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of Aristides and Phocion. The numerous public to support that Minister, as lang dilintereited marks of approbation, given as he pursued his upright plan of conduct him from every part of this kingdom, de- with undeviating firmnels. monitrate the resolution and ability of the

Natural History of the HAR E, with a finely engraved Figure of that

Animal.

THE hare is called, in Greek, ragãs; in overspread the provinces of the South, and, aflievre; in Italian, lepre ; in Spanish, liebre; with life or vegetation, to finish by infecting in Portuguele, lebre; in Gerina.., hafe; in the earth and air with their carcafes. Myriads Swedish, hure ; in Poliih, sajonz; in Sclavo- of ants, in southern countries, are seen to make nian, faiz; in Russian, Zaitza ; in Arabian, a sudden irruption froin the defaits, and, as erimab, harneh, arneph ; in Turkish, taufan; a torrent, whose fource is inexhausted, to in Perlian, kargos; in Brasilian, thabiti; arrive in cloft columns, to succeed each o- . in North American, foutanda.

ther, to be constantly renewed, to seize upThe most numerous fpecies of animals are on all inhabited places, to expel animals and not the most useful; nothing is mure hurt- men, and to retire after a general devastaful than that mu’titude of rais, tield-mice, tron. And, in the time when man, itill halflocusts, caterpillars, and so many other in- favage, was, as animals, subject to all the sects, which, it leems, nature permits and laws, and even to the excesses of nature, have tuffers, rather than ordains, their too nume. not Normans, Alans, Huns, Goths, colorous multiplication. But the species of hare, nies, or rather swarms of animals with hu- ' and that of the rabbit, have for us thre dous man faces, without habitation and without ble advantage of number and utility. Hares name, been soen to fally forth all of a sudare universally, and very abundantly, dif- den from their caves, to rush on like unruly perfed in all climates of the earth : Rabbits, flocks or herds, to oppreis all without other ibo' originally from particular climates, mula force than numbers, to ravage cities, overtiply lo prošligiously in almost all the places throw empires, and, after having destroyed they are transported to, that it is not possible nations and laid waste the carth, to end by to destroy them, and even great art is re- it-peopling it with men as new and more quired for diminishing their quantity, when barbarous than themselves. it becomes troublesome.

Those great events, those signal epochas When we reflect on that boundless fecun-' in the history of mankind, are, however, dity granted to cach species, on the innume- but fight vicissitudes in the ordinary course rable productions likely to result from it, on of living nature, which courle, in generad, the prompt and prodigious multiplication of is always conftant, always the same; and its certain animals that suddenly pullolate, and movement, always regular, turns upon uncome by millions to lay waste the fields, and taken pirots; the one being the unlimited ravage the earthi, we are altonised that they fecundity granted to every fpecies; the other, do not sweep away nature; we are in dread the obstacles without number that recluce the of their opreting her by numbers, and, af. procłuct of that fecundity to‘a determinate ter having devoured her substance, that they meafure, and leave at all times ncarly the do not themelves perish with her.

Lame number of individuals in each species. We fee, in fact, with consternation, ar And, as there animals, in pumberless mulrive those thick clouds, those winged pha- titudes, which suddenly appear, disappear Lux's of hungry insects, wbich leem to likewise in the same manner, and as the threaten the intire globe, and, lighting up- fund of these species is not increased, that of on the fruitful plains of Egypt, Poland, or the human species remains allo always the Iodia, destroy in an instant the labours and fame; the variations are only a little siower, hopes of the husbandman, sparing neither becaulė, the life of man being longer than coin, nor fruits, nor grals, nor roots, nor that of these little animals, it is necessary that leaves; stripping the earth of its verdure, the alternatives of augmentation and dininuand changing the face of the richest coun tion be prepared further off, and be accom; tries into an arid defast. Rats, in inmımc- plithed in a longer time; and even this time rable multitudes, are seen

to descend from is but an instant in duration, a moment in the the mountains of the North, and, as a de- fuccession of ages, which strikes us more than luge, or rather an overllowing of living, fub- others, becaute it has been accompanied with tance, to rafh headlong into the plains, and horror and defauction : For, in compre

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hending

hending the intire earth and the human spe- once in two years ; caterpillars, May-bugs, cies in general, the number of men must, as field-mice, and several other animals, which that of animals, be at all times nearly the in certain years multiply to an excess, appear fame, because it depends on the equilibrium but few in number the year following. What of physical causes. To this equilibrium all should become of all the fruits of the have come for a long time; the efforts of earth, all useful animals, and man himfdf, men, together with all moral circumstances, if in those excessive years each of these infekts cannot break through it, these circumstances reproduced itself, for the following year, by a depending themselves on those physical causes generation proportional to their number? of which they are but the particular effects. But this does not happen; the causes of deWhaiever care man may take of his species, struction, annihilation, and sterility follow he will never make it more abundant in one immediately those of too great a multiplicaplace, without its destruction or diminution tion; and, independently of contagion, the in another. When a portion of the earth is necessary consequence of too great a collecincumbered with men, they disperse, or seek tion of living matter in the same place, there mutual destruction, and then laws and cul- are, in each Ipecies, particular causes of death toms take place, which often prevent but too and destruction, which alone are sufficient to much the excess of multiplication. In cli- compensate the excess of preceding generamates excessively fruitful, as in China, E. tions. gypt, and Guinea, they expose, mutilate, Still this must not be taken in an absolute, fell, or drown children ; in Popish countries nor even strict fense, especially in regard to they condemn them to a perpetual celiba- the species which are not intirely abandoned bacy. Those who exist arrogate to them to nature alone : Those that man takes care felves a right over those who do not exist; of, beginning with his own, are more abunas necessary beings, they annihilate contin- dant than they would be without his care; gent beings, and suppress at discretion, for but, as these cares are limired, the augmentheir conveniency, future generations. Men, tation resulting from them is likewise limited without perceiving it, are acted upon as ani- and fixed for a long time by immutable 'mals; they are taken care of, multiplied, bounds; and though in policed countries the neglected, or destroyed, as occasion may terve, species of man and those of all useful aniand according to the advantages, inconve- mals are more nunerous than in other cliniency, and disagreeableness that may result mates, they are never fo to an excess, because from them; and, as all those moral effe:ls the same power that gives them birth dedepend themselves on physical causes, which, stroys them, when they become troublesome. fince the earth has affumed its consistence, In paits preserved for the pleasure of are in a fixed state, and permanent equili- hunting, sometimes four or five hundred brium, it appears, that, equally in regard to hares are killed in one only beating about the men and animals, the number of individuals bushes. These animals multiply greatly, and in the species is quite constant. Yet this fix are in a state of ingendering at all times, from ed state and constant number are not absolute the first year of their life. The females go quantities, all the physical and moral caules, with young but thirty or thirty-one days; all the effects resulting from them, are com- they produce three or four little ones, and, prehended and balanced between certain more as loon as they have kindled, they receive the or lets extended limits, but never great e male; they receive them also when they are nough for breaking the equilibrium. As pregnant, and, by the particular conformaall is in motion in the universe, and as ail tion of their genital parts, there is often a futhe forces of matter act against and counter- perfotation ; for the vagina and the body of balance each other, every thing is conducted the inatrix are continued, and there is 100and performed by a sort of oscilation, wherë- rifice, nor neck of the matrix, as in other of the middle points are those to which we animals; but the honis of the matrix have refer the ordinary course of nature, and the each an urifice that gives into the vagina, extreme points are the most diftant periods. and becomes dilated in bringing forth; and In fact, as well in animals as vegetables, the thus these two horns are tivo distinct and excess of multiplication is commonly follow- separate matrices, which may

act independ ed by fterility ; abundance and scarcity pr:- ently of each other; to that the females of fent themselves in their turns, and often fol- this ipecies inay conceive and bring forth at low fo close upon each other, that one may different times hy each of thele inatrices;

udge of the production of one year by the and, confequentív, the fuperfætations in product of the preceding. Apple and plum these animals mult be as frequent, as they trees, oak, beech, and the grea:er part of are rare in those that have not that double fruit and foreit trees, bear abundantly but organ. 5

Thes

These females may be therefore in heat liments, this animal can live upon grass alone, and pregnant at all times, and what proves as the horse and ass, which have also a great fufficiently that they are as lascivious as fruit- cæcum, have likewise but one stomach, and ful is another fingularity in their conforma- consequently cannot chew the cud. tion. The gland of their clitoris is proininent, Hares deep a great deal, and with their and alipost as large as the gland of the male's eyes open; their eye-lids have no lashes, and yard; and, as the vulva scarce appears, and they seem to have bad eyes; but, by way of the males have no testicles externally in their indemnification, their hearing is very acute, youth-age, it is often pretty difficult

to dif- and their ear of a prodigious size, relatively tinguish the male from the female. This al- to that of their body. They move about fo gave occasion to its being said that among these long ears with extreme facility, and use hares there were many hermaphrodites, that them as a helm for directing their course, the males produced sometimes young as the which is fo rapid, that they easily get the females, that some of them were by turns start of all other animals. As their fore male and female, performing alternately the are much toiter than their hind legs, it is functions, becausė, in fact, these females, more commodious to them to run up than often more hot than the males, cover them down ; so that, when pursued, they ítrive to before being covered, and, besides, relem- get to a mountain : Their motion in running ble them fo much externally, that, unless is a kind of gallop, a series of nimble and closely inspected, the female would be taken quick jumps; they walk without making for the male, and the male for the female. any noite, their feet being covered and fur

The young are born with their eyes open; nithed with hair, even underneath ; they are the mother suckles them twenty days, after allo, perhaps, the only animals that have which time they separate and go in quest of hair within their mouth. food. They do not remove to

any

conside Hares live at molt but seven or eight years, rable distance from one another, nor from and the duration of their life is, as in other the place of their birth; yet they live folita- animals, proportionable to the time of the rily, and make themselves a form at a small intire expansion of their body; they assume distance, as fixty or fourscore paces off; fo almost their whole growth in a year, and live that, when a leveret is found in a place, one about seven times one year; only, it is preis almost sure to find one os two others in the teuded that the males live longer than the for environs. They feed rather in the night than males, but I doubt of any certainty in this day-time, and their food consists of grass, observation. They spend their life in foli. roots, leaves, fruits, and grain. They pre- tude and silence, and their voice is not heard fer the plants whose sap is milky; they e but when forcibly feized, or tormented, or ven gnaw the bark of trees in winter, and wounded : 1 hen the cry is pot fhrill, but a there is scarce any sort but that of the alder pretty strong voice, whose tone is almost like and linden-tree, which they do not touch. that of the human. They are not so wild as When reared tame, they are fed with lettuce their habits and manner seein to indicate ; and pulle, but the fes of tliese hares is al- they are mild, and fusceptible of a fort of ways ill-tasted.

education, they are easily tamed, and even They seep or rest themselves in their form become fund; but their attachment is never in the day, and live only, as it were, by enough to mould them into domestic animals ; night; it is in the night-time that tl@y scout for those even, which have been taken quite about, eat, and copulate. By moon-light little and brought up in a house, as soon as they are seen to play together, to jump, and they find an opportunity, set themselves at to run after one another ; but the leait mo- liberty and fiy into the country. By having tion, the noise of a leaf falling, is sufficient a fine ear, and fitting of their own accord to throw them into consternation; they fly, on their hind legs, and using their fore as and each flies a differ..nt way.

arms, some have been trained to beat the Some authors have allured that hares chew drum, to gesticulate in cadence, 8.c.. the cud; but this opinion does not seem well In general, the hare does not want instinct grounded, because they have but one sto for his own preservation, nor fagacity for efmach, and the conformation of stomachs caping from his enemies. He makes himself and the other intestines is quite different in a form; he chuses, in winter, places exposed ruminating aniinals.

to the South, and, in summer, his lodge is The cæcum of these animals is small, that Northward ; he hides himself, in order not of the hare is very ample, and, if to the ca to be seen, between clots of earth of the same paciousness of its stomach be added that of colour with his hair. I have seen, fays the great coecum, it will be easily conceived Fouilloux, in his Venerie, pages 64 and 65, that, being able to take in a great bulk of a- a hare fo malicious, that, as soon as ever he

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heard the hom, he scampered away from his is very ill-tasted, and, in general, the flesh form, and, though he might have been a of all hares inhabiting low plains or vallies quarter of a league off, he went to swim in is infipid and whitish; whereas, on high a pond, resting himself in the middle of it lands or mountain plains, where wild thyme on rulhes, though no way hunted by dogs. and other fine herbs abound, the leverets, I have seen a hare run full two hours before and even the old hares, have an excellent the dogs, and then turn another out of his taste. It is observed oply, that those inhaform to be hanted in his room. I have seen biting the recesses of woods in the fame comothers which, after being run hard for up- try are much inferior to the inhabitants of wards of two hours, crept under the door of the out-skirts, or that keep themselves in the a sheepfold, and squatted down among the fields; and that the flesh of the females is Theep. I have seen fome, when hunted by always more delicate than that of the males. dogs, that would mix with a flock of sheep The nature of the foil has an influence oin the fields, and not go from them; others ver these animals as over all others. Moun. which, whenever they heard the dogs, would tain hares are larger than thofe of the plain, hide theinselves in the ground; others which, and also of a different colour ; they are more would go on one side of a ditch and return brown on the body, and have more white on the other, so that there was only the ditch under the neck than those of the plain, which between the dogs and the hare ; others which, are almost red. In the high mountains and when they had ran for about half an hour, regions of the North, they become white in would climb up an old wall 6 feet high, and winter, and resume, in summer, their usual get into a hole covered with ivy; and others, colour; there are some, and these are, pero in Mort, that would cross and re-cross ri- haps, the oldest, that remain always white; vers twenty different times together.' But for all of them become so more or less, as the e are, undoubtedly, the greatest efforts they grow old. The hares of warm counof their instint ; for their common wiles are tries, of Italy, Spain, Barbary, are finaller less subtle and less studied ; they content than those of France and other more northern themselves, when started and pursued, to run countries : According to Aristotle, they were with rapidity, and afterwards to turn and smaller in Egypt than Greece. They are ereturn; they do not direct their courte a- qually disperled over all climates : There are gainst the wind, but on the opposite side ; a great many in Sweden, Denmark, Pothe females do not run at so great a distance land, Muscovy; a great many in England, as the males, and turn oftener : In general, France, Germany ; a great many in Barbaall hures, born in the place where they are ry, Egypt, the Illes of the Archipelago, hunted, go to no great distance from it; especially Delos, now Idilis, which was calthey return to the:r form, and, if hunted led by the ancient Greeks Lagia, upon ac. two days together, the next day they perform couni of its great number of hares. In fine, the same turnings as before.' Wiren a hare . there are a greai many also in Lapland, where goes straight on, and at a great distance from they are white during ten months of the year, the place where it has been started, it is a and do not refume their fallow colour but in proof that he is a stranger, and that he had the two hottest months of summer. It thereonly taken a journey that way. It happens, fore appears that they equally thrive in molt indeed, elpecially in their chief rutting-time, climates ; yet it is remarked, that there are which is in the inonths of January, Febru- fewer hares in the Eaft than in Europe, and ary, and March, that male hares, wanting few or none in South America, though there females in their country, go several miles to are some in Virginia, Canada, and in the find and abide with thein för furne time, but, lands bordering upon Hadson's-bay and the when started by dogs, they repair to their Screights of Ma ellan ; but these bares of native country, and return no more. The North America are, perliups, of a different females never quit the place of their nativi. species from that of our hares; for travellers ty; tey are larger than the males, and vet fåy, that not only they are mach lager, but they have Jefs ttrength and agility and more that their fieh is white, and of a q. ite diftimidiry; for they do not wait the dogs lo ferent taste from that of our hues; they add near their form as the inales; they multiply that the hair of these North-American harts more their wiles and their tunings; they never falls, and that excellent furs are male are also niore delicate and more lulceptible of it. In exceffively foot countries, as at Seof the impressions of the air ; they dread wa negal, Gambia, in Guinea, and efpecially ter and dew; whereas, among the males, in the districts of Fidi, Apam, Acra, and there are several that take water, and let in fo.ne other countries fiquate under the torthemselves he huntei in pools, marshes, and rid zone in Africa and America, as in New other miry places. The fleth of these hares Holland and the lands of the Ifthmus of fa

nana,

nama, animals are found which travellers When there is a freshness in the air by bright have likewise taken for hares; but these are sun-shine, and the hare takes to his form afrather a fpecies of rabbits; for the rabbit is ter running, the vapour of his body forms a originally from hot countries, and is not finall mitt, which the hunters perceive at a found in Hyperborean clinates, whereas the good distance, especially if their eyes are well hare is stronger and larger by inhabiting a exercised in this fort of observation. Soine colder climate.

have been known who, by this fign, have This animal, so much in request for the gone upwards of a mile to kill a hare in its table in Europe, cannot be said to fuit the form. He commonly lets one cone very tafte of the Orientals. It is true that the near him, especially if he does not seem to law of Mahomet, and more anciently the look at him, and if, inttead of going directlaw of the Jews, have prohibited the use of ly, he turns obliquely to approach him. He the hart's desh as well as that of the hog; dreads dogs more than men, and, when he but the Greeks and Romans prized it as a scents or bears a dog, he runs to a good dainty as much as we do: . Inter quadru- distance. Tho' he runs fafter than the dogs, as pedes gloria prima lepus,' says Martial. In he makes no straight route, but turns and refaet, its flesh is excellent, its blood likewise turns about the place where he was startis very good for eating, and is the sweetested, the greyhounds, that hunt him by light of all blood; fat has no share in the delica- rather than smell

, cut short his way, lay hold cy of the flesh, for the hare never becomes of, and kill him. In summer-time, he keeps fat, as long as he remains at liberty in the in the fields ; in autumn, in Ihruns; and, in fields; and yet he often dies from too much winter, in close hedges or woods ; and one fat, when fed in a houfe.

may, at all times, without shooting him, The hunting of the hare is the amusement, force him to be hunted by a pack of hounds: and often the unly occupation of idle people He may also be taken by birds of prey : in the country. Being performed without Owls, buzzards, eagles, foxes, wolves, any great apparatus and expence,

and being men, all equally make war against him : He also useful, it suits every one. They go in has fo many enemies, that it is by chance he the morning and evening to the outlets of escapes them, and it feldom happens they let woods, to wait the bare on bis going in or him enjoy the few years nature has pesmitcoming out; in the day-time, he is fought ted him to live, after in the parts where he has his form.

Account of the PROCEEDINGS in the last Seffion of Parliament. T

HIS sesion was opened the 9th of best calculated to carry into effectual and

January, 1779, by his Majesty's most complete execution his Majesty's falutary ingracious speech from the throne. (See this tentions; and thereby, as far as by human fpeech in our Magazine for the same month.) means can be accomplished, to guard aAnd it was resolved, that an humble address gainst the danger of so great a calamity be. be presented to his Majesty, to return his coming general. Majesty the thanks of the House, for his To assure his Majesty, that his faithful molt gracious speech :

Coinmons have too just a sense of the blerTo express to his Majesty their serious fings of peace, and feel, with his Majesty, too concern, that, notwithstanding every frecau- tender a concern for the ease of their fellow. tion which could be used for preventing the fubjccts, not to rejoice at the prospect which communication of the infectious disorder the assurances given by the other Great Powamong the horned cattle from foreign parts, ers of Europe afford to his Majesty, that the that molt alarming distemper appears to have present disturbances will not extend to any again broke out in some parts of the king- part where the security, honour, or interest don; and at the same time to declare, that of this nation may make it necesary for his they are truly fenfible of his Majesty's pater- Majetty to become a party ; that they have nal care and vigilance for the security of his the fullest confidence that his Majeity will people, in having given the earliest directions never be unmindful of those important obfor every measure to be pursued, that might jects ; and that they observe with

great

fa. be most likely to give an immediate check to tisfaction his Majesty's wife attention to the the first Spreading of the infection, and that general interests of Europe, in his determinathey will not fail to take this most important tion not to acknowled e any claims of any of maiter into their immediate confideration, the other Powers of Europe, contrary to the and to inake such provisions as thall appear limitations of the late treaties of peace.

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