Page images

that of losing you. Ready to brave storms, der a borrowed name, fet opt for America, and all the rigour of climates, I repeat it a. Our passage was prosperous. Arrived in gain to you, that I will follow you wherever Canada, m'y letters of recommendation obyou are willing to conduct me. This shall tained for me the place of commanding of be then,' answered 1, melting away în tears, ficer of a fort situate on the frontiers. I here and quite transported by the emotions for use gained a settlement A French Gentleinuch constancy filled me with ;' this shall man, who had formed in the neighbourhood be then in quality of my wife ; that tisle on- of the fort a very charming habitation, gave ly, if you are pleafed to accept of it, can it up to us on certain consider tions (tipulated determine me to make you the companion of between us. The virtues of my wife have my fortune. This faithful lover, who con- never in the least abated in her situation. We lidered our marriage as the greatest happiness have lived there for several years past, and that could fall to her lot, made no objection enjoy a happiness of which she is as worthy to it. We were therefore married, and, un. as I have been undeserving. OBSERVATION on a young Max, whose Hands had a strong Smell of SULPHUR, by

John Schmidius, Physician af Dantzic.-From the Ephemerides of the Cu rions. Lutarch (L. 1. conv. quæst

. 6. & in in it, and continually breathed its sulphureous Alex.) informs us that an agreeable air. smell exhaled from the body of llis, and Cardan's arm, as he says himself, had likethat of Alexander the Great. Fr. Philelel- wise the same smell. But it seems that phus in Epist. has written on the ill smell this fiel was neither so disagreeable nor fa of the Jews, the cause of which he endea- brisk as that we speak of, which made those yours to investigate, and which may not im- that breathed it to be apprehensive for their properly be attributed, at least in regard to health; and what appears to me surpriling in those who live among us, to thegreat quantity the different examples above related, and par. of leeks they use in their aliments, which are ţicularly in that of the young man, is that inade thereby capable of communicating to the whole body did not partake of the ill their blood a strong and disagreeblesinell. Ga- smell, but only certain parts. Should the len, lib. 6. epid. com. Aphor: 9, relates that, cause of this phenomenon be attributed in bis time, a certain physician of Asia had to the quality of the whole mass of the fo dilgusting a sinell of the axillæ, that no blood, or only to the blood - vessels of delicate or nice person could come near him, certain parts ? 'If this bad smell had in fact unless he had previously used the precaution resided in the whole mass of the blood, as of bathing himself with some odoriferous wa circulation carries it into all parts, I do not ters. The women of the illand of Lemnos, fee why the whole body Thould not be according to Antigonus, de nat, mir had tainted with the smell. I am therefore of disgusted so much their husbands by their ill opinion that the pores of certain parts, espeImell, that they did not approach them. cially those that serve for daily labour, being

To all these examples I will add the fol. ftopped up by fome external cause, and tranlowing from iny own knowledge : A young fpiration not being performed in them or man, aged 23, of a good conftitution, and who very imperfectly, the liquors, by fojouming lived a year and some months with a fadler of too long, chafe and receive an alteration pur city, had a very singular indisposition; therein, and may at length contract that ill for both his hands exhaled at certain times a imell, especially when the subject is of a dry, smell of fulphur fo strong and penetrating, warm, and fanguine constitution. For if, as that it soon infected the room he was in ; in the present case, we should remain fatifand the bed he lay in had also contracted fied with the pretended sufficient reasons of the same smell ; so that, becoming insup- fome idiosyncralies, or particular and occult portable to the master with whom he lived, dispositions of certain parts, or of the blood he one day came to consult me, and asked this commodious resource of ignorance, if that extraordinary smell might not be at would, in the study of natural things, render tended with some danger to the persons of all researches fuperfluous. the house, and other young men that worked


[ocr errors]

HISTORY OF CLEOMENES, the Avenger of the Death of Acis, the

renowned Spartan King, and Restorer by that Means of the ancient Conftitution
of Sparta. - See, in our last Supplement, An Account of the Attempt made
by King Acis to revive the Laws of LYCURGUS.
A of

the search made for him by Leonidas, which way and by whose advice he was and escaped the massacre by Aying from Spare drawn into those unfortunate measures. Xe. ta." But Leonidas compelled his wife Agi- nares, who attributed all his questions to the atis, who was a young Lady of the greatest curiolity natural to a young man, very reabeauty in all Greece, and sole heires to a dily told him the whole story, and explained vast estate, to marry his own Son Cleomenes, ingenuously every particular of the affair as though Agiatis had but just lain-in of a fon, it really happened. But when he remarked and the match was intirely contrary to her that Cleomenes often returned to the charge, inclinations. This event however produced and every time with greater eagerness, more a very different effect from what Leonidas and more admiring and applauding the intended, and after his death proved the ruin scheme and chiaracter of Agis, he immediateof his party, and revenged the murder of ly law through his design. After reproving Agis

. For Cleomenes, who was very young him, therefore, severely, for talking and be and extremely fond of his wife, would shed having thus like a madman, Xenares brake fympathising tears whenever the related the off all friendship and intercourse with him, inelancholy fate of Agis, and occasionally though he had too much hor:our to betray his desire her to explain his intentions and the friend's secret. Cleomenes, not in the least nature of his scheme, to which he would discouraged at this repulse, buit concluding listen with the greatest attention. From that that he should meet with the same reception time he determined to follow fo glorious an from the rest of the wealthy and powerful ciexample, but kept the resolution secret in his tizens, determined to truit none of them, own breast till the means and opportunity but to take upon himself the whole care and fhould offer. He was sensible that an at- management of his scheme. However, as tempt of that nature would be utterly im- he was sensible that the execution of it would practicable whilft his father lived ; who, like be much more fealible when his country was the rest of the leading citizens, had wholly, involved in war, than in a state of profound given himself up to a life of ease and luxury. peace, he waited for a proper opportunity; Warned too by the fate of Agis, he knew which the Achæans quickly furnished him how extremely dangerous it was even once with. For Aratus, the great projector of po mention the old frugality and simplicity of the famous Achran league, into which he minners, which depended upon the observe had already brought many of the Grecian ance of the discipline and institutions of Ly; states, holding Cleomenes extremely cheap, curgus. But, as soon as ever he fucceeded as a raw unexperienced boy, thought this a to the crown at the death of his father, and fivourable opportunity of trying how the found himself the sole reigning King of Sparta Spartans stood affected towards that union. without a collegue, he immediately applied Without the least previous notice, therefore, his whole care and study to accomplish that he suddenly invaded such of the Arcadians as great change which he had before projected. were in alliance with Sparta, and committed For he observed the mapners of the Spartans great devastations in that part of the country in general were grown extremely corrupt and which lay in the neighbourhood of Achaia. diffolute; the rich facrificing the public in The Éphori, alarmned at this unexpected ferest to their own private avarice and luxu« attack, fent Cleomenes at the head of the ty; the poor, from their extreme indigence, Spartan forces, to oppose the invasion. The averse to the toils of war, careless and nego young hero behave: well, and frequently ligent of education and discipline; whilft baffled that old experienced Commander. the Ephori had ingrossed the whole royal But, his countryinen growing weary of the power, and left him in reality nothing but war, and refusing to concur in the measures the empty tide : Circunstances greatly mor- he proposed for carrying it on, he recalled tifying to an aspiring young Monarch, who Archidamus the brother of Agis from bapunted eagerly after glory, and impatienty nihhment, who had a strict hereditary right wished to retrieve the loft reputation of his to the other moiety of the kingdom; inasountrymen.

gining that, when the throne was properly He began by founding his most intimate filled according to law, and the regal power friend, ore Xenares, a a distance only, its preserved inture by the union of the two


Kings, it would restore the balance of gq- Next morning, as soon as it was light, Cleo vernment, and weaken the authority of the menes profcribed and banished fourscore of F phori. But the faction which had mur- the moft dangerous citizens, and removed all flered Agis, justly dreading the resentment the chairs of the Ephori out of the Forum, of Archidamus for lo atrocious a crime, except one which lie reserved for his own feat took care privately to asiallinate hiin upon of judicature. He then convoked an alleinhis return.

bly of the people, to whəm he apologised for Cleomenes, now more than ever intent up- his late actions. He iewed them, in a veon bringing his great project to bear, bribed ry astful and elaborate speech, the nature and she Ephori with large fums to intruit him just extent of the power of the Ephori, the with the management of the war. His mo fatal consequences of the authority they had ther Crateficlea not only fupplied him with usurped of governing the state by their own money upon this occasion, but married one arbitrary will, and of depoling and putting Megistonus, a man of the greatett weight their Kings to death without allowing them and

autlority in the city, purposely to bring a legal hearing in their own defence. He him over to her fon's intereft. Cleomenes, urged the example of Lycurgus himself, who taking the field, tctally defeated the army of came armed into the Forum when he first Aratus, and killed Lydiadas the Megalopo- proposed his laws, as a proof that it was imlitan General. This victory, which was in- portable to root out those pelts of the com.' tirely owing to the conduct of Clcomenes, mon

onwealth, which had been imported fron not only raised the courage of his foldiers, other countries, luxury, the parent of that but gave them so high an opinion of his abi- vain expence which runs such numbers in lities, that he seems to have been recalled by debt, ulury, and those more ancient evils, his enemics, jealous most probably of his wealth and poverty, without violence and growing interest with the army. For Plu- bloodshed: That he should have thought tarch, who is not very methodical in his re himself happy, if like an able physician he lations, informs us, that, after thris affair,, could have radically cured the diseases of his Cleomenes convinced his father-in-lawv, Me- country without pain : But that necessity giftonus, of the neccflity of taking off the had compelled him to do what he had Ephori, and reducing the citizens to their already done, in order to procure an equal ancient equality according to the instiintions partition of the lands, and the abolition of of Lycurgus, as the only means of restoring their debts, as well as to enable him to fill Sparta to her former fovereignty over Greece. up the number of the citizens with a felett This scheme therefore must have been pri- number of the bravest foreigners, that Sparta vately settled at Sparta. For we are next might be no longer exposed to the depredatold that Cleomenes again took the field, tions of her enemies for want of hands to decarrying with him such of the citizens as fend her.' he fuspected were most likely to oppose him. To convince the people of the Incerity of He took some cities from the Achæans that his intentions, he first gave up his whole forcampaign, and made himself master of fome tune to the public stock; Megistonus, his important places, but harrassed his troops so father-in-law, with his other friends, and much with inany marches and counter- all the rest of the citizens, followed his exmarches, that most of the Spartans remained ample. In the divilion of the lands, he gebehind in Arcadia, at their own request, nerously set apart equal portions for all those whilft he marched back to Sparta with his citizens he had banilhed, and promised to remercenary forces, and such of his friends as call them as foon as the public tranquillity he could most conside in. He timed his was restored. He next revived the ancient march so well that he entered Sparta whilst method of education, the gymnastic exer-' the Ephori were at supper, and dispatched cises, public meals, and all other institutions Euryclidas before with three or four of his of Lycurgus; and, left the people, unacmost trufty friends and a few Soldiers to per- customed to the denomination of a fingle form the execution. For Cleomenes well King, should suspect that he aimed at ettaknew that Agis owed his ruin to his too blishing a tyranny, he associated his brother cautious timidity and his too great le- 'Euclidas with him in the kingdom. Ву nity and moderation. Whilst Euryclidas training up the youth in the old military discitherefore amused the Ephori with a pretend- pline, and arming them in a new and better ed message from Cleomenes, the rest fell up- manner, he once more recovered the reputaon them (word in hand, and killed four up- tion of the Spartan militia, and raised his on the spot, with above ten perfons more who country to so great a height of power, that came to their assistance. Agesilaus, the sur- Greece in a very short time faw Sparta giving vivor of them, fa!), and, countericiting him- law to all Peloponnesus. fulf dead, gained an opportunity of escaping. The Achæans, humbled by repeated de


feats, and begging peace of Cleomenes up at Court, the general whisper ran, that he on his own terms, the generous victor desired came as a lion in the midit of Sheep; a lighe only to be appointed General of their famous in which a brave man must neceffarily apa league, and offered upon that condition to pear to a herd of such servile daftards. "Conreftore all the cities and prisoners he had fined at last by the jealousy of Ptolemy; who taken. The Achæans gladly consenting to was kept in a perpetua) alarm by the insinufuch easy térins, Cleomenes released and sentations of his iniquitous Minister Sofybius, home all the persons of rank amongst his he, with about twelve more of his generous prisoners, but was obliged by fickness to de- Spartan friends, broke out of prison, deterfer the day appointed for the convention, till mined upon death or liberty. In their prohis return from Sparta. This unhappy delay gress through the streets, they first flew one was fatal to Greece. For Aratus, who had Ptolemy, a great favourite of the King's, enjoyed that honour thirty-three years, could who had been their secret enemy; and meetnot bear the thought of having it wrested ing the Governor of the city, who came at from him by fo young a Prince, whose glo. the first noise of the tumult, they routed his sy he envied as much as he dreaded his va guards and attendants, dragged him out of lour. Finding therefore all other methods his chariot, and killed him. After this they ineffectual

, he had recourse to the desperate ranged uncontroued through the whole city remedy of calling in the Macedonians to his of Alexandria, the inhabitants flying every affiftance, and facrificed the liberty of his where before them, and not a man daring own country, as well as that of Greece, to either to affift or oppose them. Such terror his own private pique and jealousy: Thus could thirteen brave men only strike inte the most public-spirited assertor of liberty, one of the most populous cities in the uniand the most implacable enemy to all tyrants verse, where the citizens were bred up in luxin general, brought back those very people ury, and strangers to the use of arms! Clesinto the heart of Greece, whom he had driven menes, de pairing of alistance from the citiout formerly purely from his hatred to ty zeps, whorn he had in vain kummoned to afranny, and fullied a glorious life with a blot fert their liberty, declared fuch abject cow, never to be erased, from the dete table mo. ards fit only to be governed by women. tives of envy and revenge. A melancholy Scorning therefore to fall by the hands of the proof, as Plutarch moralifes upon the occa- despicable Egyptians, he with the rest of the fion, of the weaknels of human nature, Spartans fell desperately by their own swords, which with an assemblage of the most excel, according to the heroism of those ages. lent qualities is unable to exhibit the model The liberty and happiness of Sparta exof a virtue completely perfect. A circum- pired with Cleomenes. For the remains of ftance which ought to excite our compaflion the Spartan history furnish us with very little towards those blemishes, which we unavoid after his death, besides the calamities and ably meet with in the most exalted characters. inileries of that unhappy State, arising from

Cleomenes fupported this unequal war their intestine divisions. Machanidas, by against the Achæans, and the whole power the aid of one of the factions which at that of Macedon with the greateft vigour, and by time rent that miserable republic, usurpeck his fuccess gave many convincing proofs of the throne, and established an absolute eyhis abilities; but, venturing a declive battle ranny. One Nabis, a tyrant, compared to at Sallafia, he was totally defeated by the fupe- whom even Nero himself may be termed mer. rior number of his enemies, and the treachery ciful, succeeded at the death of Machanidas, of Damoteles, an Officer in whom he great- who fell in battle by the hand of the great ly confided, who was bribed to betray him Philopæmen. The Etolians treacherouily. by Antigonus. Out of fix thousand Spar- murdered Nabis and endeavoured to seize the tans, two hundred only escaped ; the rest with dominion cf Sparta, but they were prevented their King Euclidas were left dead on the by Philopemen, who partly by force, partly field of battle Cleomenes retired to Spaita, by persuasion, brought the Spartans into the and from thence passed over to Ptolemy Eu- Achæan league, and afterwards totally aboergetes King of Egypt, with whom he was lished the institutions of Lycurgus. A most then in alliance; to claim

the allistance he had inhuman and most iniquitous action, as Pluforinerly promised. But the death of that tarch terms it, which must brand the chaMonarch, which followed soon after, de- racter of that hero with eternal infamy. As prived him of all hopes of fuccour from that if he was sensible that, as long as the disciquarter. The Spartan manners were as pline of Lycurgus fublfted, the minds of cftious to his fucceffor Ptolemy Philopater, a the Spartan youth could never be thoroughly desk and diffolute Prince, as the Spartan famed, cr effe lually broke to the yoke of virtue was terrible to his debauched cffeminate foraign government. Wearied out at last by Courties. Whenever Cleemeties appeared regel oppreifions, the Spartans applied to


the Romans for redhress of all their grievances; is grown too desperate to admit of a cure by and their complaints produced that war which milder methods. ended in the dissolution of the Achzan But we cannot quit this fubjeét without league, and the subjection of Greece to the recommending that excellent institution of Roman domination.

Lycurgus, which provided for the education From the tragical fate of the Spartan King of the children of the whole community Agis we learn, that, when abuses introduced without distinction. An example which by corruption are suffered by length of time under proper regulations would be highly to take root in the conftitution, they will be worthy of our imitation, since nothing could termed by those whose interest it is to support give a more effectual check to the reigning them effential parts of the constitution; and vices and follics of the present age, or contriall attempts to remove them will ever be cla- bute so much to a reformation of manners, moured against by such men as attempt to as to form the minds of the rising generation fubvert it: As the example of Cleomenes by the principles of religion and virtue. will teach us, that the public virtue of one Where the manners of a people are goods great man may not only fave his falling very few laws will be wanting ; but, when country from ruin, but raise her to her for their manners are depraved, all the laws in mer dignity and lustre, by bringing her back the world will be insufficient to restrain the to those principles on which her constitution excesses of the human passions. For as Howas originally founded. Though the vio- race justly observes lent remedies made use of by Cleomenes Quid leges fine moribus never ought to be applied, unless the disease Vanæ proficiunt? Ode 24. lib. 3.

An Account of some very extraordinary PRODUCTIONS of Human Art. A

times, may boast of some exceeding had examined with his microscope, a chaife fine and very exquisite performances of hu- made by Mr. Boverick, a watchmaker, have man art. Callicrates, as recorded by Ælian ing four wheels, with all the proper apparaand Pliny, had made in ivory fome ants and tus belonging to them, turning readily on other animals fo small, that their limbs very their axles ; together with a man sitting in the exactly formed were imperceptible to other chaise ; all formed of ivory, and drawn acyes but his own.

long by a flea without any seeming difficulty: Myrmecides had constructed a coach with Mr. Kaker adds, that he weighed it with the four horses and the coachman in fo Small a greatest care he was able, and found the compass, that the whole could lie covered chaile, man, and flea, were hardly equal to a with the wing of a fly: A vessel of the fame single grain. He weighed alío, at the fame artist was covered with the wing of a bee. time and place, a brass chain made by the

Galen speaks of a Phaeton reprefented on fame hand, about two inches long, containá ring, in a chariot drawn by four horles, on ing two hundred links, with a hook at one each of which could be distinguished the end, and a padlock and key at the other ; reins and other trappings, with their fore and found it less than the third part of a teeth and all their motions.

grain. He hid seen, besides, made by the Cardan makes mention of a chained Aea Jame artist, a quadrille table with a drawer in Germany, and of a repeating watch in a in it, an eating-table, a lide-boar i table, a ring.

looking-glass, twelve chairs with skeleton Solinus relates, that the Iliad of Homer backs, two dozen of plates, six dishes, a do. was written in characters fo finall as to be zen knives, and as many forks, twelve contained in a nut-shell. Huet fancied this spoons, two falts, a frame and castors, toto be very possible, and assures us he could do gether with a Gentleman, Lady, and foot. the fame thing himself according to an effay man, all contained in a cherry-Itone, und he had made in consequence of a dispute he not filling much inore than hait of it. had on this occasion with the Duke of Mon We are told in the German Ephemerides, tanser.

tha Oswald Nerlinger made a cup of a pepDr. Power says he saw a golden chain at per-corn, which held twelve hundred other Tredescant's, of three hundred links, not little cups, all turned in ivoiy, each of thens more than an inch in length, faltened to, and being gilt on the ed es, and itanding upon pulled away by a fa. Mr. Henry Baker, a foot; and that, lo far fiom being cruudet á Fellow of the Royal Society, and author of or wanting room, the pepper-corn could the Mieriscope made cali; tays, that he had have had four hundred inore.

« PreviousContinue »