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HE annexed Whole-heet PLATE (being the XXVIIIth,

in our Magazine, of the Roads of ENGLAND) contains a
Survey of the Road from St. David's, through Fiscard, Newport,
Cardigan, Llanrufted, Talabont, Machunleh, Balla, Bettus, and
Ruthen, to Holywell in Flintshire : Also the Road from Exeter, thro'
Crediton, Chimleigh, &c. in the Way to Barnstable,
DISCOURSE on the QUESTION, IVhether Man, in the State of

Nature, confined himself to a Diet of Herbs, Grain, and Fruit? Or,

Whether at all Times, as most other Animals, be chose to feed on FLESH!" THE

HE Pythagoric diet, on which many an equivalent to the use of pleasures ; and,

ancient and modern Philosophers have to be happy, what more is required, than lavilhed encomiums, and which has like to be in a lituation of desiring nothing ? wife been recommended by some Physicians, If it be fo, let it be said, at the same time, was never pointed out to us by Nature. In that it is more comfortable to vegetate than the primitive world, when the golden age to live ; to covet nothing, than to satisfy was supposed to exist, man, innocent as :3 one's appetite; to deep the deep of apathy, dove, eat acorns and drank water : Finding than to open the eyes to see an i feel ; to every-where his fublistence, he was without suffer our foul to languish in torpors, our inquietude, lived independent, and was als mind to wander in darkness; never to make ways at peace with himself and with ani- use of either ; to place ourielves beneath animals : But, fo soon as, forgetful of his mals; and to be, in fine, nothing but noble origin, he facrificed his liberty to unite masses of brute matter, attached to the with others, war and the iron age took place earth. of the golden and of peace. Cruelty, a re But, instead of difputing, let us produce lith for and hankering after felh end blood, facts, in regard to the proposed question. If were the firit-fruits of a depraved nature, we examine into the appetites of lavage men, and manners and arts completed its conta we ihall find, that not one of them lives inmination.

tirely upon fruits, herbs, or grain ; that all This is what, in all times, certain austere prefer flesh and filh to other aliments; that Philosophers, lavage by temper, have re pure water displeases them; and that they proached man in society with. Exalting their leek after the means to make themselves, or individual pride by the humiliation of the to procure from others, a leis intipid beveintire species; they have exhibited a picture, rage. The favages of the South drink the specious only by the contrast, and, perhaps, water of the palm-tree; those of the North because it is good to present, sometimes, to swallow large draughts of loathsome whaleman a phantoin of happiness.

oil ; others make fermented drink; and all, Did there ever exist such an ideal state of in general, are exceeding fond of, and have innocence, of strict temperance, of intire the strongest passion for, strong liquors. abstinence from flesh, of perfect tranquil. Their industry, dictated by the wants of lity, of profound peace ? Is it not rather an their first and great necessity, excited by their apologue, a fable, where man is introdu natural appetites, is reduced to the making ced as an animal to give us lesions or cx of inftruinents for hunting and fishing. A ainples? Can it even be supposed, that there bow, arrows, a club, nets, a canoe, is the wele virtues before fociety? Can it be fin- sublime extent of their art; all which have, cerely faid, that this lavage state deserves our for their object, the ine ns of procuring for regret; and that man, the fierce and wild themtelves a subsistence suitable to their taste : animal, is more worthy than man, the civi- . And what suit: their taste fuits nature; for lised citizen? Yes, for all infelicities pro man cannot receive fufficient nourishment ceed from f»cicty; and what does it signi from herbs alone ; he would perill through fy, whether, or no, there were virtues in the inanition, if he did not take inore fubitanftate of Narure, if there was happiness, and tial aliinents. Having but one stomach and if man, in that itate, was only less unhappy, thort inteitines, he cannot, as the ox, that than he now is? Are not liberty, helili, has four ftoinachis and very long guts, take strength, preferable to indolence, sensuality, in at once a great bulk of that megre foo!, and voluptuousness, accompanied with tla which, however, inuit be alsolutely necefVery? The privation of pain is more dian

frry for cuinating the quality by the Nunz. CCCXXII, VOL. XLVI,


guid life.

quantity. The laine may be nearly faid of ceeded, the organic living molecules were fruits and grain : They would not fuffice no longer remembered, and the imagination for him ; he must itill require too great a took place that what was living in the anibulk for furnishing the quantity of organic mal was perhaps an indestructible whole muleceles necessary to nutrition; and, tho' which exifted separate from the body after bread is made of what is purest in corn, and death. This ideal whole was called 'a foul, though corn, and our other grain and pulle, which was soon considered as a being really having been perfected by art, are more fub- exilting in all animals; and combining with Itantial and nourishing, than grain that re this fantastic being the real idea, but disfitains only natural qualities, man, 're luced gured, of the palling of living molecules, it to bread and pulle, for the whole of his was said that after death the foul passed suce food, would scarce drag on a feeble and lan- cessively and perpetually from body to hody.

Min was not exceptel; morality was soon Behold those pious solitaries, whò abftain called in to the aid of retaphy ics; it was from every thing that had life in it, wlie, not doubted but that this surviving bing from holy motives, renounce the gifts of the retained, in its transmigration, its sentiments, Creator, deprive themselves of the gift of affections, and desires This was enough speech, fly from fociety, and mut themselves to turn every weak head. What a horror up within sacred walls which nature perpetu. it must be in fact for that foul, ou quitting ally affails and is cruhed in the attempt of an agreeable abode, to país into the infecbreaking down. Confined in these afylums, tious body cf an unclean animal ? They or rather in these graves of the living, where entertained other fears, and every fear pronothing but the air of death is breathed, you duced its fuperftition. They were appreobserve their mortified vilages, and their eyes hensive in kiling an animal, that they fo nearly extinguished, that harilly they can laughtered their mistress or father ; hence throw a glance about them. Their life began their respect for all beasts ; they conseeins to be fupported only by struggles ; sidered them as their neighbours, and at they take their food, and yet the cravings of length agreed that, through a principle of hunger do not ceafe : Though encouraged love and duty, it was incumbent on them to by their fervour (for the state of the head abitain from every thing that had life. This {pirits up that of the body) they refift but a was the origin and progress of that religion, few years

that cruel abstinence; they live the most ancient of the continent of India; less than die daily by an anticipated death, which thews sufficiently that truth delivered and are not extinét by finishing the course of to the multitude is foon disfigured; that a life, but hastening the pace of death. philosophical opinion does not become popu

Thus abstinence from all felli, far from lar, till it has changed its form ; but that by agreeing with nature, must contribute to de- the means of this preparation it may become stroy nature. If man was reduced to it, he a religion the better founded, as the prejucould not, at leait in these clinates, either dice is more general ; and the more rtipected, sublift or multiply: Such diet perhaps that as, having for its foundation truths ill might be possible in southern countries, understood, it will be necessarily invironed by where the juices of fruits are more exalted, obscurities, and consequently will appear mythe plants more fubftantial, the roots more Iterious, august, incomprehensible; that af. fucculent, the grain more plump and nutri- terwards, fear mingling with respect, this retive; yet the Brachmans rather constitute a ligion will degenerate into fuperftitions, into feet than people, and their religion, though ridiculous practices, which will notwithvery ancient, has scarce extended beyond standing take root, produce customs at first their schools, but never beyond their climate. Scrupulously followed, but altering by Little

This religion, founded on metaphysics, is and little, will fo change with time, that even a striking example of the fate of human opi- the opinion they originated from will no nions. It cannot be doubted, on paffing in more appear but by false traditions, by pro. review its broken remains, but that the verbs, and will end in puerile stories and absciences have been very anciently cultivated,' surdities; whence this inference Thould be and perfected perhaps beyond what they now drawn that every religion grounded on hnare. It was known before us that all ani man opinions is falfe and variable, and that it mate beings contained indestructible inole- never belonged but to God to give us the cules, always living, and which passed from true religion, which, not depending on our body into boly. This truth, adopted by opinions, is unalterable, constant, and will philofophers, and afterwards by a great num- always be the fame. ber of men, retained its purity in an inligtened But to return to our subject. An intire age, but, a revolution of darkness having fuc- abftinence froin fleih muft necessarily weaken 5


nature. Man, in order to enjoy health, taking nature in the whole, this fame appeftands not only in need of the use of that fo- rite is not only found in man and in qualid nutriment, but also requires to vary it. druped animals, but also in birds, in fishes, Jf he would attain complete vigour, he mul intects, and worms, to which in particular it chuse what suits him belt; and, as he cannot seems that all felh has been ultimately desmaintain himself in an active state but by tined. procuring f.r himself new sensations, it is Nutrition, in all animals, is performed by necefliry he should give to his senses their organic molecules which, separated from the full extent, permit hinself the variety of grosser parts of the food by the means of dimeats as that of other objects, and prevent gestion, mix with the blood, and assimilate the dilgul occasioned by the uniformity of to all parts of the body. But independently food; but it is equally necessary for hiin to of this great effect, which appears to be the avoid excess, which is till morí hurtful than principal aim of nature, and which is proabitinence.

portional to the quality of the aliments, they Animals that have but one stomach and produce another depending on their quantity, short intestines are forced, as man, to feed that is, on their mass and bulk. The ftoon flesh. We may be allured of this rela. mach and intestines are supple memcicn and truth by comparing the relative bulk branes that take up a pretty considerable of the intestinal canal in carnivorous animals, space within the body, these membranes, and those that live only on herbs. Wc to keep themselves in their state of tendon, shall always find that this dir erence in their and to counterbalance the forces of the other manner of living depends on their conforma- neighbouring parts, require to be always tion, and that they assume a more or less foc partly filled. If, for want of food, this ca. lid nourishment, relatively to the more or pacious space should be intirely empty, the less great capaciousnets of the magazine that membranes, being no longer tultained, ihrink is to receive it.

in, fall upon, and adhere to one another, It must not, however, be inferred, that and this is what produces that languor and animals which live only on herbs are by a weakness, which are the first symptoms of physical necessity reduced to this food, as extreme hunger. The aliments, before con carnivorous animals are by the same necessi. tributing to the nutrition of the body, ferve ty forced to feed on Aeíh : We only say as ballait ; their presence, their bulk, are nethat those which have feveral stomachs, or cessary for maintaining the equilibrium bevery ample intestines, may do without that tween the internal parts that act and react all substantial aliment lo necessary to others ; upon one another. When one dies of but we do not say that they cannot use it, hunger, it is not so much because the body is and, if nature had given thein weapons, not not ted, as because it is no longer ballaited : only for defence, but for attacking and seize and thus aniinals, especially the most vora. ing, they would soon accustom themselves to cious, when pressed by hunger, or warned fesh and blood; for we fee sheep, calves, goats, by the debility brought on by internal emphorses, eat greedily of milk and eggs, which tiness, seek wherewithal to fill it up, and are animal food; and, without being aided by swallow earth and Itones. Clay has been custom, they do not refuse halhed meat, fea- found in a wolf's stomach ; hogs have been soned with salt. It may be therefore faid, seen to eat it; moit birds swallow stones, &c. that a relish for flesh, and for other solid And this is not through appetite, but neceflity, foods, is the general appetite of all animals, the greatest craving being not to refresh the which is exercised wili more or less vehe- blood by new chyle, but to maintain the mence or moderation, according to the par- equilibrium of forces in the large parts of the ticular conformation of each aniinal, because animal machine.

PROCEEDINGS in the last selfoon of Parliament, continued from Page 264

of our laft. ON che 16th of February, 1770, a

from the Committee of the whole House, bill passed the House, for repairing and wic to whom is was referred to consider of the dening several svads in the county of Car- state of the nation, the following resolution, digan

which the Committee had direčted him to The same day, his Majesty, being come report to the House, yiz. to the House of Peers, gave the royal assent That it is the opinion of this Committee, to such public and private bills as were that this Houfe, in the exercise of its judicafiady.

ture in matters of election, is bound to judge Afterwards #fir Francis Vincent reported according to the law of the land, and the



known and established law and custom of said, but will abide the sense of the Houfe.' Parliament, which is part thereof; and that Then, a motion being made, and the the judgment of this House, declared in the question being put, That the words spoken resolution of the 17th day of February last, by Mr. Speaker, from the Chair, are dit

That John Wilkes, Éfq; having been, orderly, importing an improper reflection in this fellion of Pa liament, expelled this on a Member of this House, and dangerous House, was, and is, incapable of being e to the freedom of debate in this House, it leted a Member to serve in this present passed in the negative. Parliment,' was agreeable to the faid law On the sgth, four bills passed the House : of the land, and fully authorised by the law The first, from the Lords, intitled An act and custom of Parliament.

for naturaliting John-Nicholas Jacquin: The The faid resolution being read a second second, for dividing, inclosing, and allotting, time, and an objection being made, that the the open fields in Ratby in the parish of Rata faid resolution contained a complicated ques- by and county of Leicester: 'I be third, for tion, and that it was the undoubted right of dividing, inclosing, and allotting, the open any one Member of the House to have it fields, and certain commonable places, in separated, before any queition could be put the parish of Halloughton, in the county of upon it, Mr. Speaker was called upon, by the Leicester : And the fourth, for the better House, to tiate what he understood to be the maintaining, regulating, and employing the order of proceeding of the House in this re poor, within the parish of St. Paul Shad. spect. And Mr. Speaker accordingly deli- well, in the county of Middlesex. vered to the House his opinion thereupon, The House then resumed the adjourned And, a Member of the House having, in consideration of the report from the Comhis speech, made some observations upon mittee of the whole House, to whom it was what had been said by Mr. Speaker ; and referred to consider further of the ftate of the Mr. Speaker offering his sentiments to the nation : And a motion was made, and, the House, in answer to what had been observed question being put, that it is the rule of this by the laid Member; exception was taken House, that a complicated question, which to foine words uted by Mr. Speaker in such prevents any Member from giving his free anfiver ; which words, being taken down by allent or dissent to any part thereot, ought, a Member of the House, were afterwards if required, to be divided, it passed in the copied by the Clerk at the table, and are as negative. follow :'When I expected candid treat It was then ordered, that the said refolument from that Member, I was mistaken; tion be divided into two parts (the first part for I find I am not to expect candour from ending at the wwd thercot'); and the that Gentleman, in any motions he is to question, for agreeing with the Committee make to the hair!

therein, be put upon each part feparately : And, the said words, so taken down, be- And, the question being accordingly sepaing read to the Houle, Mr Speaker decla- rately put, for agreeing with the Committee red, that those were not the words which he in each part of the laid resolution, it was had made use of, but that they were as folo resolved, lo:v : ! In candour, I hoped he would have That this House, in the exercise of its informed me of the motion he intended to judicature in matters of election, is bound to make; but I now find, from what the judge according to the law of the land, and Member has said, that I ain not to expect the known and established law and custom that candid treatment from him : -- For he of Parliament, which is part thereof: And faid, in his speech, that, from this time for That the judgment of this House, declared ward, he will have no communication with in the resolution of the 17th day of February the Chair.' And Mr. Speaker declared he last, « That John Wilkes, Efq; having did not mean any general reflection on the been, in this sellion of Parliament, expelled character of the Member. And afterwards this House, was, and is, incapable of being Mr. Speaker said: 'What I said arose out elected a Member 10 terve in this prefent of what I understood the Member to have Parliament,' was agreeable to the said law faid. If he disclaimed candour with the of the land, and fully authorised by the law Chair, I had a right to say I was not to ex and custom of Parliainent. pect candour on that subject. I did not, in On the 20th, two bills palled the House ; jatice I ought not, to have made a general The first, to enable William Head, Esq; a relection upon the Member's character; minor, and his issue, to take and use the but, it the Member had said what I under- surname of James only, and to bear the stood he faid, I kad a right to say what I coat-armour of the family of John James, did. I can make no apology for what I Est; deceased : And the second, to conti


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