fole difference is in the fch. The flesh of the fawns, when they form of their horns.

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MAHON, and John Evans, for the Murder of John Bigby. AT

T the last fesfions held at Justice-Hall, in the scuffle, the landlord, Mallard, re

in the Old-Bailey, from Wednesday ceived fome knocks, as he said; a Black, the zift to Monday the 26th of February, by the name of Robert Wadefon, had his included, Mathew Kennedy was indicted mirt tore off his back by them; and Thofor giving John Bigby on the hinder part of mas Blifs, á brewer's servant, had a tooth his head, with a certain iron poker, one knocked out of his head, received feveral mortal bruise, wound, and fracture ; where - blows with sticks, and one terrible blow on of the said John Bigby did instantly die ; and his head, which bled much. The landlord the other three prisoners were allo indicted, owned them to be in liquor, and faid that, on together with one Stephen Grant, not taken, leaving his house, one of them, but he could for being present, aiding, abetting, and main- not tell which, took away his kitchen poker, taining him the said Mathew, in the faid This circumftance of taking away the poker wilful murder.They all stood charged was confirmed by Ann Cotterel, the servant on the Coroner's inquest for the same. The maid of the huxle; also the beating of the witnesses were examined apart.

Black and their being very much in liquor, By the deposition of George Mallard, who though, she faid, they had sense enough Rot kept a public-house in Wood-ftreet, Welt- to strike one another. As to the ill-uħing of minster, it appeared, that on Sunday, the Thomas Bliss, it was confirmed by the evi24th of December, the four prisoners, with dence of John Atkinfon, who faws him fall one Grant, came together to his house, where from a blow he received, as he passed by they drank two half pints of brandy, a pot Mallard's door in Wood-street, about ninc of beer, and four half-crown bowls of punch; in the evening; and, for endeavouring to that, when they had drank their liquor, they relieve the said Thomas Bliss, he, Atkinson, came out of the room where they had been was likewise ill-treated in his turn, and struck inta, the tap-room, where they began a fost at acrofs his shoulders; and, running away, of riot by wrestling with one another, and, was followed by a inan ing a green coat and

and waiftcoat, trimmed with gold or silver, nedy's coming down, upon which this depo, who d-d his blood twice and said, 'Where nent made a puth to catch one of them, but is my hat? This man he believed to be Pa- missed him. Then the two Kennedy's ran trick Kennedy, but could not swear it was. down the bridge and they after them. As

So far for what was transacted in or near the Kennedy's ran along, they knocked ano. George Mallard's house. The next scene ther man down that was jult at the foot of opened in Old Palace-yarl, where Samuel the bridge ; but, being fill closely pursued, Vincent faw the two prisoners Patrick and Pierce knocked Patrick Kennedy down in Mathew Kennedy, about nine o'clock at Channel-row, and the deponent took Manight, facing the ship. alehouse, and with thew Kennedy in Darby-court. They tied them some others, to the amount in all of them both together and had them to the Seven or eight persons. This deponent served watch-house by St. Margaret's church. They the King's Plailterer and was acquainted had nothing in their hands, when they took with Grant, who worked for his Master. them; and, as to the other men, they did He faid that one of the rioters in a brown not see them any more that night. coat asked if he wanted to rob him? To Samuel Pierce deposed much to the fame which he answered, No; and another in effect, with this further circumstance, that blue, with a laced waistcoat said, “Let the Patrick Kennedy said he had lost his watch lad alone. No, said he, and, holding up and twenty guineas ; and when in the watcha piece of iron, made a stroke at him, which house he fail he had lost his watch and two he evaded by flipping towards the Ship ale. guineas. - John Quick, keeper of the Ship house, the landlord of which pulled him in- agreed with them as to what was done beto the passage. This deponent further said, fore his door, and swore that he knew the that, a coachman having expostulated with two Kennedy's particularly, and that the the rioters on their behaviour, one of them taller, Patrick, had knocked down two men ftruck him, and another in a blue coat and at his door, viz. Rawlinson and Lucas. laced waistcoat knocked down a stone mason Being desired to point them out in Court, at the door, and then they all made off to he pointed to Patrick, but for Mathew laid wards the bridge.

his hand on Evans. This mistake he exThis evidence was corroborated by that cuted from being !hort-lighted. of George Lucas, the coachmar, who livore We are now come to the most material part to the identity of Patrick Kennedy. A of this trial, which is the evidence against the groom, in company with him, was struck at prisoners for the murder of John Bigby. with a stick; another man was knocked down George Bracegirdle, a lighterman, decoming out of the Ship alehouse ; and him- posed, that Join Bigby, the deceased, a Self was cut to the skull with a stick.. After bricklayer's labourer, was, on Sunday the these feats they ran away, and the coach- 240h of December in the evening, on Westmán, having his head washed at the Ship minster-bridge, he having taken upon him to alehouse, went out, and, by that time, a- ferve that night as a watchman in the room bout a quarter of an hour after, two of them of one Goodchild; that this deponent came were taken. The Constable or watchman to him on the bridge a quarter after nine, and was, he faid, leading them down Westmin- walked up the bridge with him, when two fer-bridge, and he law one of them knock men came, and ran against him, one of them the man down, and his lanthorn fly out of having a canc in his hand, with which he his hand.

ftruck the deponent, and the other beginning Another collateral evidence was that of to beat Bigby with his hands, Bigby ran James Rawlinson, a stone-mason. He faid backwards and faid YO-I! and called for that, going out of the Ship alehouse to know help a good while ; that hereupon, two other the cause of the outcry, he saw the four pri- men coming up, one of them with some. lovers at the bar, who had been beating two thing in his hand, Mathew Kennedy (pointboys; that he was instantly knocked down ing to Mathew Kennedy) took it out of his by Mathew Kennedy, md lay for some time hand, ftruck Bigify with it, and knocked as dead n the street. (He thewed the mark hiin down.- (Here he described töis someon his forehead.) That, Samuel Pierce, ano- thing, which looked like iron, the end square, ther stone-mason, coming out of the same the other part round, and about a yard long) house to take hin up, he allo was ftruck af, – That the other of the men laying hold of but catchel the blow with his hand; thit him the deponeni, to wrest the cane out of then, Pierce going into the huve to get

fome tois bauds with which be was firit truck, he thing to defend himlelf, he, Rawlinson, be. throw it through the balustrades of the builge, ing recovered, ran with him up towards Weit- and, ito;ing to rise Bishy, who lay fat on minker-bridge, where they met the two Ken- tis bick with his wms expanded new hm,

one of the men gave him such a desperate this wound came moft likely from a blow, blow over the back with something, that he and not by a fall. had not power to help Bigby up; upon which Joseph Bigby, the deceaserl's brother, proall of them made their escape. --The relt of duced the poker in Court : It was a very heathis man's evidence, except his helping Big- vy kitchen poker ; Mallard owned it to be by to the hospital, and knowing the Kenne. his, and it was brought to Sir John Fielding's dy's afterwards in the Round-house, tallies by the father of the two Kennedy's. pretty exactly with the circumstances of the following

Prisoners Defence. William Shillitoe, Constable of Westminster-bridge, depofed, that, on the 24th of Mathew Kennedy said, in his defence, that December, he came from the watch-house he knew nothing at all about the affair. about twenty 'minutes after nine, down the Patrick Kennedy, in his defence, acSouth side of the bridge, where the unfortu- knowledged what had happened as to the nate Bigby was knocked down; that he help- wrestling in Mallard's house, and that, the ed to take him up, and, when he was con- people there interfering, they had ftruck at one veyed from thence, in about a minute after, another ; that he went out, and M Mahon one of the Kennedy's, who had been over to went in again for his cane ; but that himfelf wards the other end of the bridge, and was had neither cane nor any thing else in his returning, came and stood by him : (I his hand ; that, as soon as he came out of Pa. was the elder, Patrick, with boots on and a lace-yard, he ran on the Surry side of the green coat;) that some people coming over bridge, and, coming back again, heard murthe bridge fáid to hiin, this is one of the men der cried out ; that, as he was walking along, that knocked the man down; to which he he was pursued into Palace-yard, and theie answered, ' Are you sure of that?" and they knocked down, and robbed of his hat, four saying they were, and would take their oath guineas, some half pence and filver, and his of it, he called to two watchmen to lay hold watch; that, getting up to run after the of hin, and, as they were taking him to the robbers, and not knowing his way, he got watch-house, about two yards from the Bear, into a place, where he was taken; that his there was a sort of rescue; he, the Confta- brother cried murder, and was taken along Ble, was knocked down, and was three weeks with him; that neither stick nor any other under the surgeon's hands from the confe- weapon were found upon them; that, when quences of the blow he received (shewing a he was in Tothill-fields Bridewell, they diagonal scar about the middle of his fore- brought a chairman with them, and wanted kcad; about an inch and a half long.) him to give them money, and they would

Ralph Hewson deposed, that he was one not appear against him; and that he took of the watchmen that assisted to take Patrick down directions to a man that ufed the Ship Kennedy to the watch-house, in which at- in Old-Palace-yard, and those men could tempt he was knocked down with the Con- not be found. stable ; but that this Kennedy was again M Mahon, in his defence, related the taken in Channel-row.

circumstances of the things that passed at John Pyle, a furgeon, deposed (as to the Mallard's, and that afterwards he and his condition of Bighy's wound, who died in a- company were twice attacked by four rufbout two hours after he was brought to the fans, whose design, he thought, was to rob Westminster-infirmary) that he law the de. thein, firft, in Old Palace-yard, where he cealed the next day, and, on examining was knocked down and lott his cane; and, his heart, found a large contursed wound on fecundiy, at the foot of Westminster-bridge, the back-part, and round about inuch fwel- where he was knocked down again; that, lel; that, on dividing the scalp, the peri- recovering himself, another blow was made cranium was covered with extravasated blood, at him, which he avoided by an inclination and there was an oblique fracture which ex- of his body, and the weapon, having no fuptérded from the bottom of the os occipitis to port in the fellow's hand, fell to the ground, the fagittal future, of near feven -inches in and proved to be the poker produced in length ; that, on diviling the ikull, he formd Court, which he taking up, waved it over the fracture had penetrated both tables, and his head, and so extricated himself from a went down as far as the foramen magnum croud of fifty or fixty people, and escaped of the us occipitis; that there was a large without making a blow; that he went diquantity of coagulated blood covering the rectly to the Globe-alehoule in the Strand, whole surface of the brain ; and that part of with the poker in his hand, and, being atked the dura mater, which covers and contains where he gut it, faid in Bridge-street; that the cerebellum, was almort full; and that Jolm Evans came in and told him Kelinedy

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