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reason. The scenes of madness run into by the natural world numerous abortions are the ambitious Princes; the excesles our Nobili- consequence of the common course of naty and wealthy Commoners are, from time to fure ; but, in the moral, of fatal perverseness time, guilty of ; and the fatal catastrophe of by making a bad choice. whole nations, whenever they arrive at the And, indeed, what state of discipline for pinnacle of greatnels and riches; thew the free agents can be conceived, without supabsolute necessity of affliction to force us up- posing a poslibility of their behaving ill in it? on con::deration, to put us in mind of the Nothing but an absolute restraint upon the frailty of our nature and itate, and to make liberty of the creature, which is wholly inus remember that we are under the govern- consistent with the nature of free agency, ment of one who can raise or humble, afflict and of a state of discipline, could have preor relieve, reward or punish, as to him seems vented their acting, in many instances, amiss. good.
But the all-bounteous Creator has effectu. That we may never lose sight of our du- ally put it ont of the power of the most prety, nor have it in our power to pretend ig- fumptuously infolent of his creatures to arnorance ; and even to filence the poor ex raign his justice. For, if he has given to every cuse of thoughtlesness; conscience, that ever accountable being a fair opportunity of attainwatchful and faithful monitor, is placed with ing happiness; if he has placed him in the in the mind itself, to be always at hand to direct way towards it, and is ready to aslift judge of our characters and actions, and to him in his endeavours after it; he has, to all alarm us with its ftings and reproaches, when- intents and purposes, done the fame, as if ever we do amiss.
he had given it to every individual. For he There is no mind so gross and Atupid, as who points out the way to get an estate, not to feel, at times, forne pangs of remorfe. or any of the good things of life, and who And not only conscience within, but every assists and supports me in my endeavours to ohject in nature presents us fome moral les procure it, he it is to whom I am obliged for fon. Tempests, thunders, and lightnings whatever I acquire in conlequence of his adfrom above; inundations and earthquakes vice, and by means of his protection and from beneath; the sword, famine, and pers allistance. tilence in our cities; discales and pains in our Every one knows, that, with respect to avr persons, or those of our nearest friends the prefent itate, exclusive of futurity, there and selations, and death on our right hand is great difficulty in getting through life, and on our left : What are all these but aw without some fatal misconduct, which may ful and yet kind warnings from the tender imbitter and render it unlappy. It is a matand compailionate Father of mankind, who ter of doubt whether a new-born infant will Thews himself willing to give his unthinking, get over the precarious time of youth, with short-sighted creatures all possible advan- out being drawn, thro’ rashness and thoughttages for virtue and happiness that might be Jellness, and the temptations of bad compaconfiftent with their nature, as free agents; ny, into such a course of folly as may efwith their condition, as being in a state of fectually prevent his proving a useful and vadiscipline; and with the grand and univer- luable member of society. Yet we always Gi scheme, which must be equitable, un look
the birth of a child into the world changeable, and uniform.
as a subject of joy, not of grief or complaint; Thus it appears plain, that the present life and upon the untimely death of a young was intended for a itate of discipline, and is person as a calamity; because we take into very well adapted to that purpose. Nor does our view the confideration of its being in the the actual prevarication of numbers of moral power of every person to behave well in life, agents prove, that the state was not intended if he pleases; and we hope he will do fo. The for training them up to virtue, or that it is not warrior is sufficiently apprised of the danger properly adapted to that purpose, any more of engaging; a danger which it is out of his than the amazing number of abortions which power to ward off. Yet he longs to mix in happen in the natural world proves, that the martial tumult, and engages with joy in the general design of leeds was not to fructi- the glorious Atrife. Why should man think. fy, and produce plants and animals. Natu- himself hardly used in being placed in a post salifts thew us, that, in some cases, millions attended with occasional danger, but in which of stamina perishi, for one that comes to ma he must be egregioully wanting to himself, if turity. And, as we conclude every seed of he miscarries finally 2. But if I should not a plant, or animal egg, was formed capable chuse a happiness attainable only through of fructification, fo we may, that every mo- peril and trouble, but would rather, through ral agent was formed capable of attaining fordid ftupidity and inactivity, desire to de bappiness. The great difference is, that in cline existing upon such terms ; does it there
fore follow, that the infinite Author of ex to be remembered, that, as the inanimate iltence may not oblige me, in spite of my world is made to concur with the divine scheme obftinacy or stupidity, to go through what in a mechanical, and the animal in an inbe may judge proper for me, and necessa- stinetive manner, fo rational beings, if they ry for his great ends ?
concur at all, must concur in a manner suitIt has been alked, why the heneficent Au- able to their nature, that is, rational, free, Bror of being did not pursue such an effec- and voluntary. tual scheme in the moral world as he has The requisite concurrence of moral agents, done in the natural, by planting in our of whatever rank or order, or their conforminds fuch a strong and irresistible propen- mity to the grand design of the universal Golity to virtue as would have effectually len vernor, which is the ground-work of unicured the universal happiness of the fpecies ? verfal harmony, perfection, and happiness The answer is obvious, that he required the throughout the Creation, consists therefore obedience of free agents, by a love of choice in their acting according to truth, rectitude,and a love of reason. To propose, by niere and propriety, in their respective stations, intinctive attractions, mechanically to draw whether higher or lower in the scale of befree agents to the love and practice of virtue, ing, whether in states of discipline or reward, was contradictory to the nature of his delign. in all cases or circumstances that regard eiBecause what is wanted is not so inuch, that ther themselves, their fellow-beings, or their mankind be brought to go, like machines, in Creator. Whatever moral agent Arictly and a certain track, as that the rational faculties universally observes this rulc, he is of that be formed in a rational manner to the intire character which all rational beings call good, Love and habitual pursuit of goodness. This is aniable in the light of the supreme Judge thews mechanical means to be inproper of reftitude and goodness; and it is as ceralone for that purpose, though they may tain, that every such being must be finally prore, as we find, useful helps;
and that ra- happy, as that the nature of things is what tional means are absolutely necellary for act. it is, and that perfect wisdom and goodness ing upon rational natures. And it is ever must act rightly in governing the world :
To suppliant virtue rothing is denied,
Tbe following Account, from Dr. Robertson's Hitory of Charles V, of a Core
SPIRACY to overturn the Government of GENOA, as well as the great RevoIssions which that Event, extremely mysterious in its first Appearances, Jeemed 10 porlead, will, we bope, be Matter of agreeable Entertainment to many of our Readers. T !
HE form of Government which had attempting to overturn that fabric, which had time when Andrew Doria restored liberty But that authority and influence, which in to his country; though calculated to oblite his hands were innocent, they easily faw rate the memory of former dislenfions, and would prove destructive, if usurped by any received at first with eager approbation, did citizen of greater ambition, or less virtue. not, after a trial of near twenty years, give A citizen of this dangerous character had universal fatisfaction to these turbulent and actually formed such pretensions, and with factious Republicans. As the intire admi- some prospect of success. Giannetino Donistration of affairs was now lodged in a ria, whom his grand uncle Andrew destined certain number of noble families, inany, en to be the heir of his private for tune, aimed vying them that pre-eminence, withed for likewise at being his successor in power. the restitution of a popular Government, to His temper haughty, insolent, and over-bearwhich they had been accustomed ; and, ing to such a degree as would scarce have though all reverenced the disinterested virtue been tolerated in one born to reign, was altoof Doria, and admired his talents, not a few gether insupportable in the citizen of a free were jealous of that ascendant which he had State, and the more fagacious among the acquired in all the Councils of the common. Genoese already feared and hated him as the wealth. His age, however, his moderation, enemy of those liberties for which they were and love of liberty, afforded ple security indebted to his uncle. While Andrew to his countrymen that he would not abuse himself, blinded by that violent and undira his power, nor bain the close of his days by cerning affection which persons in advanced
age often contract for the younger members most imminent danger, wlule he allowed and of their family, fet no bounds to the intal- Other to reap all the fruits of his succes; gence with which he treated him ; leeming and exhorted him warmly to aim linit at leis sollicitous to secure and perpetuate the that pre-eminence in his councy, which freedom of the commonwealth, than to ag- he was destined by his illuft:ious birth, was grandise that undeserving kinlinan.
called by the voice of his fello:v-citizers, and But whatever fufpicion of Doria's designs, would be raised by the zeal of his friends. or whatever diflatistaction with the lyitem of This discourle opened duch vas prospects to adminiftration in the commonwealth, thele Fielco, and so suitable to his genius, thu, circunstances might have occalioned, they abandoning his own plan, he eagerly adopted would have ended, it is probable, in nothing that of Verrina. The other persons present, more than murmurings and complaints, if tho' sensible of the hazardous nature of the John Lewis Fiesco, Count of Lavagna, ob, undertaking, did not chute to condenm wat ferving this growing dilgult, had not been their patron had to warmly approved. It encouraged by it to attempt one of the bo!deit was inftantly resolved, in this dark cabal, to actions recorded in history. That young aflatlinate the two Doria's as well as the prinNobleman, the richest and moit illuitrious cipal pertons of their party, to overturn the subject in the Repubííc, possessed, in an emin established fyftem of Government, and to nent degree, all the qualities which win upon place Fiesco on tie ducal throne of Genc. the human heart, which command respect, Time, however, and preparations were reor fecure attachment. He was graceful and quisite to ripen such a delign for execution ; majestic in his person ; magnificent to pro- and, while employed in carrying on these, fusion ; of a generosity that prevented the Fielco made it his chief care to guard againft wishes of his friends, and exceeded the ex every thing that might' betray nis secret, or pectations of strangers; of an insinuating create fufpicion. The disguise he allumed address, gentle inanners, and a flowing atfa was of all others the most impenetrable. He bility. But under the appearance of thefe seemed to be abandoned intirely to pleafure virtues, which seemed to form him for en- and dissipation. A perpetual gaiety, dia joying and adorning civil life, he concealed versified by the pursuit of all the amusements all the dispositions which mark men out for becoming his age and rank, ingroffed, in taking the lead in the most dangerous and appearance, the whole of his time and dark conspiracies ; an insatiable and restless thoughts. But, amidst this hurry of diflipaambition, a courage unacquainted with fear, tion, he prosecuted his plan with the moft and a mind that disdained fubordination. cool attention, neither retarding the delign Such a temper could ill brook that station of by a timid hesitation, nor precipitating the inferiority, wherein he was placed in the execution by an excess of impatience. He Republic ; and, as he envied the power continued his correspondence with the which the elder Doria had acquired, he was French Ambassador at Rome, though withfilled with indignacion at the thoughts of its out communicating to him his real intendefcending, like an hereditary polfeffion, to cions, that by his means he might secure the Giannetino. These various passions, prey. protection of the French arms, if hereafter ing with violence on his turbulent and alpír. he should find it necessary to call them to ing mind, determined him to attempt his aid. He entered into a close confederacy overturning that domination to which he with Farnese Duke of Parma, who, being could not lubmit.
disgusted with the Emperor for refusing to At first he thought of an alliance with the grant him the investiture of that Duchy, was King of France, and even proposed it to the eager to promote any measure that tended to French Amballador at Rome; and, after diminish his influence in Italy, or to ruin a expelling Doria together with the Imperial family fo implicitly devoted to him as that of faction by his assistance, he resolved to put Doria. Being sensible that, in a maritime there public once more under the protection of state, the acquisition of naval power was that Monarch, hoping in return for that fer- what he ought chiefly to aim at, he purvice to be intrafted with the principal thare chated four gallies from the Pope, who proin the achniniftration of Government. But, bably was not unacquainted with the delign having communicated his scheme to a few which he had forined, and did not disapprove cholen confidents, from whom he kept ro of it Under colour of fitting out one of thing secret, Verrina, the Chief of them, a thele gallies to fail on a crude against the man of defperate fortune, capable alike of Turks, he not only assembled a good numadviling and of executing the most auda- bar of his own vassals, hus engaged in his cious Seeds, remonstrated with earnestnefs fcrvice many bold adventurers, whom the against the folly of expoling himself to the truce between the Emperor, and Solymış
had deprived of their usual occupation and to enter, but strong guards posted within the fubsistence.
court suffered no one to return. Verrina, While Fiesco was taking these important mean-while, and a few persons'trusted with steps, he preserved fo admirably his utual ap- the secret of the conspiracy, after conducting pearance of being devoted intirely to plea- Fiesco's vassals, as well as the crews of his lure and amusement, and paid Court with gallies into the palace in finall bodies, with such as tful address to the two Doria's, as imas little noise as poslible, dispersed themselves posed not only on the generous and unfufpi- through the city, and, in the name of their cious mind of Andrew, but deceived Gian- patron, invited to an entertainment the prinnetino, who, conscious of his own criminalcipal citizens whom they knew to be diiguft. intentions, was more apt to diftrust the de- ed with the adminstration of the Doria's, and signs of others. So many inftruments being to have both inclination and courage to atnow prepared, nothing remained but to tempt a change in the Government. Of the Itrike the blow. Various consultations were vast number of persons who now filled the held by Fiesco with his confidents, in order palace, a few only knew for what purpose to settle the manner of doing it with the they were affembled; the rest, astonished at greatest certainty and effect. At first, they finding, instead of the preparations for a proposed to murder the Doria's and their fealt, a court.crouded with arned men, and chief adherents, Juring the celebration of apartments filled with the instruments of war, high mass in the principal church; but, as gazed on each other with a mixture of impa. Andrew was often absent from these religious uence, curiosity, and terror. folemnities, on account of his great age, that While their minds were in this state of delign was laid alide. It was then concert- suspence and agitation, Fiesco appeared. ed that Fiesco should invite the uncle and with a look of alacrity and confidence, he nephew, with all their friends whom he hal addressed himself to the persons of chief difmarked out as victims, to his houle ; where tinction, telling them, that they were not now it would be easy to cut them off at once called to partake of the pleature of an enterwithout danger or refiftance; buit, as Gian- tainment, but to join in a deed of valour, netino was obliged to leave the town on the which would lead them to liberty and imday which they had chofen, it became neces- mortal renown. He fet before their eyes fary likewise to alter this plan. They at the exorbitant as well as intolerable autholait determined to attempt by open forcerity of the elder Doria, which the ambition what they found difficult to effect by strata- of Giannetino, and the partiality of the Emgem, and fixed on the night between the peror to a family more devoted to him than 2d and 3d of January, for the execution of to their country, was about to enlarge and their enterprite. The time was chosen with to render perpetual. This unrighteous great propriety; for, as the Doge of the for- domination, continued he, you have it mer year was to quit his office, according to now in your power to fubvert and to custom, on the firit of the month, and his establish the freedom of your country on fucceffor could not be elected fooner than the a firm basis. The tyrants must be cut fourth, the Republic remained during that off. I have taken the most effectual meainterval in a fort of anarchy, and Fiesco sures for this purpose. My affociates are might with less violence take possession of the numerous. I can depend on allies and provacant dignity.
tectors, if neceflary. Happily the tyrants The morning of that day Fiesco employed are as fecure as I have been provident. in visiting his friends, pasling fome hours Their infolent contempt of their countrymen among them with a spirit as gay and unem- has banished the suspicion and timidity which barralled as at other times. I owards evening usually render the guilty, quick-lighted to he paid Court to the Doria's with his usual discern, as well as lagacious io guard amarks of respect, and, surveying their counte- gainst the vengeance which they deserve. nance and behaviour with the attention natu- They will now feel the blow, before they ral in his situation, was happy to observe the fufpect any hostile hand to be nigh. Let us perfect security in which they remained, then fally' fortlī, that we may deliver our without the least foresight or dread of that country hy one generous effort, almoli unacform which had been to long a gathering, companiel with danger, and certain of fucand was now ready to burst over their heads. cess. These words, uttered with that irre. From their palace he haitened to his own, fistible fervour which animates the inind which stood by itself in the middle of a large when roused by great objects, made the decourt, furrounded by a high wall. 'I he fred impression on the audience. Fiefca's gates had been set open in the morning, and vallals, ready to execute whatever their mafi all persons without distinction were allowed ter should commands received his discourte
with a miurmûr of applause. To many, Dorfena, or little harbour where Doria's fleet whole fortunes were desperate, the licence lay. All posiblity of escape being by this and confufion of an infurrection a:furded an piecaution cut off, when Fisico attempted to agrceable profpect. Those of higher rank enter the gailies from ibe thore to which they and more virtuous sentiments durit not difs were made fast, as they were unrigged and cover the surprise or horror with which they disarmed, having no crew on board but the were Itruck at the proposal of an enter flaves chained to the oar, they were in no prise fo unexpected and atrocious; as each condition to make resistance. Every quarter imagined the other to be in the secret of the of the city was now filled with noile and tur conspiracy, and saw himself surrounded by mult, all the streets resounding with the cry persons who waited only a signal from their of' Ficco and Liberty. At that name, to leader to perpetrate the greatest crime. Pípular and beloved, many of the lower rark With one voice then all applauded, or feign. took arms, and joined the conspirators. ed to applaud the undertaking.
The Nobles and partisans of the Ariitocracy, Having thus fixed and encouraged his af- astonished or attrighted, thut the gates of focines, before he gave them his last orders, their houses, and thought of nothing but loc he hastened for a moment to the apartment curing thein from pillage. At lait, the of his wife, a Lady of the noble House of noise, excited by this scene of violence and Cibo, whom he loved with tender aff Stion, confusion, rcached the palace of Doria; Gif and whose beauty and virtue rendered her annetino ftarted immediately from his bed, worthy of his love. The noise of the armed anıl, imagining that it was occasioned by men who crouded the court and palace have some mutiny among the sailors, rushed out ing long before this reached her ears, the with a few attendants, and hurried towards concluded some hazardons enterprise to be in the harbour. The gate of St. Thomas, hand, and the trembled for her huband. through which he had to pals, was already He fund her in all the anguish of uncer- in the polltllion of the conspirators, who, tainty and fear; and, as it was now innpof- the moment he entered, fell upon him with able to keep his design concealed, he inform- the utmost fury, and inurdered him on the ed her of what he had unde: taken. The fpot. The fame must have been the fate of prospect of a scene so full of horror as well the elder Doria, if Jerome de Fiesco had exeas danger completed her agony ; and, fore- cuted his br. ther's plan, and had proceeded boding immediately in her mind the fatal immediately to attack him in his palace; but, illue of it, she endeavoured, by her tears, he, trom the fordid consideration of preber intreaties, and her despair, tó divert him venting its being plundered amidst the confrom his purpose. Fiesco, after trying in fusion, having forbid his followers to advain to soothe and to inspire her with hope, vance, Andrew got intelligence of his nebroke from a situation into which an excess phew's death, as well as of his own danger; of tenderness had unwarily seduced him, and, mounting on horseback, faved himself though it could not thake his resolution. by flight. Mean while a few Senators had «Farewel, he cried, as he quittel the apast the courage to assemble in the palace of the mént, you fall either never see me more, or Republic. At firtt, some of the most daring you shall behold to-morrow every thing in among them attempted to rally the scatterod Genoa subject to your power.'
foldiers, and to attack a body of the conspire As soon as he rejoined his companions, he tors; but, being repulled with loss, all agreed allotted each his proper station ; some were that nothing now remained, but to treat with appointed to affault and seize the different the party which seemed to be irresistible. Degates of the city; some to make themselves puries were accordingly fent to learn of masters of the principal streets or places of Fielco what were the concellions with which strength : Fiesco reserved for himself the at he would be fatistied, cr rather to submit tack of the harbour where Doria's gullies to whatever terms he thould please to préwerę laid up, as the post of chief impor- scribe. tance, and of greatest danger. It was now Eut by this tim.e Fiesco, with whom they midnight, and the citizens lept in the fecu were impowered to negociate, was no more. rity of peace, when this band of conspirators, Just as he was going to leave the harlocur, numerous, desperate
, and well armed, ruskei where everything hai fucceeded to his wish, out to execute their plan. They surprised that he might join his victorious companions, without reliftance some of the gates. They got he heard some extrao.dinary uproar on board pollersion of others after a sharp condict the Admiral giley. Alarmed at the noile, with the foldiers on guard. Verrina, with and fiaring tlias tiie laves might break theit the galley which had been fitted out against chains, and overpower his aliucia:es, he ran, this Tuks, blocked up the nnouil of us tüher; bate care part which reactied ficm