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was tormented for feveral years together : is the depth these artificial ulcers should liave The pain was indeed supportable during the in order to their being falutary, and fuch also day, but at night conliderably increased; it was the method of the ancients; the intendid not yield to any remedies, and was fo tion being to procure the evacuation of the violent, that the patient could no longer bear vitiated humours, and to initigate the pains it. I persuaded her at lait to submit to the pericranium might continue to occasion, have a cautery on the head, a remedy which as being perpetually irritated by the pea inthe had hitherto obstinately refused.
serted in those little ulcers, if left to fubfift. Having therefore had her head fhaved, I In fine, the cautery had not kept running a made her chew, and by placing afterwards month, when the pains began to be less fentithe palm of my hand at the root of the nose, ble, and in time they intirely ceased ; so that and by the extension of the middle finger, this young Lady was very well during four having found the junction of the two jutures years which she had still lived after the apfagittal and coronal, I applied thereto a po- plication of the cautery. She died of a scortential cautery, which penetrated so deep, butic cachexia, but without ever afterwards that, the eschir falling, the bone appeared complaining of a head-ach, to the last monaked and Itripped of its pericranium. Such ment of her life.
of the free States that have hitherto by pro noting trade, will gild over private existed in the world, we may learn, - that vices with the plausible appearance of pub. the most effe&tual method which a bad Mi- lic benefits. That when a Szate, lo circumnilter can take, to tame the spirit of a brave stances, is forced into a war with any formiand free people, and to melt them down to dable power, then, and not until then, these flavery, is to promote luxury, and encourage baleful evils will thew themselves in their and diffuse a taste for public diversions true colours, and produce their proper efThat luxury, and a prevailing fondness for fects. The counsels in such a State will be public diver ions, are the never-failing fore- weak and pufillanimous, because the able and runners of univerfal idleness, effeminacy, honest citizens, who aim folely at the public and corruption.--That there cannot be a welfare, will be excluded from all share in more certain symptom of the approaching the Government from party motives. ruin of a State that when a firm adherence Their measures will terminate in poor shifts, to party is fixed upon as the only test of merit, anu temporary expedients, calculated only to and all the qualifications, requii te to a right amuse, or divert the attention of the people discharge of every employment, are reduced from prying too closely into their iniquitous to that ringle standard.---That these evils conduct. Their fleets and armies will be take root, and spread by almost imperceptible either employed in useless parade, or will misdegrees in times of peace and national af, carry in action from the incapacity of their fluence ; but, if left to their full and natural Commanders, because, as all the chief posts effects without controul, they will inevitably will be filled up with the creatures of the undermine and destroy the most flourishing prevailing faction, such Officers will be more and best founded conftitution. - That in intent upon inriching themselves thn annoytimes of
peace and affluence luxury, and a ing the enemy; and will act as thall be judge fondness for diverfions, will assume the fe- ed most conducive to the private interest of cious names of politeness, taste, and magni• their party, not to the public service of ficence. Corruption will put on different their country: For they will naturally imamasks. In the corruptors it will be termed gine, that the same power, which placed able management, encouraging the friends then in the command, will have weight of the Administration, and cementing a mu- enough to screen them from the resentment tual harmony, and mutual dependence be- of an injured people. Their fupplies for tween the three different estates of the Go- the extraordinary expences of the war will vernment. In the corrupted it will be de- be raised with difficulty ;
-because, as fo nominated loyalty, attachment to the Go- great a part of the public money will be ahvernment, and prudence in providing for forbed by the number of pen ions and lucraone's own family. That in such times these tive employments, and diverted to other evils will gain a fresh accession of strength purposes of corruption, the funds destined from their very effects ; because corruption for the public service will be found greatly will occasion a greater circulation of the pub- deficient. If the rich are applied to, in fucka
depraved times, to contribute their fuperflu- fpectable part of the citizens, highly resenting ous wealth towards the public expences, fuch an infamous method of proceeding, not their answer will be the fime which Scopas, only acquitted Aristides nonourably, and rethe rich Thessalian, made to a friend, who mitted his fine, but, to hew their approbaasked him for a piece of furniture, which he tion of his conduct, elected him Treaturer judged wholly useless to the possessor, becaule for the following year. At his entrance it was quita superfluous : • You mistake, upon his office the second time, he affected to my friend ; the fupreme happiness of our appear fenuble of his former error, and, by lives confifts in thole things which you call winking at the fraudis of the inferior Officers, fuperfluous, not in those which you call and neglecting to scrutinile into their acnecessaries.' The people, accutomed to fell counts, he suffered them to plunder with themselves to the belt bilder, will look upon impunity. These State-leeches, thus gorged the wages of corruption as their birth-right, with the public money, grew fo extremely and will necessarily rise in their demands, in fond of Aristides, that they enployed a l their proportion as luxury, like other fathions, de- interelt to perfuade the people to elect him a scends from the higher to the lower classes. third time to that important office. On the Heavy and unequal taxes must consequently day of election, when the voices of the Abe imposed to make up this deficiency; and thenians were unanimous in his favour, thuis the operations of the war must either be re real patriot tood up with honeft indigna ion, tarded by the flownefs in collecting the pro- and gave the people this severe, but just reduce, or the money must be borrowed at primand : When, says he, I discharged high interest and excesiive premiums, and my duty in this office the first time, with that the public given up a prey to the extortion zeal and fidelity which every honeft man of usurers. If a vinal and luxurious Mi- owes to his country, I was vilified, infultal, nister thould be at the head of the ruling and condemned. Now I have given full tiparty, such an Administration would hardly berty to all thele robbers of the public here find credit fufficient to support their measures, present to pilfer, and prey upon your fias the moneyed men would be averse to trust nances at pleasure, I am, it seems, a most ing their property in such rapacious hands ; upright Minister, and a molt worthy citizen. for the chain of self-intereit, which links Believe me, O Athenians ; I am more such a set of men together, will reach from ashamed of the honour, which you have so the highest quite down to the lowest Officer unanimoully conferred upon me this day, of the State ; because the higher Officers, for than of that unjust sentence which you pů. the mutual support of the whole, muit con fed upon me with fo much infamy the year nive at the frauds and rapings of the inferior, before. But it gives me the utmost concern, or icr-en them if detected.
upon your account, when I see that it is eaIf therefore the united voice of a people, sier to merit your favour and applause by exhausted by the oppreflions of a weak and flattering, and conriving at the r gueries of iniquitous Administration, should call a truly a pack of villains, than by a frugal and undisinterested patriot to the helm, such a man corrupt Administration of the public revemust be exposed to all the malice of detected
He then disclosed all the frauds and villainy, backed by the whole weight of dif- thefts, which had been committed that year appointed faction
Plutarch has handled in the Treasury, which he had privately midown to us a striking inttance of this truth nuted down for that purpose. The consein the case of Aristides, which is too remark- quence was, that all those, who just before able to be omitted :
had been so loud in his praise, were ftruck When Aristicles was created Quæstor, or dumb with shame and confusion ; but he High Treatures of Athens, he fairly laid be himself received those high encomiums, which fore the Athenians what immense lums the he had fo justly merited from every honest public had been robbed of by their former citizen. It is evident from this whole pafTreasurers, but especially by Themistocles, fags, as related by Plutarch, that Aristides whom he proved to be more criminal than might have made his own fortune, at the exany of the others. This warm and honest pence of the public, with the fame ease, and remonftrance produced inch a powerful coali- to as great a degree as any of his predeceffors tin between these public plunderers, that, lad donc betöre, or any Ministers in m dern when Aristides, at the expiration of his of States have done fince. For the rest of the fice, (which was annual and elective) came Officers, who seemed to think their chief to give up his accounts to the people. The- duty con'itted in making the most of their mistocles publicly impeached him of the places, thewed themselves extremely ready fame crime, and, by the artifice of his cor- to conceal the peculation of their Chief, bé rupt party, procure i him to be condemned cause it gave them a right to claim the same and fined; but the honester and more re indulgence from him in return. A remark
mot restricted to the Athenians alone, but first powers in Europe. All the different equally applicable to every corrupt Adminif- States in Europe, founded by our Gothic tration under every Government. History, ancestors, were originally free. Liberty was both ancient and modern, will furnith us as truly their birth-right as it is ours ; and, with numerous instances of this truth, and though they have been wormed out of it by pofterity will probably inake the same re- fraud, or robbed of it by violence, yet their mark, when the genuine history of fome inherent right to it still subsists, though the of our late Administrations thall see the exercise of that right is fuperfeded, and relight in a future age.
strained by force. Hence no despotic Go. if the Athenians were fo corrupt in the vernment can ever subsist without the support time when Arittides lived, ought we to won of that instrument of tyranny and oppretder at that amazing height to which that cor- lion, a standing army. For all illegal power ruption arrived at the time of Demosthenes, muft ever be lupported by the fame means when left to its full effects for so long a term by which it was first acquired. France of years ? Could the State of Athens at that was not broke into the yoke of slavery until time have been preserved by human means ; the infamous administrations of Richlieu and the indefatigable zeal of Demosthenes, joined Mazarine. But, though loyalty and zeal for to the strict ceconomy, the inflexible integri- the glory of their Prince ieem to forin the ty, and superior abilities of Phocion, might characteristic of the French nation, yet the have raised her once more to her ancient lur- late glorious stand against the arbitrary imtre. But the event shewed, that luxury, cor- pofitions of the Crown, which will immorruption, and faction, the causes of her ruin, talile the Parliament of Paris, proves that had taken too deep root in the very vitals of they submit to their chains with reluctance. the republic. The Grecian history indeed Luxury is the real bane of public virtue, affords us ever memorable instances of re- and consequently of liberty, which gradual. publics bending under the yoke of foreign ly links in proportion as the manners of a or domestic oppreflion, yet freed and restored people are softened and corrupted. Whento their former liberty and dignity by the ever therefore this essential spirit, as I may courage and virtue of some eminent patriot term it, of a free nation is totally dissipated, citizen. But if we reflect upon the means, the people become a mere caput mortuum, a hy which these great events were so success- dead inert mals, incapable of resuscitation, fully conducted, we shall always find, that and ready to receive the deepest impressions there yet remained in the people a fund of of Navery. Thus the public virtue of public virtue suficient to support their Chiefs Thrasybulus, Pelopidas and Epaminondas, in tiofe arduous enterprilės. The spirit of Philopæmen, Ararus, Dion, &c. rettored liberty in a free people may be cramped and their respective States to freedom and power, prelled down by external violence, but can because though liberty was suppressed, yet the scarce ever be totally extinguished Oppref- fpirit of it still remained, and acquired new fion will only increase its elattic force, and, vigour from oppretlion. Phocion and Dewhen rouled to action by fome daring Chiet, mosthenes failed, because corruption had exit will break out, likefiel gun-powder, with tinguished public virtue, and luxury had irresiftible impetuolity. We have no occa- changed the spirit of liberty into licentioultion to look back to antiquity for convincing ness and servility. proofs of this most important truth. Our That luxury and corruption, encouraged own history is but one continued scene of al- and propagated by a most abandoned faction, ternate struggles between incroaching Princes, have made an alarming progress in our naaiming at ablolute power, and a brave peo- tion, is a truth too evident to be denied, ple resolutely determined to vindicate their The effects have been long sensibly felt. freedom. The genius of liberty has hither. But the spirit, lately roused in the nation, to rofe superior in all those conflicts, and ac is a convincing proof, that we have a fund quired strength from opposition. May it of public virtue still remaining, capable of continue to prevail to the end of time! The vindicating our just rights, and raising us out United Provinces are a striking proof that the of that calamitious situation, into which we spirit of liberty, when animat.d and con were plunged, under fome late Adininiftraducted by public virtue, is invincible. tions. When the public imagined the helin Whilft under the dominion of the House of in the hands of corruption, pubillanimity, and Austria, they were little better than a poor ignorance, they transferred it, in the late assemblage of fishing-towns and villages. war, to a virtuous citizen, pofieiled, in their But the virtue of one great man not only in- opinion, of the zeal and eloquence of De. abled them to throw off that inhuman yoke, mofthenes, joined to the public economy, but to make a respectable figure amongit the incorrupt honesty, and iminoveable fortitude