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the objects of his prey, the just and the vir- promise of the life that now is, and also of tuous of his hatred and vengeance.
that which is to come.' These are the lamentable effects of enthu God hath made us rational beings, and fiasm and infidelity, where they gain the af- therefore the religion he requires of us muft cendant over the mind, and become princi- ever be strictly consistent with reason and the ples of action. They are equally dange- nature of things, and visibly tend to the inrous in their tendency and end; both are troduction of peace on earth, and goodfubversive of virtue, religion, and true happi- will to all men.. And it is only the real ness here ; and cqually unfit it for a partici- experience of living under its purifying inpitation with happy spirits in future blefied. fuence, and being guided by its dictates, ness and glory. That religion, which has that can give mankind a rational hope of. God for its author, is equally remo:e from that supreme felicity, which is the inestimathese two extremes ; its nature is exemplified ble treature of the virtuous in a future state by its happy effects in the earth. It is in- of existence. decu“ prohtable unto all things, having the
I am, &c. RATIONALIS.
Natural History of the WOLF, with a finely engraved Figure of that
THE wolf is called in Greek a'zos; death before chusing aud carrying away his
in Latin, lupus ; in French, loup; in prey. When this courling happens to be Itauan Jupo; in Spanish, lobo ; in Gerinan, productive of nothing, he retums to the rewolff; in widih, ulf; and in Polish, celles of the woods, where he seeks out, fol. wilk.
lows the track of, hunts, and pursues wild I he wolf is one of those animals whose animals, in hopes that another wolf may stop appetite for fleh is exceeding vehument; and seize them in their flight, and that the and though, with this relish, he has received spoil may be divided between them. In from nature the means for satisfying it; tine, when his wants are extreme, he exposes though she has furnished hiin with weapons, himself to all dangers, attacks women and crit, agility, and friength; in short, with children, sometimes falls upon men, and beeverything necellary for fearching out, attack comes furious by these excelles, which ing, conquering, feizing, and devouring his usually end by madness and death. prey; yet, he often dies of hunger, because The wolf, as well externally as internally, mnan, having declared war agunit him, and bears fo near a resemblance to the dog, that even profaibed' him by setting a price on hie seems to be modelled on the same form ; his head, forces him to keep aloot, to take however, at most he thews but the reveife, up his abcde in the woods, where he finds or presents only the same characters under only fome wild animals, which escape him by an intirely opposite face. If the form is like, the swiftness of their course, and which he that which results from it is quite contrary ; cannot furprise but by chance or dint of pa- the natural disposition is so different, that tience, waiting their coming for a long time, not only they are incompatible, but antipaand often in vain, in the places where they thic by nature, and inimical by instinct. A are likely to pass. He is naturally dull and young dog is quite in horrors at the first cowardly, but becomes ingenious through light of a wolf; he flies at only smelling want, and bold through neceflity. Prelled him, and this smell, though new and unby hunger, he braves danger, ventures to known, he conceives fo ftrong a disgust aaitack the aniinals under the protection of gainit
, that he comes trembling to leek re. man, thcle especially which he can easily fuge between his master's legs : A mastiff, carry off with him, as lambs, little dogs, conscious to himself of his strength, brushes kids ; and, when he succieds in his maraud- up his hair, swells with indignant emotions, ing, he often returns to the charge, till, hav- attacks him with courage, ftrives to put ing been wounded, or hunted, and maltreated him to fight, and exerts his utmost efforts by men and dogs, he mews himself up by to deliver himself of a presence that is odions day in his strong-hold, not leaving it til to him: They never meet without Aying night, when he scours the country, 'roves a from, or fighting with one another : The bout villages and farm-houses, runs away contest is fierce and desperate, and death only with animals that are left unguarded, attack's decides it. If the wolf is itror.ger, he tears sheep-folds, scratches and digs up the carth asunder, and devours his prey ; the dog, on under doors, enieis furious, and
the contrary, more generous, contents him
puts all to
felf witha victory, and finds no attractive of the wolves,' which go upwards of a 100 charm in the body of a dead enemy: He days, and of bitches, which hardly exceed 60, consigns him over as food only fit for crows proves that the wolf and dog, already fo and other wolves; for they devour one ano-' different in natural disposition, are so also in ther, and when a wolf is grievously wound- constitution, and in one of the principal reed, others trace him out by his blood and as- sults of the functions of the animal ceconosemble in troops to dispatch him.
my. Wherefore, the wolf and dog were The dog, even in a wild state, is not of a never taken for the same animal but by no. ferocious disposition ; he is easily familirised, menclators in natural history, who, with only conceives an attachment, and remains faith a superficial knowledge of nature, never ful to his master. The wolf taken young conlider her to give her her entire extent, may be tamed, but never thews an attach- but only to contract and reduce her to their ment; nature is stronger in him than educa- method, always faulty, and often falsified by tion; he resumes with age his character facts. The dog and the-wolf can neither of ferocity, and returns, whenever he copulate nor produce together ; there is no can, to his favage state. Dogs, even thote, intermediate race between them; they are of wh: se organs fecm grosser, leek the com a quite opposite nature and different constipany of other animals; they are naturally tution. The wolf lives longer than the dog inclined to follow them, to accompany them, the she-wolves bear but once a year, bitches and it is by instinct alone and not by edu two or three times. These specific diffecation that they know how to conduct and rencs are more than suíñcient to demonstrate keep theep. The wolf, on the contrary, is that these animals are of pretty distant fpean enemy to all society, not even keeping com cies : Besides, from a nearer inspection, it pilny with those of his species. When appears, even externally, that the wolf difmany of them are seen together, it is not a fers from the dog by constant and eflential fociety of peace, it is a muitering together of chariéters. The aspect of the head is diftheir forces for war, which is carried on with ferent, the form of the bones is so allo ; the
great din of drea: Iful howlings, and denotes cavity of the wolf's eye lics obliquely, the a project for attacking fome large animal, as orbit inclined, and the eyes sparkle and a stag, an ox, or for llaying some dog that glisten at night : He howls, but cannot has been long a terror to them. When their bark ; his motions are different, his pace military expedition is over, they separate and more even, more uniform, though more return in silence to their solitude. There is prompt and more precipitate ; his body pot likewise any great intimacy between the much tronger, but not fo supple; his limbs male and female ; they seek one another but more compact and fimm ; the jaw-bones and once a year, and remain but a short time to 'teeth larger, and the hair rougher and more gether. It is in winter that the females are thick-fet. But these animals resemble one in heat. Several males follow the fame fe- another much in the conformation of the inmale, and this concourse is still more fan- ternal parts : The wolves copulate as dogs, guinary than the former; for they cruelly and the virga is bony in them, accompanied dispute the prize; they growl, roar, fight, and in the act with a little tuinour, obstructing tear one another; and it often happens that separation. they drag from limb to limb the male she When the female wolves are ready to has given the preference to. Commonly the bring forth, they seek cut, in the depths of runs away for a long time, tires out all the woods and forests, fome clofe thicket, in the competitors, and elopes, whilst they are a. midst of which they clear a pretty consideraNeep, with the most alert or best beloved. ble space by cutting and pulling away the
The heat lasts but twelve or fifeen days, thorns with their teeth ; they convey there beginning with the oldest female wolves, for afterwards a large quantity of moss, and prethat of the younger comes later, The pare a commodious bed for their young. males have no particular rutting season ; they Their litter consists commonly of five or fix, may copulate at all times; they pass fuccel sometimes seven, eight, and even nine, and lively from females to females according as never less than three. They are born with they are in a condition to receive them; they their eyes closed as dogs; the dam fuckles have the old ones at the end of December, them for some weeks, and soon teaches them and end by the young in the month of Fe: to eat feth, which the prepares for them by bruary and the beginning of March. The chewing. Sometime after she brings then time of gettation is about three months and a field-mice, leverets, partridges, and other half, and wolf-cubs newly born are found fowls, all alive. The cubs begin by playfrom the end of April to the month of July. ing with, and end by itrangling thein ; the This difference of duration in the gertation can then ftrips off their feathers, kins, tears,
and distributes to each a part. They conti- to ponds and rivulets. Though very voranue in the lodge, where they have been lit- cious they easily endure faiting ; and may tered, fix weeks or two months; then they hold out four or fivedays without cating, profollow their dam that leads them to drink in vided they do not want water. some trunk of a tree, or fome neighbouring The wolf has great strength, especially in pool of water. She brings them back again the fore parts of the body, in the muscles of to the same lodge, or obliges them to secrete the neck and the jaws. He can carry off a themselves elsewhere, when she is apprehen- sheep in his mouth, without letting it touch five of any danger. When they are attack- the ground; and at the fame time runs fafter ed, the defends them with all her might, and than the shepherds, so that nene but the dogs even with fury; though at other times the can come up with him, and make him quit is, as all females, more tiinid than the male; hold. He bites cruelly, and always more when she has young, the becomes intrepid, fiercely, when least revifted; for he is caufeems to dread nothing for herself, and ex tious in his attacks upon animals that are poses herself to all perils for faving them: able to defend themselves. He is timorous, They therefore do not quit her till they are and fights only through neceflity, and never intirely reared, and perceive that they have by an emotion of courage. When shot at, strength enough to stand in no need of asif- and the ball breaks fome limb, he cries, and tance : This is usually in ten or twelve yet, when belaboured with cudgels, he does months time, when they get a new set of not coinplain as the dog; he is more hartecth, which first fall in tix months from the dened, less sensible, and more robuit ; he birth, and when they have acquired ftrength, walks, runs, roves about whole days and weapons, and talents for rapine.
nights; he is indefatigable, and perhaps of The males and females are in a state of all animals is the molt difficult to force in engendering at the age of about two years. *running. The dog is gentle and courageIt is probable that the females, as with all ous; the wolf, though fierce, is timid. other species, are in this respect more ripe When he falls into a rare or trap, his than the males. What is certain is that fright is to great and long, that one may kill they are not in heat till the second winier of him without his making any defence, or take their life, which supposes an age of eighteen him alive, without relistance: A collar may or twenty months. Hunters assure us that be put about him ; he may be chained, muzin all litters there are more males than fe- zled, and afterwards led about wherever one malcs ; and this confirms an observation, pleases, without his hewing the leaft fign of which appears general, at least in our cli- anger or even discontent. The wolf's ienics mates, that in all species, beginning with are very good, his eye and ear, especially his that of man, nature produces more males smell ; he scents often at a greater distance than females. They say also that there are than he sees; the odour of carnage attracts wolves which in the time of heat are attached him upwards of a league ; he imells also to their female, and always accompany her living animals froin atar, and hunts them till she is ready to bring forth : Then the for a considerable time. When he goes out steals away, and hides carefully her young, of a wood, he never fails catching the wind, for fear the fire should devour them in and, smelling about on all sides;
he thus retheir birth ; but, when born, he conceives ceives the emanations of bodies dead or alive an affection for thein, brings them food, and, which the wind conveys to him. He prefers if the dam should fail, he takes her place, live to dead fesh, and yet devours the moit and is as careful of them as the can be. I infectious ordure. He loves human fleth, cannot ascertain these facts, which, indeed, and perhaps, if he was the stronger, be seem to me somewhat contradi&toiy. These would eat no other. Wolves have been animals are two or three years in growing, seen to follow armies, to arrive in great and live fifteen or tiventy years. This a- numbers at fields of battle, where bodies had grees with what has been obterved in regard been negligently interred; and then uneartia to many other species, in which the time of and devour them with insatiable avidity; growth makes the ferenth part of the total and these fame wolves, accustomed to huduration of life. Wolves become white in man flesh, would afterwards fall upon men, old-age, and then all their teeth are worn attack the shepherd rather than the Hock, dedown. They sleep when they have fatisfied
vour women, and carry off children. their hunger or are fatigued, but more in the There is therefore sometimes a necessity cf day than night, and always their fleep is arming a whole country to get rid of the light; they drink frequently, and in droughts, wolves. Princes have equipages for this when there is no water in the old trunks of hunt, which is not disagreeable ; it is üsching trees, they come more than once in the day indeed, and even necellary. Hunters dutin