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widow, the Countess of Shrewsbury; in took his leave of the Duke, said, “That, memory of which the new lodgings, that are when he returned to France, and reckonat built in place of the old, are still called up the days of his captivity in England, he · The Queen of Scots Apartment. Mar- should leave out those he had spent at fhal Tallard, also, the French General, Chatsworth. (See, in our Magazine for who was taken prisoner by the Duke of November, 1748, a curious Prospect of Marlborough at the battle of Hochstet, was Chadworth and the circumjacent country.] entertained here a few days; and, when he
We here give our Readers an Abstract of a Pamphlet, just published, intitled
• Thoughts on the Cause of the present DISCONTENTS; which, bey the Novelty of the Subject principally treated of, will, we make no Doubt, afford them Matter of good Entertainment.
will consider it merely as the language by a certain set of intriguing men, totally difof spleen or disappointment, if I say, that ferent from the system of Administration there is something particularly alarming in which has prevailed since the accession of the the present conjuncture. There is hardly a House of Brunswic. This project, the auman in or out of power who holds any other thor has heard, was first conceived by some Janguage. That Government is at once persons in the Court of Frederic Prince of dreaded and contemned ; that the laws are Wales. despoiled of all their respected and falutary The first part of the reformed plan was to terrors; that their inaction is a subject of ri- draw a line which should separate the Court dicule, and their exertion of abhorrence; from the Miniltıy.' Hitheito these names that rank, and office, and title, and all the had been looked upon as synonymous ; but solemn plausibilities of the world, have lost for the future, Court and Administiation their reverence and effect; that our foreign were to be considered as things totally difpolitics are as much deranged as our domes. tinct. By this operation, two fyftems of tic ceconomy; that our dependencies are Administration were to be formed ; one, llackened in their affection, and loosened which should be in the real secret' and confrom their obedience ; that we know neither fidence ; the other merely ostensible
, to perhow to yield nor how to inforce ; that hardly form the official and executory duties of Goany thing above or below, abroad or at vernment. The latter were alone to be 18home, is found and intire ; but that discon- fponfible; whilst the real advisers, who ennexion and confusion, in offices, in parties, joyed all the power, were effectually renorin families, in Parliament, in the nation, ed from all the danger. prevail beyond the disorders of any former Secondly, 'A party under these Leaders time : These are facts universally adınitted' was to be formed in favour of the Court a. and lamented.
gainst the Ministry:' This party was to have The cause of these discontents, the author a large thare in the emo'uments of Goversattributes to a system of Government, fome ment, and to hold it totally separate from, time fince adopted, and now prevailing, and independent of, oftenfible Adminifta. which he calls by the names of secret Influ- tion. ence, the Junto, the Cabal, the double Cabi The third point, and that on which ifas net, the King's Men, or King's Friends. success of the whole scheme ultimately de
To get rid of all intermediate and indepen- pended, was to bring Parliament to an xdent importance, and to secure to the Couit quiescence in this project.' Parliament was the unlimited and uncontrolled use of its therefore to be taught by degrees a total inown vast influence, under the fole direction difference to the persons, rank, influence, of its own private favour,' has for some years abilities, connexions, and character, of the paft been the great ohjeet of policy of thefe Ministers of the Crown. By means of a Gentlemen. If these were compafled, the discipline, that body was to be habiturated influence of the Crown must of courte pro to the most opposite interests, and the mott duce all the effecls which the most fanguine dilcoidant politics. All connexions and departisans of the Court could poflibiy debre. pendencies among subjects were to be intirely Government might then be carried on with- diffolved. As hitherto butinels had gone out any concurrence on the part of the peo- through the hands of leaders of Whigs ar ple;
without any attention to the dignity of Torics, men of talents to concilitate the peothe greater, o: to the affections of the lower ple, and to engage their canfidence, new this
method was to be altered ; and the lead was cabal was the effcct not of humour, but of to be given to men of no fort of considera- fystem. It was more strongly and evidently, tion or credit in the country. This want of the interest of the new Court faction to get natural importance was to be their very title to rid of the great Whig connexions, than to delegated power. Members of Parliament destroy Mr. Pitt. The power of that Genwere be hardened into an insensibility to pride tleman was vast indeed and merited; but it as well as to duty: Thus Parliament was was in a great degree personal, and therefore, to look on, as if perfectly unconcerned ; transient. Theirs was rooted in the country." while a cabal of the closet and back-Itairs was For, with a good deal less of popularity, they substituted in the place of a national Ad- possessed a far more natural and fixed influence. ministration,
Long poffeffion of Government, vaft property, With such a degree of acquiescence, any obligations of favours given and received, conmeasure of any Court might well be deemed nexion of office, ties of blood, of alliance, of thoroughly secure. The capital objects, and friendship, (things at that time supposed of by much the most flattering characteristics of fome force, the name of Whig, dear to the arbitrary power, would be obtained. Every majority of the people ; the zeal early begun thing would be drawn from its holdings in and steadily continued to the Royal family ; the country to the personal favour and incli- all these together formed a body of
power in nation of the Prince. This favour would the nation, which was criminal and devoted. be the fole introduction to power, and the The great ruling principle of the cabal, and only tenure by which it was to be held : So that which animated and harmonised all their that no perfon locking towards another, and proceedings, how various foever they may all looking towards the Court, it was im- have been, was to signify to the world, that poffible but that the motive which solely in- the Court would proceed upon its own proper Huenced every man's hopes must coine in forces only; and that the pretence of bringtime to govern every man's conduct; till at ing any other into its service was an affront last the servility became universal, in spite of to it, and not a support. Therefore, when the dead letter of any laws or institutions the Chiefs were removed, in order to go to whatsoever.
the root, the whole party was put under a In the first place, they proceeded gradual- profcription, fo general and severe as to take ly, but not fowly, to destroy every thing of their hard-earned bread from the lowest Offi. krength which did not derive its principal cers, in a manner which had never been nourishment from the immediate pleasure of known before even in general revolutions. the Court. The greatest weight of popular But it was thought necessary effectually to opinion and party connexion were then with destroy all dependencies but one ; and to the Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Pitt. Nei- shew an example of the firmness and rigour ther of these held their importance by the with which the new system was to be lupnew tenure of the Court; they were not ported. therefore thought to be fo proper as others To reconcile the minds of the people to all for the services which were required by that these movements, principles correspondent to tenure. It happened very favourable for the them had been preached up with great zeala new system, that under a forced coalition Every one must remember that the cabal fet there rankled an incurable alienation and out with the most altonishing prudery, both disguft between the parties which com moral and political. Those, who in a few pofed the Administration. Mr. Pitt was months after soused over head and ears into first attacked. Not satisfied with removing the deepest and dirtiest pits of corruption, him from power, they endeavoured by vari cried out violently against the indirect pracous artifices to ruin his character. The o. tices in the electing and managing of Parliather party seemed rather pleased to get rid of ments, which had formerly prevailed. This fo oppressive a support ; not perceiving, that marvellous abhorrence, which the Court had their own fall was prepared by his, and in- suddenly taken to all influence, was not only volved in it. Many other reasons prevented circulated in conversation through the kingthem from daring to look their true situation dom, but pompoully announced to the pubin the face. To the great Whig families lic, with many other extraordinary things, it was extremely disagreeable, and feemed in a pamphlet * which had all the appearance almoft unnatural, to oppose the Adminiftra- of a manifesto preparatory to some confideration of a Prince of the House of Brunswic. ble enterprise. Throughout, it was a satire, Day after day they hesitated, and doubted, though in terms managed and decent eand lingered, expecting that other Councils nough, on the politics of the former reign. would take place; and were flow to be per- It was indeed written with no finall art and fuaded, that all which had been done by the address.
In • Sentiments of an bonest man
In this piece appeared the first dawning of the leading men to engage. But, while the the new system ; there first appeared the idea Ministers of the day appear in all the pomp (then only in speculation) of separating the and pride of power, while they have all their Court from the Administration; of carrying canvas spread out to the wind, and every fail every thing from national connexion to per filled with the fair and prosperous gale of fonal regards; and of forming a regular royal favour, in a short time they find, they party for that purpose, under the naine of know not how, a current, which fets directly King's men.
againft them; which prevents all progress ; Now was the time tounlcck the fealed foun- and even drives them backwards. They tain of royal bounty, which had been infa- grow ashamed and mortified in a situation, mously monopolikid and huckstered, and to let which, by its vicinity to power, only ferves to it flow at large upon the whole people. The remind them the more ttrongly of their intinje was come, to restore royalty to its ori- fignificance. They are obliged either to exeginal fplendor. Mettre le Roy hors de cute the orders of their interiors, or to see page' became a sort of watch word. And themselves opposed by the natural inftru. it was constantly in the mouths of all the ments of their office. With the loss of their junners of the Court, that noihing could pre- dignity, they lose their temper. In their serve the balance of the Constitution from be turn they grow troublesome to that calal, ing overturned by the rabble, or by a faction which, whether it fupports or opposes, e of the Nobility, but to free the Sovereign ef- qually disgraces and equally betrays them. fectually from that minifterial tyranny under It is soon found necessary to get rid of the which the royal dignity had been oppressed heads of Adminiftration ; but it is of the in the person of his Majesty's grand-father. heads only. As there always are many rot
It must be remembered, that, since the ten members belonging to the best conRevolution, until the period we are speaking nexions, it is not hard to persuade several to of, the influence of the Crown had been als continue in office without their leaders. By ways employed in supporting the Ministers this means the party gues out much thinner of State, and in carrying on the public businefs than it came in ; and is only reduced in according to their opinion. But the party strength by its temporary possession of power. now in question is formed upon a very different Besides, if by accident, or in course of idea. It is to intercept the favour, protec- changes, that power Mould be recovered, thie tion, and confidence of the Crown in the pas- Junto have thrown up a retrenchment of fage to its Ministers ; it is to come between thele carcases, which may serve to cover them and their importance in Parliament; themselves in a day of danger. They conit is to separate them from all their natural and clude, not unwisely, that such rotten memacquired dependencies ; it is intended as the bers will become the first objects of disguit "controul, not the support of Administra- and resentment to their antient connexions. tion. The machinery of this systein is per When any adverse connexion is to be plexed in its movements, and falle in its destroyed, the Cabal feldom appear in the principle. It is formed on a supposition that work themselves. They find out some pero the King is something external to his Go- son of whom the party entertains an high
vernment; and that he may be honoured opinion. Such a person they endeavour to * and aggrandised, even by its debility and dif- delude with various pretences. They teach
grace. The plan proceeds expressly on the him first to diftruit, and then to quarrel with idea of enfeebling the regular executorypow- his friends ; among whom, by the same er. It proceeds on the idea of weakening arts, they excite a similar diffidence of him the State in order to strengthen the Court. fo that, in this mutual fear and distrust, he The scheme depending intirely on distrust, may fuffer himself to be employed as the inon disconnexion, on mutability by principle, ftrument in the change which is brought aon systematic weakness in every particular bout. Afterwards they are sure to deitroy Member ; it is impossible that the total re him in his turn ; by setting up in his place fult should be substantial strength of any some person in whom he had himself reposed kind.
the greatest confidence, and who ferves to As a foundation of their scheme, the ca carry off a considerable part of his adherents. bal have established a sort of Rota in the The Members of the Court faction are Court. All sorts of parties, by this means, fully indemnified for not holding places on have been brought into Administration, the flippery heights of the kingdom, Det from whence few have had the good fortune only by the lead in all affairs, but also by to escape without disgrace ; none at all with the perfect security in which they enjoy less out confiderable tolles. In the beginning of conspicuous, but very advantagejus Stuaeach arrangement no professions of confi- ' tions. Their places are, in express legal dence and support are wanting, to induce tenure, or ip effect, all of them for life.
Whilft the firft and most respectable persons they illustrate the general scheme. This is in the kingdom are toffed about like tennis- the fountain of all those bitter waters of balls, the sport of a blind and infolent ca which, through an hundred different conprice, no Minister dares even to cast an ob- duits, we have drunk until we are ready to lique glance at the lowest of their body. If burit. The discretionary power of the an attempt be made upon one of this corps, Crown in the formation of Ministry, abused immediately he flies to sanctuary. No con by bad or weak men, has given rise to a fysveniency of public arrangement is available tem, which, without directly violating the to remove any of them from the specific li- letter of any law, operates against the spirit tuation he holds; and the lightest attempt of the whole Constitution. upon one of them, by the moit powertul A plan of favouritiím for our executory Minister, is a certain preliminary to his own Government is ellentially at variance with destruction.
the plan of our Lcgillature, One great end Here is a sketch, though a flight one, of undoubtedly of a mixed Government like the constitution, laws, and policy, of this ours, composed of Monarchy, and of connew Court corporation. The name by trols, on the part of higher people and the which they chule to distinguith themselves lower, is that the Prince hall not be able to is that of King's men, or the King's friends, violate the laws. This is useful indeed and by an invidious exclusion of the rest of his fundamental. But this, even at first view, Majesty's most loyal and affcctionate fub- is no more than a negative advantage ; ap jects. The whole system, comprehending armour merely defensive. It is therefore the exterior and interior Administrations, is next in order, and equal in importance, commonly called, in the techrical language • That the discretionary powers which are of the Court, Double Cabinet ; in French necessarily vested in the Monarch, whether or English, as you chuse to pronounce it. for the execution of the laws, or for the no
Thus far it is certain, that there is not a mination to magistracy and office, or for single public man, in or out of office, who conducting the affairs of peace and war, our has not, at some time or other, borne testimo- for ordering the revenue, should all be exerny to the truth of what is now here related. cised upon public principles and national About four years ago, during the Adminii- grounds, and not on the likings or prejutration of the Marquis of Rockingham, an dices, the intrigues or policies of a Courta' attempt was made to carry on Government We are at present at issue upon without their concurrence. However, this We are in the great crisis of this contention ; was only a transient cloud; they were bid and the part, which men take one way or ebut for a moinent; and their constellation ther, will serve to discriminate their characblazed out with greater brightness, and a far ters and their principles. Until the matter more vigorous influence, some time after it is decided, the country will remain in its prewas blown over. An attempt was at that sent confusion. For while a system of Adtime made (but without any idea of proscrip- ministration is attempted, intirely repugnant to tion) to break their corps, to discountenance the genius of the people, and not conformable their doctrines, to revive connexions of a to the plan of their Government, every thing different kind, to restore the principles and must necessarily be disordered for a time, unpolicy of the Whigs, to reanimate the cause til this system destroys the Constitution, or of liberty by ministerial countenance ; and the Conítitution gets the better of this fyfthen for the first time were men attached in tem : For, indeed, the scheine of the junto office to every principle they had maintained under consideration, not only strikes a pally in opposition. No one will doubt, that such into every nerve of our free Constitution, but men were abhorred and violently opposed by in the fame degree benumbs and stupifies the the Court faction, and that such a system whole executive power ; rendering Governcould have but a short duration.
ment in all its grand operations languid, unIt is this unnatural infufion of a system of certain, ineffective ; making Ministers fearfavouritisin into a Government which in a ful of attempting, and incapable of executgreat part of its constitution is popular, that ing any useful plan of domestic arrangement, has raised the present ferment in the nation. or of foreign politics. It tends to produce The people without entering deeply into its neither the security of a free Government, - principles could plainly perceive its effects, in nor the energy of a Monarchy that is absomuch violence, in a great spirit of innovation, lute. Accordingly the Crown has dwindled and a general disorder in all the functions of away in proportion to the unnatural and Government. I keep my eye folely on this turgid growth of this excrescence on the fyftem ; if I speak of those measures which Court. have arisen from it, it will be so far only as The interior Ministry are fenable, that
war is a situation which fets in its full light against the attempt upon Corsica, in confethe value of the hearts of a people; and they quence of a direct authority fiom Lord Shelwell know, that the beginning of the impor- burne. This reinonitrance the French Mitance of the people must be the end of theirs. niiter treated with the contempt that was naTheir fear betrays to the first glance of the tural ; as he was allured, from the Ambassaeye, its true cause, and its real object. Fo- dor of his Court to ours, that these orders of reign powers, confident in the knowledge Lord Shelburne were not fupported by the of their character, have not scrupled to vio rest of the (I had like to have said British) late the most folemn treaties; and, in defi Aiminiftration. Lord Rochford, a man of ance of them, to make conquests in the midst spirit, could not endure this situation. The of a general peace, and in the heart of Eu- consequences were, however, curious. He sope. Such was the conqueft of Corlica, by returns from Paris, and comes home the profesled eneinies of the freedom of man- full of anger. Lord Shelburne, who gave kind, in defiance of those who were formerly the orders, is obliged to give up the Seals. its proteflet defenders. We have had juft Lord Rochford, who obeyed there orders, reclaiins upon the fame powers ; rights ceives them. He goes, however, into anowhich ought to have been facred to them as ther department of the lime office, that he well as to us, as they had their origin in our might not be obliged officially to acquiesce in lenity and generolity towards France and one fituation under what he had officially Spain in the day of their great h. miliation. remonstrated against in another. At Paris, Such I call the ransom of Manilla, and the the Duke of Choiscul considered this office demand on France for the Exit-India pri- arrangement as a coinplinent to him: Here foners. But these powers put a juít confi- it was spoke of as an attention to the delicacy dence in their refource of the double Cabi- of Lord Rochford. But, whether the comnet. These deinands (one of them at least) pliment was to one or both, to this nation it are hastening fast towards an acquittal bý was the fame. By this transaction the conprescription. Oblivion begins to ipread her dition of our Court lay exposed in all its nakedcobwebs over all our fpirited remonítances. ness. Our office correlpondence has loft all Some of the most valuable branches of our pretence to authenticity ; British policy is. trade are also on the pomt of perishing from brought into derision in those nations, that a the fame cause. I do not mean thote branches while ago trembled at the power of our which bear without the hand of the vine-dres- arms, whilst they looked up with confidence fer; I mean those which the policy of trtaties to the equity, firmness, and candour, which had formerly secured to us; I mean to mark thone in all our negotiations. I represent and distinguish the trade of Portugal, the this matter exactly in the light in which it Jols of which, and the power of the cabal, has been universally received. have one and the fanie æra.
Such has been the afpect of our foreign If by any chance the Ministers, who stand politics, under the influence of a double Cabefore the curtain, poffefs or affect any ipi- binet. With fuch an arrangement rit, it makes little or no impression. 'Fo- Court, it is impossible it Mould have been seign Courts and Ministers, who were a otherwise. Nur is it possible that this scheme mong the first to discover and to profit by should have a better etfect upon the Governthis invention of the double Cabinet, attend ment of our dependencies, the first, the dearvery little to their remonstrances. They eft, and most delicate objects, of the interior know that those fhadows of Ministers have policy of this empire. The colonies know, nothing to do in the ultimate disposal of that Adininistration is separated from the things. Jealousies and animofities are fedu- Couit, divided within itself
, and detested by loully nourished in the outward Adminis- the nation. The double Cabinet has, in tration, and have been even considered as a both the parts of it, shewn the most maligcaufa fine qua non in its constitution : nant dispositions towards them, without be
Thence foreign Courts have a certainty, ing able to do them the smallest mischief. that nothing can be done by common coun Our author next considers, whether the sel in this nation. If one of those Ministers King has been richer than his predeceísors in officially takes up a business with spirit, it accumulated wealth, since the establishment Serves only the better to signalise the mean of the plan of favouritism? I believe it wil ness of the rest, and the discord of them all
. be found (says he) that the picture ofroyal inHis collegues in office are in haste to thake
digence, which our Court has prelented until him off, and to disclaim the whole of his this
has been truly humiliating. Nor proceedings. Of this nature was that afto- has it been relieved from this unseeinly difnishing transaction, in which Lord Roch- tress, but by means which have hazarded the ford, our Amballador at Paris, remonstrated affection of the people, and shaken their com